Abstract

Shortwave infrared emission from 450 nm InGaN diode lasers is analyzed, and its physical origin is located by SWIR imaging of operating devices. Emission spectra taken in the 900-1700 nm range reveal three main contributions located at 900-1130 nm, 1130-1350 nm, and beyond 1350 nm. In concert with photoluminescence measurements at the substrate, these emission bands are identified as, first, genuine deep-level electroluminescence from the active region and deep-level defect-related emission from the substrate that is pumped by spontaneous 450 nm primary emission, second, pure deep-level defect emission, and third, Planck’s black-body radiation from the entire heated device and an additional deep-level defect contribution.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  3. A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (202¯1¯) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
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    [Crossref]
  7. S. J. Sweeney, L. J. Lyons, A. R. Adams, and D. A. Lock, “Direct measurement of facet temperature up to melting point and COD in high-power 980-nm semiconductor diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quant. Phys. 9(5), 1325–1332 (2003).
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  8. H. Imai, K. Isozumi, and M. Takusagawa, “Deep level associated with the slow degradation of GaAlAs DH laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(4), 330 (1978).
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    [Crossref]
  14. M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, B. Stojetz, H. König, U. Strauss, and T. Elsaesser, “Kinetics of catastrophic optical damage in GaN-based diode lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 072001 (2015).
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  16. R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161 (1999).
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  17. M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151902 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. F. Fuchs, A. Lusson, J. Wagner, and P. Koidl, “Double Modulation Techniques in Fourier Transform Infrared Photoluminescence,” Proc. SPIE 1145, 323–326 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Pimputkar, S. Suihkonen, M. Imade, Y. Mori, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Free electron concentration dependent sub-bandgap optical absorption characterization of bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 432, 49–53 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Robert Kernke, Optische Spektroskopie an Galliumnitrid-basierten Halbleitermaterialien Bachelor-Arbeit am Max-Born-Institut vorgelegt dem Fachbereich Physik an der Freien Universität Berlin (2016).
  29. see, e.g. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BlackbodySpectrum_loglog_150dpi_en.png

2015 (3)

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, B. Stojetz, H. König, U. Strauss, and T. Elsaesser, “Kinetics of catastrophic optical damage in GaN-based diode lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 072001 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Shi, S. Feng, Y. Qiao, and P. Wen, “The research on temperature distribution of GaN-based blue laser diode,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 25–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, S. Suihkonen, M. Imade, Y. Mori, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Free electron concentration dependent sub-bandgap optical absorption characterization of bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 432, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, F. Yue, M. A. Bettiati, and T. Elsaesser, “Short-wavelength infrared defect emission as a probe of degradation processes in 980 nm single-mode diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L59–L64 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (202¯1¯) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Beeler, E. Trichas, and E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of optical transitions involving cation vacancies and complexes in AlN and AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221107 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. W. Feng, J. Li, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Effects of growth pressure on erbium doped GaN infrared emitters synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1095 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Hashimoto, H. Hung, J. Hwang, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “High-power 2.8 W blue-violet laser diode for white light sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 412–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151902 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. Ziegler, F. Weik, J. W. Tomm, T. Elsaesser, W. Nakwaski, R. P. Sarzala, D. Lorenzen, J. Meusel, and A. Kozlowska, “Transient thermal properties of high-power diode laser bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263506 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. Kozlowska, P. Wawrzyniak, J. W. Tomm, F. Weik, and T. Elsaesser, “Deep level emission from high-power diode laser bars detected by multispectral infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 153503 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoc, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. J. Sweeney, L. J. Lyons, A. R. Adams, and D. A. Lock, “Direct measurement of facet temperature up to melting point and COD in high-power 980-nm semiconductor diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quant. Phys. 9(5), 1325–1332 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Leung, A. F. Wright, and E. B. Stechel, “Charge accumulation at a threading edge dislocation in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(17), 2495 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

F. Fuchs, A. Lusson, J. Wagner, and P. Koidl, “Double Modulation Techniques in Fourier Transform Infrared Photoluminescence,” Proc. SPIE 1145, 323–326 (1989).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

S. M. Abbott, “Measurement of spatial distribution of long-wavelength radiation from GaAlAs injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(11), 766 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

H. Imai, K. Isozumi, and M. Takusagawa, “Deep level associated with the slow degradation of GaAlAs DH laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(4), 330 (1978).
[Crossref]

Abbott, S. M.

S. M. Abbott, “Measurement of spatial distribution of long-wavelength radiation from GaAlAs injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(11), 766 (1979).
[Crossref]

Adams, A. R.

