Abstract

Various performance aspects and the photocurrent generation mechanisms of photosensitive devices based on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are reviewed. The work begins with discussions on light absorption and charge separation mechanisms in TMD-based photodetectors. Then, performances of simple metal-TMDs-metal detectors are discussed in terms of responsivity and response time. Thereafter, novel photosensitive devices involving TMDs, either incorporating other materials or novel photosensitive device structure designs, are summarized, and basic ideas behind these devices to improve the photodetection performance are elaborated. Lastly, two valley degree of freedom related photoresponses, circular polarized photogalvanic effect and valley Hall effect, are presented. The review ends with prospectives of future challenges and opportunities in developing TMDs based photodetection devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

17 June 2016: Corrections were made to the title.


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2016 (19)

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 216–226 (2016).
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L. Shang-Chun, M. Mohamed, and Z. Wenjuan, “Novel vertical hetero- and homo-junction tunnel field-effect transistors based on multi-layer 2D crystals,” 2d Mater. 3(1), 011010 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, R. Grassi, M. Freitag, Y.-H. Lee, T. Low, and W. Zhu, “Spatial/temporal photocurrent and electronic transport in monolayer molybdenum disulfide grown by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 083104 (2016).
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L. Zeng, L. Tao, C. Tang, B. Zhou, H. Long, Y. Chai, S. P. Lau, and Y. H. Tsang, “High-responsivity UV-vis photodetector based on transferable ws2 film deposited by magnetron sputtering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20343 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Pawbake, R. G. Waykar, D. J. Late, and S. R. Jadkar, “Highly transparent wafer-scale synthesis of crystalline WS2 nanoparticle thin film for photodetector and humidity-sensing applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(5), 3359–3365 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ye, H. Li, Z. Chen, and J. Xu, “Near-infrared photodetector based on MoS2/black phosphorus heterojunction,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 692–699 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, T. Zhang, G. Cheng, T. Li, S. Wang, W. Wei, X. Zhou, W. Yu, Y. Sun, P. Wang, D. Zhang, C. Zeng, X. Wang, W. Hu, H. J. Fan, G. Shen, X. Chen, X. Duan, K. Chang, and N. Dai, “Interlayer transition and infrared photodetection in atomically thin type-II MoTe2/MoS2 van der Waals heterostructures,” ACS Nano 10(3), 3852–3858 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt, I. Yudhistira, L. Chu, A. H. Castro Neto, B. Özyilmaz, S. Adam, and G. Eda, “Quantum transport and observation of Dyakonov-Perel spin-orbit scattering in monolayer MoS_2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(4), 046803 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2.,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Schmidt, G. Berghäuser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malić, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast coulomb-induced intervalley coupling in atomically thin WS2.,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xuefeng, Y. Hongyi, J. Qingqing, G. Zhihan, G. Shaofeng, Q. Jun, L. Zhongfan, Z. Yanfeng, and S. Dong, “An ultrafast terahertz probe of the transient evolution of the charged and neutral phase of photo-excited electron-hole gas in a monolayer semiconductor,” 2d Mater. 3(1), 014001 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Cha, J. H. Sung, S. Sim, J. Park, H. Heo, M.-H. Jo, and H. Choi, “1s-intraexcitonic dynamics in monolayer MoS2 probed by ultrafast mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10768 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. He, W. Xu, Y. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. Sheng, Y. Rong, S. Guo, J. Zhang, J. M. Smith, and J. H. Warner, “Biexciton formation in bilayer tungsten disulfide,” ACS Nano 10(2), 2176–2183 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Singh, G. Moody, K. Tran, M. E. Scott, V. Overbeck, G. Berghäuser, J. Schaibley, E. J. Seifert, D. Pleskot, N. M. Gabor, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, M. Richter, E. Malic, X. Xu, and X. Li, “Trion formation dynamics in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 041401 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Rivera, K. L. Seyler, H. Yu, J. R. Schaibley, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Valley-polarized exciton dynamics in a 2D semiconductor heterostructure,” Science 351(6274), 688–691 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shuigang, W. Zefei, L. Huanhuan, H. Yu, L. Gen, C. Xiaolong, H. Tianyi, Y. Weiguang, W. Yingying, L. Jiangxiazi, S. Junying, C. Yuan, H. Yuheng, Z. Fan, L. Rolf, C. Chun, and W. Ning, “Universal low-temperature Ohmic contacts for quantum transport in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2d Mater. 3(2), 021007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xue, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, J. Song, J. Sophia, J. Liu, Z. Xu, Q. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Zheng, Y. Liu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Scalable production of a few-layer MoS2/WS2 vertical heterojunction array and its application for photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10(1), 573–580 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-C. Huang, H. Medina, Y.-Z. Chen, T.-Y. Su, J.-G. Li, C.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Yen, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Transfer-free growth of atomically thin transition metal disulfides using a solution precursor by a laser irradiation process and their application in low-power photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2463–2470 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xie and X. Cui, “Manipulating spin-polarized photocurrents in 2D transition metal dichalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3746–3750 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (37)

