Abstract

A compact saturable absorber mirror (SAM) based on multi-layered black phosphorus (BP) nanoplatelets was fabricated and successfully used as an efficient saturable absorber (SA) in a passively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser at 1.9 μm. With the BP SAM, Q-switched pulses with duration of 181 ns and average output power of 3.1 W were generated at a pulse repetition rate of 81 kHz, resulting in a pulse energy of 39.5 μJ, to the best of our knowledge, which is the record among the reports on BP SA-based Q-switched lasers. In addition, the simultaneous dual-wavelength Q-switched operation at both 1969 and 1979 nm has been observed. The results indicate the promising potential of multi-layered BP nanoplatelets as SAs for achieving efficient pulsed lasers at around 2 μm.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (4)

A. Penillard, C. Tripon-Canseliet, M. Rosticher, I. Maksimovic, Z. Liu, and E. Géron, “Effective photoconductivity of exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic switching under 1.55 μm optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(2), 024506 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xie, L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081307 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Nanosecond passively Q-switched thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser based on black phosphorus nanoplatelets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (14)

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Ning, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3691–3694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. S. Wu, O. Henderson-Sapir, P. J. Veitch, M. Hamilton, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Self-pulsing in Tm-dopedYAlO3lasers: Excited-state absorption and chaos,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043819 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, Z.-N. Guo, X.-F. Jiang, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, X.-F. Yu, W.-C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, R. Yang, B. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Wang, “Broadband Black Phosphorus Optical Modulator in the Spectral Range from Visible to Mid-Infrared,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1787–1792 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sebbag, A. Korenfeld, U. Ben-Ami, D. Elooz, E. Shalom, and S. Noach, “Diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser with 1.85-mJ pulse energy,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1250–1253 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, G. Xie, J. Zhang, P. Yuan, D. Tang, and L. Qian, “Passively mode-locked Tm: YAG ceramic laser based on graphene,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 21(1), 50–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z. X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 μm) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Phys. 8(10), 1100–1128 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

A. Morita, “Semiconducting black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 39(4), 227–242 (1986).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Asadi, M.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Ben-Ami, U.

Bian, J.

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, X.

Chu, P. K.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, Z.

Ding, Y.

Du, Y.

Duan, X.

Elooz, D.

Fan, D.

Fan, D. Y.

Fan, Y.

Foroozan, T.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Géron, E.

A. Penillard, C. Tripon-Canseliet, M. Rosticher, I. Maksimovic, Z. Liu, and E. Géron, “Effective photoconductivity of exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic switching under 1.55 μm optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(2), 024506 (2016).
[Crossref]

Godard, A.

A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 μm) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Phys. 8(10), 1100–1128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Guo, Z. N.

Guo, Z.-N.

Hamilton, M.

K. S. Wu, O. Henderson-Sapir, P. J. Veitch, M. Hamilton, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Self-pulsing in Tm-dopedYAlO3lasers: Excited-state absorption and chaos,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043819 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, J.

Henderson-Sapir, O.

K. S. Wu, O. Henderson-Sapir, P. J. Veitch, M. Hamilton, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Self-pulsing in Tm-dopedYAlO3lasers: Excited-state absorption and chaos,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043819 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.

Hu, Z. X.

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z. X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Indacochea, J. E.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, W.

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z. X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, G.

Jiang, T.

Jiang, X.-F.

Ju, Y.

Jussila, H.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karvonen, L.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klie, R. F.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, L.

Y. Xie, L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kong, X.

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z. X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korenfeld, A.

Kumar, B.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Liang, Y.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lipsanen, H.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

Liu, Z.

A. Penillard, C. Tripon-Canseliet, M. Rosticher, I. Maksimovic, Z. Liu, and E. Géron, “Effective photoconductivity of exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic switching under 1.55 μm optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(2), 024506 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, R. Yang, B. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Wang, “Broadband Black Phosphorus Optical Modulator in the Spectral Range from Visible to Mid-Infrared,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1787–1792 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lou, F.

