Abstract

The epitaxial layers of n-type GaN were grown on both planar and patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By comparing the epitaxial layers grown on planar substrate, GaN grown on PSS exhibited many improvements both on surface morphology and crystalline quality according to the characterization of atoms force microscopy, and high resolution X-ray diffraction. Spatially resolved micro-Raman scattering results were performed for mapping the spatial variations in crystalline quality of the n-type GaN grown on PSS. According to the variations on the intensity and the full width at half maximum of GaN E2 (high) peaks, the crystalline quality improvement occurred in the lateral growth regions which correspond to center region of the pyramid patterns. We proposed that the bending of dislocations during the lateral growth plays an important role in the spatial variations of GaN crystalline quality. Cross sectional transmission electron microscope and spatial cathodoluminescence mapping results further supported the explanation of the dislocation inhibition during the growth process of GaN grown on PSS.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  3. U. K. Mishra, P. Parikh, and Yi-Feng Wu, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs: An overview of device operation and applications,” Proc. IEEE 90(6), 1022–1031 (2002).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Klapper, “Röntgentopographische untersuchungen der defektstrukturen im thioharnstoff,” J. Cryst. Growth 15(4), 281–287 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. Y. Shin, S. K. Kwon, Y. I. Chang, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “Reducing dislocation density in GaN films using a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(17), 4167–4170 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. T. Wang, K. Y. Liao, and Y. L. Li, “Growth Mechanism and Strain Variation of GaN Material Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrates With Various Pattern Designs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 962 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19955 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Cho, J. S. Kim, Y. D. Kim, H. J. Cha, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of oxide-based nano-patterned sapphire substrate to improve the efficiency of GaN-based of LED,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2S), 02BA04 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. Zhou, H. Wang, Z. Lin, H. Yang, X. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Study of defects in LED epitaxial layers grown on the optimized hemispherical patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 025503 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wei, Z. Huo, Y. Zhang, H. Zheng, Y. Chen, J. Yang, Q. Hu, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. Li, “Efficiency enhancement of homoepitaxial InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrate with double embedded SiO2 photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1093–A1100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (4)

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A949–A955 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. T. Wang, K. Y. Liao, and Y. L. Li, “Growth Mechanism and Strain Variation of GaN Material Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrates With Various Pattern Designs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 962 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

2010 (4)

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Cho, J.-B. Lee, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO2.,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Liu, T. Y. Tsai, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, C. C. Huang, T. Y. Chen, C. H. Hsu, and W. C. Liu, “Performance investigation of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with tiny misorientation of sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2729–2742 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Hushur, M. H. Manghnani, and J. Narayan, “Raman studies of GaN/sapphire thin film heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 054317 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Shin, S. K. Kwon, Y. I. Chang, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “Reducing dislocation density in GaN films using a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(17), 4167–4170 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

H. Harima, “Properties of GaN and related compounds studied by means of Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(38), R697 (2002).
[Crossref]

U. K. Mishra, P. Parikh, and Yi-Feng Wu, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs: An overview of device operation and applications,” Proc. IEEE 90(6), 1022–1031 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Link, K. Bitzer, W. Limmer, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, D. G. Ebling, and K. W. Benz, “Temperature dependence of the E2 and A1(LO) phonons in GaN and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6256 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, “The Roles of Structural Imperfections in InGaN-Based Blue Light-Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 643 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(1), 1528–1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

H. Klapper, “Röntgentopographische untersuchungen der defektstrukturen im thioharnstoff,” J. Cryst. Growth 15(4), 281–287 (1972).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(1), 1528–1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Barnard, J. S.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benz, K. W.

A. Link, K. Bitzer, W. Limmer, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, D. G. Ebling, and K. W. Benz, “Temperature dependence of the E2 and A1(LO) phonons in GaN and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6256 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bitzer, K.

A. Link, K. Bitzer, W. Limmer, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, D. G. Ebling, and K. W. Benz, “Temperature dependence of the E2 and A1(LO) phonons in GaN and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6256 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y. R.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cha, H. J.

J. Y. Cho, J. S. Kim, Y. D. Kim, H. J. Cha, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of oxide-based nano-patterned sapphire substrate to improve the efficiency of GaN-based of LED,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2S), 02BA04 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. I.

H. Y. Shin, S. K. Kwon, Y. I. Chang, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “Reducing dislocation density in GaN films using a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(17), 4167–4170 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. Y.

Chen, P. H.

Chen, T. Y.

Chen, W. F.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. C.

Chen, Z. Z.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J. H.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.-Y.

Cho, J. Y.

J. Y. Cho, J. S. Kim, Y. D. Kim, H. J. Cha, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of oxide-based nano-patterned sapphire substrate to improve the efficiency of GaN-based of LED,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2S), 02BA04 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cho, M. J.

H. Y. Shin, S. K. Kwon, Y. I. Chang, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “Reducing dislocation density in GaN films using a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(17), 4167–4170 (2009).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 643 (1996).
[Crossref]

Detchprohm, T.

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(1), 1528–1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Duan, H. T.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Duan, R.

Ebling, D. G.