J. R. Schaibley, T. Karin, H. Yu, J. S. Ross, P. Rivera, A. M. Jones, M. E. Scott, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, K.-M. Fu, and X. Xu, “Population pulsation resonances of excitons in monolayer MoSe2 with sub-1 μeV linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(13), 137402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. P. Movva, A. Rai, S. Kang, K. Kim, B. Fallahazad, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “High-mobility holes in dual-gated WSe2 field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10402–10410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Allain, J. Kang, K. Banerjee, and A. Kis, “Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 14(12), 1195–1205 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jo, D. Costanzo, H. Berger, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Electrostatically induced superconductivity at the surface of WS₂,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1197–1202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Palummo, M. Bernardi, and J. C. Grossman, “Exciton radiative lifetimes in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2794–2800 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yao, “Excitons: Molecules in flatland,” Nat. Phys. 11(6), 448–449 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Moody, C. Kavir Dass, K. Hao, C.-H. Chen, L.-J. Li, A. Singh, K. Tran, G. Clark, X. Xu, G. Berghäuser, E. Malic, A. Knorr, and X. Li, “Intrinsic homogeneous linewidth and broadening mechanisms of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Czech, B. J. Thompson, S. Kain, Q. Ding, M. J. Shearer, R. J. Hamers, S. Jin, and J. C. Wright, “Measurement of ultrafast excitonic dynamics of few-layer mos2 using state-selective coherent multidimensional spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12146–12157 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Zhang, D. W. Kidd, and K. Varga, “Excited biexcitons in transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 7002–7005 (2015).
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M. J. Park, J. K. Min, S. G. Yi, J. H. Kim, J. Oh, and K. H. Yoo, “Near-infrared photodetectors utilizing MoS2-based heterojunctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(4), 044504 (2015).
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L. Yang, N. A. Sinitsyn, W. Chen, J. Yuan, J. Zhang, J. Lou, and S. A. Crooker, “Long-lived nanosecond spin relaxation and spin coherence of electrons in monolayer MoS2 and WS2,” Nat. Phys. 11(10), 830–834 (2015).
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D. Kufer, I. Nikitskiy, T. Lasanta, G. Navickaite, F. H. L. Koppens, and G. Konstantatos, “Hybrid 2D-0D MoS2 -PbS quantum dot photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(1), 176–180 (2015).
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C. Chen, H. Qiao, S. Lin, C. Man Luk, Y. Liu, Z. Xu, J. Song, Y. Xue, D. Li, J. Yuan, W. Yu, C. Pan, S. Ping Lau, and Q. Bao, “Highly responsive MoS2 photodetectors enhanced by graphene quantum dots,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11830 (2015).
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B. Li, G. Shi, S. Lei, Y. He, W. Gao, Y. Gong, G. Ye, W. Zhou, K. Keyshar, J. Hao, P. Dong, L. Ge, J. Lou, J. Kono, R. Vajtai, and P. M. Ajayan, “3D band diagram and photoexcitation of 2D-3D semiconductor heterojunctions,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 5919–5925 (2015).
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L. Wang, J. S. Jie, Z. B. Shao, Q. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, Y. M. Wang, Z. Sun, and S. T. Lee, “MoS2/Si heterojunction with vertically standing layered structure for ultrafast, high-detectivity, self-driven visible-near infrared photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(19), 2910–2919 (2015).
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Y.-C. Wu, C.-H. Liu, S.-Y. Chen, F.-Y. Shih, P.-H. Ho, C.-W. Chen, C.-T. Liang, and W.-H. Wang, “Extrinsic origin of persistent photoconductivity in monolayer MoS2 field effect transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11472 (2015).
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C. Jung, S. M. Kim, H. Moon, G. Han, J. Kwon, Y. K. Hong, I. Omkaram, Y. Yoon, S. Kim, and J. Park, “Highly crystalline CVD-grown multilayer MoSe2 thin film transistor for fast photodetector,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15313 (2015).
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N. R. Pradhan, J. Ludwig, Z. Lu, D. Rhodes, M. M. Bishop, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, S. A. McGill, D. Smirnov, and L. Balicas, “High photoresponsivity and short photoresponse times in few-layered WSe2 transistors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 12080–12088 (2015).
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H. Yamaguchi, J.-C. Blancon, R. Kappera, S. Lei, S. Najmaei, B. D. Mangum, G. Gupta, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, M. Chhowalla, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Spatially resolved photoexcited charge-carrier dynamics in phase-engineered monolayer MoS2.,” ACS Nano 9(1), 840–849 (2015).
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J. Kwon, Y. K. Hong, G. Han, I. Omkaram, W. Choi, S. Kim, and Y. Yoon, “Giant photoamplification in indirect-bandgap multilayer MoS2 phototransistors with local bottom-gate structures,” Adv. Mater. 27(13), 2224–2230 (2015).
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H. Wang, C. Zhang, W. Chan, S. Tiwari, and F. Rana, “Ultrafast response of monolayer molybdenum disulfide photodetectors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8831 (2015).
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J. Shang, X. Shen, C. Cong, N. Peimyoo, B. Cao, M. Eginligil, and T. Yu, “Observation of excitonic fine structure in a 2D Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Semiconductor,” ACS Nano 9(1), 647–655 (2015).
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Y. You, X.-X. Zhang, T. C. Berkelbach, M. S. Hybertsen, D. R. Reichman, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of biexcitons in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Phys. 11(6), 477–481 (2015).
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L. M. Xie, “Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide alloys: preparation, characterization and applications,” Nanoscale 7(44), 18392–18401 (2015).
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Y. Zhang, H. Li, L. Wang, H. Wang, X. Xie, S.-L. Zhang, R. Liu, and Z.-J. Qiu, “Photothermoelectric and photovoltaic effects both present in MoS2.,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7938 (2015).
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K. J. Tielrooij, L. Piatkowski, M. Massicotte, A. Woessner, Q. Ma, Y. Lee, K. S. Myhro, C. N. Lau, P. Jarillo-Herrero, N. F. van Hulst, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Generation of photovoltage in graphene on a femtosecond timescale through efficient carrier heating,” Nat Nano 10(5), 437–443 (2015).
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2014 (40)