Lu, S.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, S. B.

Luo, A.-P.

Luo, Z.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Z.-C.

Ma, J.

J. Ma, G. Xie, J. Zhang, P. Yuan, D. Tang, and L. Qian, “Passively mode-locked Tm: YAG ceramic laser based on graphene,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 21(1), 50–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macherzynski, W.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maksimovic, I.

A. Penillard, C. Tripon-Canseliet, M. Rosticher, I. Maksimovic, Z. Liu, and E. Géron, “Effective photoconductivity of exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic switching under 1.55 μm optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(2), 024506 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mei, L.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, L. L.

Morita, A.

A. Morita, “Semiconducting black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 39(4), 227–242 (1986).
[Crossref]

Munch, J.

K. S. Wu, O. Henderson-Sapir, P. J. Veitch, M. Hamilton, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Self-pulsing in Tm-dopedYAlO3lasers: Excited-state absorption and chaos,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043819 (2015).
[Crossref]

Neal, A. T.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, J.

Ning, J.

Noach, S.

Ottaway, D. J.

K. S. Wu, O. Henderson-Sapir, P. J. Veitch, M. Hamilton, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Self-pulsing in Tm-dopedYAlO3lasers: Excited-state absorption and chaos,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043819 (2015).
[Crossref]

Paletko, P.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Penillard, A.

A. Penillard, C. Tripon-Canseliet, M. Rosticher, I. Maksimovic, Z. Liu, and E. Géron, “Effective photoconductivity of exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic switching under 1.55 μm optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(2), 024506 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qi, X.

Qian, L.

J. Ma, G. Xie, J. Zhang, P. Yuan, D. Tang, and L. Qian, “Passively mode-locked Tm: YAG ceramic laser based on graphene,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 21(1), 50–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, J.

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z. X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, Z.

Y. Xie, L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosticher, M.

A. Penillard, C. Tripon-Canseliet, M. Rosticher, I. Maksimovic, Z. Liu, and E. Géron, “Effective photoconductivity of exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic switching under 1.55 μm optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(2), 024506 (2016).
[Crossref]

Salehi-Khojin, A.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sebbag, D.

Shalom, E.

Shao, J.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z.

Sobon, G.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soklaski, R.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sotor, J.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Su, X.

Sun, Z.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

Tang, S.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tománek, D.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, V.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tripon-Canseliet, C.

A. Penillard, C. Tripon-Canseliet, M. Rosticher, I. Maksimovic, Z. Liu, and E. Géron, “Effective photoconductivity of exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic switching under 1.55 μm optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(2), 024506 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tuschel, D.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veitch, P. J.

K. S. Wu, O. Henderson-Sapir, P. J. Veitch, M. Hamilton, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Self-pulsing in Tm-dopedYAlO3lasers: Excited-state absorption and chaos,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043819 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, R. Yang, B. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Wang, “Broadband Black Phosphorus Optical Modulator in the Spectral Range from Visible to Mid-Infrared,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1787–1792 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Wen, S. C.

Wu, K. S.

K. S. Wu, O. Henderson-Sapir, P. J. Veitch, M. Hamilton, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Self-pulsing in Tm-dopedYAlO3lasers: Excited-state absorption and chaos,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043819 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

Y. Xie, L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081307 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Xie, J. Zhang, P. Yuan, D. Tang, and L. Qian, “Passively mode-locked Tm: YAG ceramic laser based on graphene,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 21(1), 50–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, H.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

Y. Xie, L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.-C.

Xu, X.

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, R. Yang, B. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Wang, “Broadband Black Phosphorus Optical Modulator in the Spectral Range from Visible to Mid-Infrared,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1787–1792 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z. X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K.

Yang, L.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, R.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, R. Yang, B. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Wang, “Broadband Black Phosphorus Optical Modulator in the Spectral Range from Visible to Mid-Infrared,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1787–1792 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, B.

Yasaei, P.