S. J. Sweeney, L. J. Lyons, A. R. Adams, and D. A. Lock, “Direct measurement of facet temperature up to melting point and COD in high-power 980-nm semiconductor diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quant. Phys. 9(5), 1325–1332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avramescu, A.

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beeler, M.

M. Beeler, E. Trichas, and E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bettiati, M. A.

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, F. Yue, M. A. Bettiati, and T. Elsaesser, “Short-wavelength infrared defect emission as a probe of degradation processes in 980 nm single-mode diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L59–L64 (2014).
[Crossref]

Birkhahn, R.

R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

BouSanayeh, M.

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bruderl, G.

C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brüderl, G.

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

Brunner, D.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bugge, F.

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Czernetzki, R.

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (202¯1¯) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dimitrov, R.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eichler, C.

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Elsaesser, T.

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, B. Stojetz, H. König, U. Strauss, and T. Elsaesser, “Kinetics of catastrophic optical damage in GaN-based diode lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 072001 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, F. Yue, M. A. Bettiati, and T. Elsaesser, “Short-wavelength infrared defect emission as a probe of degradation processes in 980 nm single-mode diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L59–L64 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ziegler, F. Weik, J. W. Tomm, T. Elsaesser, W. Nakwaski, R. P. Sarzala, D. Lorenzen, J. Meusel, and A. Kozlowska, “Transient thermal properties of high-power diode laser bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263506 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Kozlowska, P. Wawrzyniak, J. W. Tomm, F. Weik, and T. Elsaesser, “Deep level emission from high-power diode laser bars detected by multispectral infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 153503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Erbert, G.

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (202¯1¯) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Felger, M.

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feng, I. W.

Feng, S.

D. Shi, S. Feng, Y. Qiao, and P. Wen, “The research on temperature distribution of GaN-based blue laser diode,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 25–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, F.

F. Fuchs, A. Lusson, J. Wagner, and P. Koidl, “Double Modulation Techniques in Fourier Transform Infrared Photoluminescence,” Proc. SPIE 1145, 323–326 (1989).
[Crossref]

Furitsch, M.

C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Garter, M.

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gomez-Iglesias, A.

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gorczyca, L.

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grzegory, I.

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hager, T.

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

Hardy, M. T.

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (202¯1¯) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harle, V.

C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, R.

R. Hashimoto, H. Hung, J. Hwang, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “High-power 2.8 W blue-violet laser diode for white light sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 412–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hempel, M.

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, B. Stojetz, H. König, U. Strauss, and T. Elsaesser, “Kinetics of catastrophic optical damage in GaN-based diode lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 072001 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, F. Yue, M. A. Bettiati, and T. Elsaesser, “Short-wavelength infrared defect emission as a probe of degradation processes in 980 nm single-mode diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L59–L64 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hsu, P. S.

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (202¯1¯) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hung, H.

R. Hashimoto, H. Hung, J. Hwang, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “High-power 2.8 W blue-violet laser diode for white light sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 412–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

R. Hashimoto, H. Hung, J. Hwang, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “High-power 2.8 W blue-violet laser diode for white light sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 412–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Imade, M.

S. Pimputkar, S. Suihkonen, M. Imade, Y. Mori, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Free electron concentration dependent sub-bandgap optical absorption characterization of bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 432, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Imai, H.

H. Imai, K. Isozumi, and M. Takusagawa, “Deep level associated with the slow degradation of GaAlAs DH laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(4), 330 (1978).
[Crossref]

Isozumi, K.

H. Imai, K. Isozumi, and M. Takusagawa, “Deep level associated with the slow degradation of GaAlAs DH laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(4), 330 (1978).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Jiang, H. X.

A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of optical transitions involving cation vacancies and complexes in AlN and AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221107 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kelchner, K. M.

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (202¯1¯) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Koidl, P.

F. Fuchs, A. Lusson, J. Wagner, and P. Koidl, “Double Modulation Techniques in Fourier Transform Infrared Photoluminescence,” Proc. SPIE 1145, 323–326 (1989).
[Crossref]

König, H.

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, B. Stojetz, H. König, U. Strauss, and T. Elsaesser, “Kinetics of catastrophic optical damage in GaN-based diode lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 072001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kozlowska, A.