F. H. L. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 780–793 (2014).
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F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
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A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
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K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 026803 (2014).
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Z. Ye, T. Cao, K. O’Brien, H. Zhu, X. Yin, Y. Wang, S. G. Louie, and X. Zhang, “Probing excitonic dark states in single-layer tungsten disulphide,” Nature 513(7517), 214–218 (2014).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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C. Zhang, A. Johnson, C.-L. Hsu, L.-J. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Direct imaging of band profile in single layer MoS2 on graphite: quasiparticle energy gap, metallic edge states, and edge band bending,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2443–2447 (2014).
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W. Zhang, M.-H. Chiu, C.-H. Chen, W. Chen, L.-J. Li, and A. T. S. Wee, “Role of metal contacts in high-performance phototransistors based on WSe2 monolayers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8653–8661 (2014).
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S. Tongay, D. S. Narang, J. Kang, W. Fan, C. Ko, A. V. Luce, K. X. Wang, J. Suh, K. D. Patel, V. M. Pathak, J. Li, and J. Wu, “Two-dimensional semiconductor alloys: monolayer Mo1−xWxSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 012101 (2014).
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M. M. Furchi, D. K. Polyushkin, A. Pospischil, and T. Mueller, “Mechanisms of photoconductivity in atomically thin MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6165–6170 (2014).
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A. R. Klots, A. K. M. Newaz, B. Wang, D. Prasai, H. Krzyzanowska, J. Lin, D. Caudel, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, B. L. Ivanov, K. A. Velizhanin, A. Burger, D. G. Mandrus, N. H. Tolk, S. T. Pantelides, and K. I. Bolotin, “Probing excitonic states in suspended two-dimensional semiconductors by photocurrent spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6608 (2014).
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S. H. Lee, D. Lee, W. S. Hwang, E. Hwang, D. Jena, and W. J. Yoo, “High-performance photocurrent generation from two-dimensional WS2 field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 193113 (2014).