A. Link, K. Bitzer, W. Limmer, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, D. G. Ebling, and K. W. Benz, “Temperature dependence of the E2 and A1(LO) phonons in GaN and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6256 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ghedia, C. S.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gu, W. P.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, S.-H.

Hao, Y.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19955 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Harima, H.

H. Harima, “Properties of GaN and related compounds studied by means of Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(38), R697 (2002).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

Heying, B.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 643 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hiramatsu, K.

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(1), 1528–1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. I.

Hong, X.

S. Zhou, H. Wang, Z. Lin, H. Yang, X. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Study of defects in LED epitaxial layers grown on the optimized hemispherical patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 025503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C. H.

Hu, Q.

Hu, S. G.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. C.

Huang, X. H.

Humphreys, C. J.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huo, Z.

Hushur, A.

A. Hushur, M. H. Manghnani, and J. Narayan, “Raman studies of GaN/sapphire thin film heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 054317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jeong, M. S.

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, R. Y.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19955 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ju, J. W.

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kamp, M.

A. Link, K. Bitzer, W. Limmer, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, D. G. Ebling, and K. W. Benz, “Temperature dependence of the E2 and A1(LO) phonons in GaN and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6256 (1999).
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Kapolnek, D.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 643 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kappers, M. J.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Keller, B. P.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 643 (1996).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 643 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. S.

J. Y. Cho, J. S. Kim, Y. D. Kim, H. J. Cha, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of oxide-based nano-patterned sapphire substrate to improve the efficiency of GaN-based of LED,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2S), 02BA04 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

Kim, Y. C.

Kim, Y. D.

J. Y. Cho, J. S. Kim, Y. D. Kim, H. J. Cha, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of oxide-based nano-patterned sapphire substrate to improve the efficiency of GaN-based of LED,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2S), 02BA04 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kirchner, C.

A. Link, K. Bitzer, W. Limmer, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, D. G. Ebling, and K. W. Benz, “Temperature dependence of the E2 and A1(LO) phonons in GaN and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6256 (1999).
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Klapper, H.

H. Klapper, “Röntgentopographische untersuchungen der defektstrukturen im thioharnstoff,” J. Cryst. Growth 15(4), 281–287 (1972).
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Kong, J. J.

Kuan, C. H.

Kwon, S. K.

H. Y. Shin, S. K. Kwon, Y. I. Chang, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “Reducing dislocation density in GaN films using a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(17), 4167–4170 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

J. Y. Cho, J. S. Kim, Y. D. Kim, H. J. Cha, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of oxide-based nano-patterned sapphire substrate to improve the efficiency of GaN-based of LED,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2S), 02BA04 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, I. H.

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-B.

Lee, M. L.

Lee, S.-J.

Li, G. Q.

S. Zhou, H. Wang, Z. Lin, H. Yang, X. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Study of defects in LED epitaxial layers grown on the optimized hemispherical patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 025503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

T. Wei, Z. Huo, Y. Zhang, H. Zheng, Y. Chen, J. Yang, Q. Hu, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. Li, “Efficiency enhancement of homoepitaxial InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrate with double embedded SiO2 photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1093–A1100 (2014).
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H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, J. T.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

Li, P. X.

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

Li, Y.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 643 (1996).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. L.

M. T. Wang, K. Y. Liao, and Y. L. Li, “Growth Mechanism and Strain Variation of GaN Material Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrates With Various Pattern Designs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 962 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. M.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liao, K. Y.

M. T. Wang, K. Y. Liao, and Y. L. Li, “Growth Mechanism and Strain Variation of GaN Material Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrates With Various Pattern Designs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 962 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liao, W. C.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Limmer, W.

A. Link, K. Bitzer, W. Limmer, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, D. G. Ebling, and K. W. Benz, “Temperature dependence of the E2 and A1(LO) phonons in GaN and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6256 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lin, B. W.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, R. M.

Lin, Z.

S. Zhou, H. Wang, Z. Lin, H. Yang, X. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Study of defects in LED epitaxial layers grown on the optimized hemispherical patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 025503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z. Y.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

Ling, D.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

Link, A.

A. Link, K. Bitzer, W. Limmer, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, D. G. Ebling, and K. W. Benz, “Temperature dependence of the E2 and A1(LO) phonons in GaN and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6256 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. P.

Liu, W. C.

Liu, Y. J.

Liu, Z. Y.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

Ma, J. C.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

Ma, J. J.

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).
[Crossref]

Manghnani, M. H.

A. Hushur, M. H. Manghnani, and J. Narayan, “Raman studies of GaN/sapphire thin film heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 054317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

U. K. Mishra, P. Parikh, and Yi-Feng Wu, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs: An overview of device operation and applications,” Proc. IEEE 90(6), 1022–1031 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moram, M. A.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S. I.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “The Roles of Structural Imperfections in InGaN-Based Blue Light-Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Narayan, J.

A. Hushur, M. H. Manghnani, and J. Narayan, “Raman studies of GaN/sapphire thin film heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 054317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Parikh, P.