M. Ziegler, F. Weik, J. W. Tomm, T. Elsaesser, W. Nakwaski, R. P. Sarzala, D. Lorenzen, J. Meusel, and A. Kozlowska, “Transient thermal properties of high-power diode laser bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263506 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Kozlowska, P. Wawrzyniak, J. W. Tomm, F. Weik, and T. Elsaesser, “Deep level emission from high-power diode laser bars detected by multispectral infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 153503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Leber, A.

C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lell, A.

C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leszczynski, M.

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leung, K.

K. Leung, A. F. Wright, and E. B. Stechel, “Charge accumulation at a threading edge dislocation in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(17), 2495 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Lienau, C.

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

Lin, J. Y.

A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of optical transitions involving cation vacancies and complexes in AlN and AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221107 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lock, D. A.

S. J. Sweeney, L. J. Lyons, A. R. Adams, and D. A. Lock, “Direct measurement of facet temperature up to melting point and COD in high-power 980-nm semiconductor diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quant. Phys. 9(5), 1325–1332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Löffler, A.

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

Lorenzen, D.

M. Ziegler, F. Weik, J. W. Tomm, T. Elsaesser, W. Nakwaski, R. P. Sarzala, D. Lorenzen, J. Meusel, and A. Kozlowska, “Transient thermal properties of high-power diode laser bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lusson, A.

F. Fuchs, A. Lusson, J. Wagner, and P. Koidl, “Double Modulation Techniques in Fourier Transform Infrared Photoluminescence,” Proc. SPIE 1145, 323–326 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lyons, L. J.

S. J. Sweeney, L. J. Lyons, A. R. Adams, and D. A. Lock, “Direct measurement of facet temperature up to melting point and COD in high-power 980-nm semiconductor diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quant. Phys. 9(5), 1325–1332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Meusel, J.

M. Ziegler, F. Weik, J. W. Tomm, T. Elsaesser, W. Nakwaski, R. P. Sarzala, D. Lorenzen, J. Meusel, and A. Kozlowska, “Transient thermal properties of high-power diode laser bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Miler, A.

C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Monroy, E.

M. Beeler, E. Trichas, and E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mori, Y.

S. Pimputkar, S. Suihkonen, M. Imade, Y. Mori, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Free electron concentration dependent sub-bandgap optical absorption characterization of bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 432, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Morkoc, H.

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoc, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, S. Suihkonen, M. Imade, Y. Mori, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Free electron concentration dependent sub-bandgap optical absorption characterization of bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 432, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (202¯1¯) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nakwaski, W.

M. Ziegler, F. Weik, J. W. Tomm, T. Elsaesser, W. Nakwaski, R. P. Sarzala, D. Lorenzen, J. Meusel, and A. Kozlowska, “Transient thermal properties of high-power diode laser bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nunoue, S.

R. Hashimoto, H. Hung, J. Hwang, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “High-power 2.8 W blue-violet laser diode for white light sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 412–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Perlin, P.

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, S. Suihkonen, M. Imade, Y. Mori, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Free electron concentration dependent sub-bandgap optical absorption characterization of bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 432, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pomraenke, R.

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Porowski, S.

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pourhashemi, A.

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (202¯1¯) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prystawko, P.

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

Qiao, Y.

D. Shi, S. Feng, Y. Qiao, and P. Wen, “The research on temperature distribution of GaN-based blue laser diode,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 25–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reshchikov, M. A.

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoc, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Reufer, M.

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rieger, W.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ristic, J.

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

Rohrer, E.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rumbolz, C.

C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saito, S.

R. Hashimoto, H. Hung, J. Hwang, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “High-power 2.8 W blue-violet laser diode for white light sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 412–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sarzala, R. P.

M. Ziegler, F. Weik, J. W. Tomm, T. Elsaesser, W. Nakwaski, R. P. Sarzala, D. Lorenzen, J. Meusel, and A. Kozlowska, “Transient thermal properties of high-power diode laser bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Scofield, J.

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sedhain, A.

A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of optical transitions involving cation vacancies and complexes in AlN and AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221107 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shi, D.

D. Shi, S. Feng, Y. Qiao, and P. Wen, “The research on temperature distribution of GaN-based blue laser diode,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 25–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Somers, A.

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, S. Suihkonen, M. Imade, Y. Mori, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Free electron concentration dependent sub-bandgap optical absorption characterization of bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 432, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (202¯1¯) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stechel, E. B.

K. Leung, A. F. Wright, and E. B. Stechel, “Charge accumulation at a threading edge dislocation in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(17), 2495 (1999).
[Crossref]

Steckl, A. J.

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stojetz, B.