N. Perea-Lopez, Z. Lin, N. R. Pradhan, A. Iniguez-Rabago, A. L. Elias, A. McCreary, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, H. Terrones, L. Balicas, and M. Terrones, “CVD-grown monolayered MoS2 as an effective photosensor operating at low-voltage,” 2d Mater. 1, 011004 (2014).

S. H. Yu, Y. Lee, S. K. Jang, J. Kang, J. Jeon, C. Lee, J. Y. Lee, H. Kim, E. Hwang, S. Lee, and J. H. Cho, “Dye-sensitized MoS2 photodetector with enhanced spectral photoresponse,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8285–8291 (2014).
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O. Lopez-Sanchez, E. Alarcon Llado, V. Koman, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Light generation and harvesting in a van der Waals heterostructure,” ACS Nano 8(3), 3042–3048 (2014).
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J. S. Ross, P. Klement, A. M. Jones, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, K. Kitamura, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrically tunable excitonic light-emitting diodes based on monolayer WSe2 p-n junctions,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 268–272 (2014).
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M. S. Choi, D. Qu, D. Lee, X. Liu, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and W. J. Yoo, “Lateral MoS2 p-n junction formed by chemical doping for use in high-performance optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9332–9340 (2014).
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C. Mai, A. Barrette, Y. Yu, Y. G. Semenov, K. W. Kim, L. Cao, and K. Gundogdu, “Many-body effects in valleytronics: direct measurement of valley lifetimes in single-layer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 202–206 (2014).
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D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, R. Bratschitsch, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic and photothermoelectric effect in a double-gated WSe2 device,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5846–5852 (2014).
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A. Singh, G. Moody, S. Wu, Y. Wu, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, X. Xu, and X. Li, “Coherent electronic coupling in atomically thin MoSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(21), 216804 (2014).
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X. Xu, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and T. F. Heinz, “Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 343–350 (2014).
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H. Yuan, X. Wang, B. Lian, H. Zhang, X. Fang, B. Shen, G. Xu, Y. Xu, S. C. Zhang, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Generation and electric control of spin-valley-coupled circular photogalvanic current in WSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 851–857 (2014).
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K. F. Mak, K. L. McGill, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Valleytronics. the valley Hall effect in MoS₂ transistors,” Science 344(6191), 1489–1492 (2014).
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Y. Deng, Z. Luo, N. J. Conrad, H. Liu, Y. Gong, S. Najmaei, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, X. Xu, and P. D. Ye, “Black phosphorus-monolayer MoS2 van der Waals heterojunction p-n diode,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8292–8299 (2014).
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C.-H. Lee, G.-H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
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R. Cheng, D. Li, H. Zhou, C. Wang, A. Yin, S. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Electroluminescence and photocurrent generation from atomically sharp WSe2/MoS2 heterojunction p-n diodes,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5590–5597 (2014).
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M. M. Furchi, A. Pospischil, F. Libisch, J. Burgdörfer, and T. Mueller, “Photovoltaic Effect in an Electrically Tunable van der Waals Heterojunction,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4785–4791 (2014).
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J. Zheng, R. A. Barton, and D. Englund, “Broadband coherent absorption in chirped-planar-dielectric cavities for 2D-material-based photovoltaics and photodetectors,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 768–774 (2014).
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C. H. Lui, A. J. Frenzel, D. V. Pilon, Y. H. Lee, X. Ling, G. M. Akselrod, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Trion-induced negative photoconductivity in monolayer MoS2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(16), 166801 (2014).
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Z. Nie, R. Long, L. Sun, C.-C. Huang, J. Zhang, Q. Xiong, D. W. Hewak, Z. Shen, O. V. Prezhdo, and Z.-H. Loh, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization and cooling dynamics in few-layer MoS2.,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10931–10940 (2014).
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J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S. F. Shi, C. Y. S. Chang, M. H. Chiu, L. J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe₂ monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
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E. J. Sie, J. W. McIver, Y.-H. Lee, L. Fu, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2.,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 290–294 (2014).
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C. J. Docherty, P. Parkinson, H. J. Joyce, M.-H. Chiu, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Lee, L.-J. Li, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Ultrafast transient terahertz conductivity of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 grown by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11147–11153 (2014).
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Y. Lin, X. Ling, L. Yu, S. Huang, A. L. Hsu, Y.-H. Lee, J. Kong, M. S. Dresselhaus, and T. Palacios, “Dielectric screening of excitons and trions in single-layer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5569–5576 (2014).
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D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brézin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
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H.-J. Chuang, X. Tan, N. J. Ghimire, M. M. Perera, B. Chamlagain, M. M.-C. Cheng, J. Yan, D. Mandrus, D. Tománek, and Z. Zhou, “High mobility WSe2 p- and n-type field-effect transistors contacted by highly doped graphene for low-resistance contacts,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3594–3601 (2014).
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X. Wang, Y. Gong, G. Shi, W. L. Chow, K. Keyshar, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, J. Lou, Z. Liu, E. Ringe, B. K. Tay, and P. M. Ajayan, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of crystalline monolayer MoSe2.,” ACS Nano 8(5), 5125–5131 (2014).
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Y.-H. Chang, W. Zhang, Y. Zhu, Y. Han, J. Pu, J.-K. Chang, W.-T. Hsu, J.-K. Huang, C.-L. Hsu, M.-H. Chiu, T. Takenobu, H. Li, C.-I. Wu, W.-H. Chang, A. T. S. Wee, and L.-J. Li, “Monolayer MoSe2 Grown by chemical vapor deposition for fast photodetection,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8582–8590 (2014).
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J. S. Ross, P. Klement, A. M. Jones, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, K. Kitamura, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrically tunable excitonic light-emitting diodes based on monolayer WSe2 p-n junctions,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 268–272 (2014).
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2013 (20)