U. K. Mishra, P. Parikh, and Yi-Feng Wu, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs: An overview of device operation and applications,” Proc. IEEE 90(6), 1022–1031 (2002).
[Crossref]

Park, K. H.

H. Y. Shin, S. K. Kwon, Y. I. Chang, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “Reducing dislocation density in GaN films using a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(17), 4167–4170 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-J.

Park, T.-Y.

Rao, D. V. S.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rho, H.

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sauer, R.

A. Link, K. Bitzer, W. Limmer, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, D. G. Ebling, and K. W. Benz, “Temperature dependence of the E2 and A1(LO) phonons in GaN and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6256 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schwegler, V.

A. Link, K. Bitzer, W. Limmer, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, D. G. Ebling, and K. W. Benz, “Temperature dependence of the E2 and A1(LO) phonons in GaN and AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6256 (1999).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shin, H. Y.

H. Y. Shin, S. K. Kwon, Y. I. Chang, M. J. Cho, and K. H. Park, “Reducing dislocation density in GaN films using a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(17), 4167–4170 (2009).
[Crossref]

Song, J. S.

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 643 (1996).
[Crossref]

Su, V. C.

Tao, Y. B.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T. H.

Tsai, T. Y.

Wang, G.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

S. Zhou, H. Wang, Z. Lin, H. Yang, X. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Study of defects in LED epitaxial layers grown on the optimized hemispherical patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 025503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. B.

Wang, J.

Wang, M. T.

M. T. Wang, K. Y. Liao, and Y. L. Li, “Growth Mechanism and Strain Variation of GaN Material Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrates With Various Pattern Designs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 962 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, M.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.

Wu, X. H.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x-ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 643 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. S.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19955 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S. R.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19955 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. H.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xue, J. S.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

Xue, X. Y.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

Yan, F.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

S. Zhou, H. Wang, Z. Lin, H. Yang, X. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Study of defects in LED epitaxial layers grown on the optimized hemispherical patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 025503 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A949–A955 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Yang, L. A.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. J.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. Y.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yen, C. H.

Yi-Feng Wu,

U. K. Mishra, P. Parikh, and Yi-Feng Wu, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs: An overview of device operation and applications,” Proc. IEEE 90(6), 1022–1031 (2002).
[Crossref]

You, Y. H.

Yu, T. J.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y.

T. Wei, Z. Huo, Y. Zhang, H. Zheng, Y. Chen, J. Yang, Q. Hu, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. Li, “Efficiency enhancement of homoepitaxial InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrate with double embedded SiO2 photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1093–A1100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G. Y.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. C.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19955 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, L. A. Yang, J. C. Zhang, J. S. Xue, X. Y. Xue, Z. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, J. C. Ma, P. X. Li, J. T. Li, and Q. He, “Improvement of (112) Semipolar GaN Crystal Quality with TiN Interlayer by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 115502 (2011).

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. F.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

T. Wei, Z. Huo, Y. Zhang, H. Zheng, Y. Chen, J. Yang, Q. Hu, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. Li, “Efficiency enhancement of homoepitaxial InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrate with double embedded SiO2 photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1093–A1100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

Zhou, S.

S. Zhou, H. Wang, Z. Lin, H. Yang, X. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “Study of defects in LED epitaxial layers grown on the optimized hemispherical patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 025503 (2014).
[Crossref]

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S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Q. W.

S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. T. Wang, K. Y. Liao, and Y. L. Li, “Growth Mechanism and Strain Variation of GaN Material Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrates With Various Pattern Designs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 962 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).
[Crossref]

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H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
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S. R. Xu, Y. Hao, J. C. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, L. A. Yang, J. F. Zhang, H. T. Duan, Z. M. Li, M. Wei, S. G. Hu, Y. R. Cao, Q. W. Zhu, Z. H. Xu, and W. P. Gu, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by AlN/AlGaN superlattices layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3622–3625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 183–187 (2011).
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Opt. Express (5)

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J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19955 (2016).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Top view and (b) cross sectional SEM images of the patterned sapphire substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 10x10 μm2 AFM images of the surface morphology of (a) sample A and (b) sample B.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Symmetric (002) and (b) asymmetric (102) reflection XRD x-scan rocking curves measured for both samples.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Temperature-dependent PL spectra of (a) sample A and (b) sample B. The temperature ranges from 80k to 280k.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Representative Raman spectra obtained of both samples. (a) Sample A and (b) Sample B. Insets illustrate the magnification of the E2 (high) mode peaks of GaN.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Raman mapping spectrum of E2 (high) mode intensity of sample B; (b) Raman mapping spectrum of E2 (high) mode FWHM of sample B.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Low temperature Raman mapping spectrum of E2 (high) mode intensity of sample B; (b) Low temperature Raman mapping spectrum of E2 (high) mode FWHM of sample B.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Schematic diagram of dislocation growth mechanism during the growth process of GaN grown on PSS.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Cross sectional TEM image (with g = 11 2 ¯ 0) of the sample grown on PSS.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Plan-view monochromatic 366 nm CL mapping images of the two samples with electron acceleration voltages of 5 kV: (a) sample A and (b) sample B.

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