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, B. Stojetz, H. König, U. Strauss, and T. Elsaesser, “Kinetics of catastrophic optical damage in GaN-based diode lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 072001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Strauss, U.

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, B. Stojetz, H. König, U. Strauss, and T. Elsaesser, “Kinetics of catastrophic optical damage in GaN-based diode lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 072001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Strauß, U.

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

Strauss, U.

C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stutzmann, M.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Suihkonen, S.

S. Pimputkar, S. Suihkonen, M. Imade, Y. Mori, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Free electron concentration dependent sub-bandgap optical absorption characterization of bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 432, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Suski, T.

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sweeney, S. J.

S. J. Sweeney, L. J. Lyons, A. R. Adams, and D. A. Lock, “Direct measurement of facet temperature up to melting point and COD in high-power 980-nm semiconductor diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quant. Phys. 9(5), 1325–1332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takusagawa, M.

H. Imai, K. Isozumi, and M. Takusagawa, “Deep level associated with the slow degradation of GaAlAs DH laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(4), 330 (1978).
[Crossref]

Targowski, G.

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tomm, J. W.

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, B. Stojetz, H. König, U. Strauss, and T. Elsaesser, “Kinetics of catastrophic optical damage in GaN-based diode lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 072001 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, F. Yue, M. A. Bettiati, and T. Elsaesser, “Short-wavelength infrared defect emission as a probe of degradation processes in 980 nm single-mode diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L59–L64 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ziegler, F. Weik, J. W. Tomm, T. Elsaesser, W. Nakwaski, R. P. Sarzala, D. Lorenzen, J. Meusel, and A. Kozlowska, “Transient thermal properties of high-power diode laser bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263506 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Kozlowska, P. Wawrzyniak, J. W. Tomm, F. Weik, and T. Elsaesser, “Deep level emission from high-power diode laser bars detected by multispectral infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 153503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Trichas, E.

M. Beeler, E. Trichas, and E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vasa, P.

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vierheilig, C.

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

Wagner, J.

F. Fuchs, A. Lusson, J. Wagner, and P. Koidl, “Double Modulation Techniques in Fourier Transform Infrared Photoluminescence,” Proc. SPIE 1145, 323–326 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wawrzyniak, P.

A. Kozlowska, P. Wawrzyniak, J. W. Tomm, F. Weik, and T. Elsaesser, “Deep level emission from high-power diode laser bars detected by multispectral infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 153503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Weik, F.

M. Ziegler, F. Weik, J. W. Tomm, T. Elsaesser, W. Nakwaski, R. P. Sarzala, D. Lorenzen, J. Meusel, and A. Kozlowska, “Transient thermal properties of high-power diode laser bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263506 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Kozlowska, P. Wawrzyniak, J. W. Tomm, F. Weik, and T. Elsaesser, “Deep level emission from high-power diode laser bars detected by multispectral infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 153503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wen, P.

D. Shi, S. Feng, Y. Qiao, and P. Wen, “The research on temperature distribution of GaN-based blue laser diode,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 25–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wisniewski, P.

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wright, A. F.

K. Leung, A. F. Wright, and E. B. Stechel, “Charge accumulation at a threading edge dislocation in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(17), 2495 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wurm, T.

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yue, F.

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, F. Yue, M. A. Bettiati, and T. Elsaesser, “Short-wavelength infrared defect emission as a probe of degradation processes in 980 nm single-mode diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L59–L64 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J.

Ziegler, M.

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ziegler, F. Weik, J. W. Tomm, T. Elsaesser, W. Nakwaski, R. P. Sarzala, D. Lorenzen, J. Meusel, and A. Kozlowska, “Transient thermal properties of high-power diode laser bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zielinski, M.

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (202¯1¯) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
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H. Imai, K. Isozumi, and M. Takusagawa, “Deep level associated with the slow degradation of GaAlAs DH laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(4), 330 (1978).
[Crossref]

S. M. Abbott, “Measurement of spatial distribution of long-wavelength radiation from GaAlAs injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(11), 766 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. Ziegler, R. Pomraenke, M. Felger, J. W. Tomm, P. Vasa, C. Lienau, M. BouSanayeh, A. Gomez-Iglesias, M. Reufer, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Infrared emission from the substrate of GaAs-based semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041101 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ziegler, F. Weik, J. W. Tomm, T. Elsaesser, W. Nakwaski, R. P. Sarzala, D. Lorenzen, J. Meusel, and A. Kozlowska, “Transient thermal properties of high-power diode laser bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263506 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Kozlowska, P. Wawrzyniak, J. W. Tomm, F. Weik, and T. Elsaesser, “Deep level emission from high-power diode laser bars detected by multispectral infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 153503 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Birkhahn, M. Garter, and A. J. Steckl, “Red light emission by photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Pr-doped GaN on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(15), 2161 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Sedhain, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of deep center emissions in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151902 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nature of optical transitions involving cation vacancies and complexes in AlN and AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221107 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Leung, A. F. Wright, and E. B. Stechel, “Charge accumulation at a threading edge dislocation in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(17), 2495 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Quant. Phys. (1)