B. Radisavljevic and A. Kis, “Mobility engineering and a metal-insulator transition in monolayer MoS₂,” Nat. Mater. 12(9), 815–820 (2013).
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H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
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Q. Wang, S. Ge, X. Li, J. Qiu, Y. Ji, J. Feng, and D. Sun, “Valley carrier dynamics in monolayer molybdenum disulfide from helicity-resolved ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11087–11093 (2013).
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S. Wu, J. S. Ross, G.-B. Liu, G. Aivazian, A. Jones, Z. Fei, W. Zhu, D. Xiao, W. Yao, D. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrical tuning of valley magnetic moment through symmetry control in bilayer MoS2,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 149–153 (2013).
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J. D. Lin, H. Li, H. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Plasmonic enhancement of photocurrent in MoS2 field-effect-transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 203109 (2013).
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M. R. Esmaeili-Rad and S. Salahuddin, “High performance molybdenum disulfide amorphous silicon heterojunction photodetector,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2345 (2013).
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S.-Y. Chen, Y.-Y. Lu, F.-Y. Shih, P.-H. Ho, Y.-F. Chen, C.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Chen, and W.-H. Wang, “Biologically inspired graphene-chlorophyll phototransistors with high gain,” Carbon 63, 23–29 (2013).
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K. Roy, M. Padmanabhan, S. Goswami, T. P. Sai, G. Ramalingam, S. Raghavan, and A. Ghosh, “Graphene-MoS2 hybrid structures for multifunctional photoresponsive memory devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 826–830 (2013).
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W. J. Yu, Y. Liu, H. Zhou, A. Yin, Z. Li, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(12), 952–958 (2013).
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K. Roy, M. Padmanabhan, S. Goswami, T. P. Sai, G. Ramalingam, S. Raghavan, and A. Ghosh, “Graphene-MoS2 hybrid structures for multifunctional photoresponsive memory devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 826–830 (2013).
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J. S. Ross, S. Wu, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, A. M. Jones, G. Aivazian, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Electrical control of neutral and charged excitons in a monolayer semiconductor,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1474 (2013).
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M. Buscema, M. Barkelid, V. Zwiller, H. S. J. van der Zant, G. A. Steele, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Large and tunable photothermoelectric effect in single-layer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 358–363 (2013).
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M. Fontana, T. Deppe, A. K. Boyd, M. Rinzan, A. Y. Liu, M. Paranjape, and P. Barbara, “Electron-hole transport and photovoltaic effect in gated MoS2 Schottky junctions,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1634 (2013).
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N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
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O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
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D.-S. Tsai, K.-K. Liu, D.-H. Lien, M.-L. Tsai, C.-F. Kang, C.-A. Lin, L.-J. Li, and J.-H. He, “Few-layer MoS2 with high broadband photogain and fast optical switching for use in harsh environments,” ACS Nano 7(5), 3905–3911 (2013).
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D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, and S. G. Louie, “Optical spectrum of MoS2: many-body effects and diversity of exciton states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 216805 (2013).
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A. Carvalho, R. M. Ribeiro, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Band nesting and the optical response of two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 88(11), 115205 (2013).
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L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y. J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
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Y. Chen, J. Xi, D. O. Dumcenco, Z. Liu, K. Suenaga, D. Wang, Z. Shuai, Y.-S. Huang, and L. Xie, “Tunable band gap photoluminescence from atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenide alloys,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4610–4616 (2013).
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2012 (12)