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, G.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, P. D.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, K.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Nanosecond passively Q-switched thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser based on black phosphorus nanoplatelets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 603 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, R. Yang, B. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Wang, “Broadband Black Phosphorus Optical Modulator in the Spectral Range from Visible to Mid-Infrared,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1787–1792 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

Yu, X.-F.

Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, Z.-N. Guo, X.-F. Jiang, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, X.-F. Yu, W.-C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, P.

J. Ma, G. Xie, J. Zhang, P. Yuan, D. Tang, and L. Qian, “Passively mode-locked Tm: YAG ceramic laser based on graphene,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 21(1), 50–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, H.

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, R. Yang, B. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Wang, “Broadband Black Phosphorus Optical Modulator in the Spectral Range from Visible to Mid-Infrared,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1787–1792 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, Z.-N. Guo, X.-F. Jiang, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, X.-F. Yu, W.-C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Y. Xie, L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081307 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Xie, J. Zhang, P. Yuan, D. Tang, and L. Qian, “Passively mode-locked Tm: YAG ceramic laser based on graphene,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 21(1), 50–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, R. Yang, B. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Wang, “Broadband Black Phosphorus Optical Modulator in the Spectral Range from Visible to Mid-Infrared,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1787–1792 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, R. Yang, B. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Wang, “Broadband Black Phosphorus Optical Modulator in the Spectral Range from Visible to Mid-Infrared,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1787–1792 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, C.-J.

Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, R.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, Z.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From Black Phosphorus to Phosphorene: Basic Solvent Exfoliation, Evolution of Raman Scattering, and Applications to Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27(11), 1887–1892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, R. Yang, B. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Wang, “Broadband Black Phosphorus Optical Modulator in the Spectral Range from Visible to Mid-Infrared,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1787–1792 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

A. Morita, “Semiconducting black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 39(4), 227–242 (1986).
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C. R. Phys. (1)

A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 μm) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Phys. 8(10), 1100–1128 (2007).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. (1)

J. Ma, G. Xie, J. Zhang, P. Yuan, D. Tang, and L. Qian, “Passively mode-locked Tm: YAG ceramic laser based on graphene,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 21(1), 50–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Penillard, C. Tripon-Canseliet, M. Rosticher, I. Maksimovic, Z. Liu, and E. Géron, “Effective photoconductivity of exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic switching under 1.55 μm optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(2), 024506 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z. X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Xie, L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 081307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Du, B. Yao, X. Duan, Z. Cui, Y. Ding, Y. Ju, and Z. Shen, “Cr:ZnS saturable absorber passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26506–26512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, Z.-N. Guo, X.-F. Jiang, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, X.-F. Yu, W.-C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

K. S. Wu, O. Henderson-Sapir, P. J. Veitch, M. Hamilton, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Self-pulsing in Tm-dopedYAlO3lasers: Excited-state absorption and chaos,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 043819 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

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[Crossref]

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D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and Thickness Dependent Absorption Properties of Black Phosphorus: New Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulse Generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Multilayer black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 to 2.7 μm wavelength,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1508.04510 (2015).

P. Černý, J. Šulc, and H. Jelinkova, “Continuously tunable diode-pumped Tm: YAP laser,” in Photonics Europe (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), pp. 619008.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 AFM image and typical height profile of the transferred phosphorene sheets.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Raman spectrum of the prepared multi-layered BP film at room temperature; (b)Transmittance versus incident optical power intensity on BP SAM.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The schematic of Q-switched Tm:YAP laser setup based on BP-SA.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The disordered self-pulse trains of Tm:YAP laser under the output power at 0.15 W. (b) The stable pulse trains of Q-switched Tm:YAP laser under the output power at 0.28 W.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Typical Q-switched pulses at different time scale under the 7.52 W absorbed pump power of the Q-switched laser.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Average output power versus absorbed pump power and emission spectrum of Tm:YAP laser.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 M 2 factors from the Q-switched Tm:YAP laser at the average output power of 3.1 W.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Pulse duration and repetition frequency versus the absorbed pump power.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The single pulse energy and pulse peak power versus absorbed pump power.

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