S. J. Sweeney, L. J. Lyons, A. R. Adams, and D. A. Lock, “Direct measurement of facet temperature up to melting point and COD in high-power 980-nm semiconductor diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quant. Phys. 9(5), 1325–1332 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoc, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

P. Prystawko, R. Czernetzki, L. Gorczyca, G. Targowski, P. Wisniewski, P. Perlin, M. Zielinski, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “High-power laser structures grown on bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 274–277 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, S. Suihkonen, M. Imade, Y. Mori, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Free electron concentration dependent sub-bandgap optical absorption characterization of bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 432, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, F. Yue, M. A. Bettiati, and T. Elsaesser, “Short-wavelength infrared defect emission as a probe of degradation processes in 980 nm single-mode diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L59–L64 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

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R. Hashimoto, H. Hung, J. Hwang, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “High-power 2.8 W blue-violet laser diode for white light sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 412–414 (2012).
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W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
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C. Rumbolz, G. Bruderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauss, and V. Harle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

U. Strauß, T. Hager, G. Brüderl, T. Wurm, A. Somers, C. Eichler, C. Vierheilig, A. Löffler, J. Ristic, and A. Avramescu, “Recent advances in c-plane GaN visible lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 89861L (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Fuchs, A. Lusson, J. Wagner, and P. Koidl, “Double Modulation Techniques in Fourier Transform Infrared Photoluminescence,” Proc. SPIE 1145, 323–326 (1989).
[Crossref]

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M. Beeler, E. Trichas, and E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Hempel, J. W. Tomm, B. Stojetz, H. König, U. Strauss, and T. Elsaesser, “Kinetics of catastrophic optical damage in GaN-based diode lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 072001 (2015).
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Solid-State Electron. (1)

D. Shi, S. Feng, Y. Qiao, and P. Wen, “The research on temperature distribution of GaN-based blue laser diode,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 25–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. Furitsch, Untersuchung von Degradationsmechanismen an (Al/In)GaN-basierenden Laserdioden (Cuvillier-Verlag, 2007).

Robert Kernke, Optische Spektroskopie an Galliumnitrid-basierten Halbleitermaterialien Bachelor-Arbeit am Max-Born-Institut vorgelegt dem Fachbereich Physik an der Freien Universität Berlin (2016).

see, e.g. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BlackbodySpectrum_loglog_150dpi_en.png

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a diode laser (side view) and the coordinate system used. (b) SWIR EL pattern from the side at I = 100 mA (i.e. below the laser threshold). Image of the device under external illumination by a light bulb and an integration time of 10 ms. (c) The same view without extra illumination and an extended integration time of 3.3 s. (d) SWIR EL pattern at I = 1.5 A from the front facet of a device. The laser chip geometry (dimension 200 × 100 µm2) is highlighted by dashed lines, while the vertical dashed line indicates the position from where the profiles have been taken. (e) Profiles of primary emission at 450 nm (full) and SWIR emission (dotted) as taken from cuts along growth direction (x).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SWIR EL spectra in the 900-1700 nm range monitored from the front facet of an operating device for different operation currents. The 3 distinguishable emission bands are named A, B, and C. (b-d) operation current dependencies of bands A, B and C. The ordinate values are obtained by integrating the signals in the wavelength intervals that are shaded in (a). The laser thresholds at ~200 mA are indicated by vertical dashed lines. (e) Temperature dependent spectra. Notice that at 100°C the laser operation terminates and exclusively spontaneous emission remains

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SWIR PL spectra in the 900-1700 nm range as monitored from the GaN-substrate at the front facet. The PL excitation power is 50 mW and the 457 nm laser is not focused. There are 3 separated spectral bands A-C. (b-d) Temperature dependencies of bands A-C. (e) Normalized PL spectra taken in an excitation power dependent measurement. (f) Normalized PL spectra obtained by a standard quasi-DC-measurement and an AC-measurement with modulated f = 1.5 kHz excitation.

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