A. Ramasubramaniam, “Large excitonic effects in monolayers of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 86(11), 115409 (2012).
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T. Cheiwchanchamnangij and W. R. L. Lambrecht, “Quasiparticle band structure calculation of monolayer, bilayer, and bulk MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 85(20), 205302 (2012).
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Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
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D. Sun, G. Aivazian, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, W. Yao, D. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Ultrafast hot-carrier-dominated photocurrent in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(2), 114–118 (2012).
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H. Zeng, J. Dai, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and X. Cui, “Valley polarization in MoS2 monolayers by optical pumping,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(8), 490–493 (2012).
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D. Xiao, G.-B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
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2011 (1)

P. Cudazzo, I. V. Tokatly, and A. Rubio, “Dielectric screening in two-dimensional insulators: Implications for excitonic and impurity states in graphane,” Phys. Rev. B 84(8), 085406 (2011).
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2010 (2)

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C.-Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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2009 (2)

S. Lebègue and O. Eriksson, “Electronic structure of two-dimensional crystals from ab initio theory,” Phys. Rev. B 79(11), 115409 (2009).
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2008 (2)

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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1987 (1)

J. Feldmann, G. Peter, E. O. Göbel, P. Dawson, K. Moore, C. Foxon, and R. J. Elliott, “Linewidth dependence of radiative exciton lifetimes in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(20), 2337–2340 (1987).
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H. Schmidt, I. Yudhistira, L. Chu, A. H. Castro Neto, B. Özyilmaz, S. Adam, and G. Eda, “Quantum transport and observation of Dyakonov-Perel spin-orbit scattering in monolayer MoS_2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(4), 046803 (2016).
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P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015).
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S. Wu, J. S. Ross, G.-B. Liu, G. Aivazian, A. Jones, Z. Fei, W. Zhu, D. Xiao, W. Yao, D. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrical tuning of valley magnetic moment through symmetry control in bilayer MoS2,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 149–153 (2013).
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D. Sun, G. Aivazian, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, W. Yao, D. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Ultrafast hot-carrier-dominated photocurrent in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(2), 114–118 (2012).
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Ajayan, P. M.

H. Yamaguchi, J.-C. Blancon, R. Kappera, S. Lei, S. Najmaei, B. D. Mangum, G. Gupta, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, M. Chhowalla, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Spatially resolved photoexcited charge-carrier dynamics in phase-engineered monolayer MoS2.,” ACS Nano 9(1), 840–849 (2015).
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B. Li, G. Shi, S. Lei, Y. He, W. Gao, Y. Gong, G. Ye, W. Zhou, K. Keyshar, J. Hao, P. Dong, L. Ge, J. Lou, J. Kono, R. Vajtai, and P. M. Ajayan, “3D band diagram and photoexcitation of 2D-3D semiconductor heterojunctions,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 5919–5925 (2015).
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Akselrod, G. M.

C. H. Lui, A. J. Frenzel, D. V. Pilon, Y. H. Lee, X. Ling, G. M. Akselrod, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Trion-induced negative photoconductivity in monolayer MoS2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(16), 166801 (2014).
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A. Allain, J. Kang, K. Banerjee, and A. Kis, “Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 14(12), 1195–1205 (2015).
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N. R. Pradhan, J. Ludwig, Z. Lu, D. Rhodes, M. M. Bishop, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, S. A. McGill, D. Smirnov, and L. Balicas, “High photoresponsivity and short photoresponse times in few-layered WSe2 transistors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 12080–12088 (2015).
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A. Allain, J. Kang, K. Banerjee, and A. Kis, “Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 14(12), 1195–1205 (2015).
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H. C. P. Movva, A. Rai, S. Kang, K. Kim, B. Fallahazad, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “High-mobility holes in dual-gated WSe2 field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10402–10410 (2015).
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Y. Xue, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, J. Song, J. Sophia, J. Liu, Z. Xu, Q. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Zheng, Y. Liu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Scalable production of a few-layer MoS2/WS2 vertical heterojunction array and its application for photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10(1), 573–580 (2016).
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M. Fontana, T. Deppe, A. K. Boyd, M. Rinzan, A. Y. Liu, M. Paranjape, and P. Barbara, “Electron-hole transport and photovoltaic effect in gated MoS2 Schottky junctions,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1634 (2013).
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M. Buscema, M. Barkelid, V. Zwiller, H. S. J. van der Zant, G. A. Steele, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Large and tunable photothermoelectric effect in single-layer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 358–363 (2013).
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C. Mai, A. Barrette, Y. Yu, Y. G. Semenov, K. W. Kim, L. Cao, and K. Gundogdu, “Many-body effects in valleytronics: direct measurement of valley lifetimes in single-layer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 202–206 (2014).
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J. Zheng, R. A. Barton, and D. Englund, “Broadband coherent absorption in chirped-planar-dielectric cavities for 2D-material-based photovoltaics and photodetectors,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 768–774 (2014).
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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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B. W. H. Baugher, H. O. H. Churchill, Y. Yang, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Optoelectronic devices based on electrically tunable p-n diodes in a monolayer dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 262–267 (2014).
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L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y. J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
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S. Jo, D. Costanzo, H. Berger, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Electrostatically induced superconductivity at the surface of WS₂,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1197–1202 (2015).
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G. Konstantatos, M. Badioli, L. Gaudreau, J. Osmond, M. Bernechea, F. P. Garcia de Arquer, F. Gatti, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Hybrid graphene-quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(6), 363–368 (2012).
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N. R. Pradhan, J. Ludwig, Z. Lu, D. Rhodes, M. M. Bishop, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, S. A. McGill, D. Smirnov, and L. Balicas, “High photoresponsivity and short photoresponse times in few-layered WSe2 transistors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(22), 12080–12088 (2015).
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H. Yamaguchi, J.-C. Blancon, R. Kappera, S. Lei, S. Najmaei, B. D. Mangum, G. Gupta, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, M. Chhowalla, J. J. Crochet, and A. D. Mohite, “Spatially resolved photoexcited charge-carrier dynamics in phase-engineered monolayer MoS2.,” ACS Nano 9(1), 840–849 (2015).
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M. Fontana, T. Deppe, A. K. Boyd, M. Rinzan, A. Y. Liu, M. Paranjape, and P. Barbara, “Electron-hole transport and photovoltaic effect in gated MoS2 Schottky junctions,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1634 (2013).
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R. Schmidt, G. Berghäuser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malić, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast coulomb-induced intervalley coupling in atomically thin WS2.,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
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K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2012).
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ACS Nano (24)

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S. Kar, Y. Su, R. R. Nair, and A. K. Sood, “Probing photoexcited carriers in a few-layer MoS2 laminate by time-resolved optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12004–12010 (2015).
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J. Zheng, R. A. Barton, and D. Englund, “Broadband coherent absorption in chirped-planar-dielectric cavities for 2D-material-based photovoltaics and photodetectors,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 768–774 (2014).
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S.-Y. Chen, Y.-Y. Lu, F.-Y. Shih, P.-H. Ho, Y.-F. Chen, C.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Chen, and W.-H. Wang, “Biologically inspired graphene-chlorophyll phototransistors with high gain,” Carbon 63, 23–29 (2013).
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