Abstract

The multi-color switching of electrofluorochromism was examined from the thin electrofluorochromic (EF) films of polyfluorene (PFO) and poly(propylenedioxythiophene–phenylene) (P(ProDOT-Ph)). The PFO and P(ProDOT-Ph) films showed vivid blue and yellow fluorescence, respectively, at neutral state but their emission was quenched upon application of oxidation potential leading to ion radical states. The fluorescence from the polymer films was reversibly switched to vivid color when the films were returned to their neutral states. The EF color switching ratio (rc1/c2) between the fluorescent state (c1) and dark (c2) state for the yellow color EF device with P(ProDOT-Ph) film was about four times higher than that of the PFO. Because the two polymer films have different colors and working potentials, a multi-color switching device was fabricated by coating the P(ProDOT-Ph) and PFO films onto working and counter electrodes, respectively. The multi-color EF device showed fluorescence switching from blue (B) to white (W) to yellow (Y), and vice versa, depending on the applied potential. The rc1/c2 for yellow (c1) and blue (c2) switching (Y/B) was larger (9.71) than those for Y/W and W/B. Moreover, the EF switching for Y/B in the multi-EF device was also very effective and showed the largest EF efficiency (EEF = 3.82 × 106) among the EF color switching.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic diffraction from nanopatterned poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Seo, Y. Kim, Q. Zhou, G. Clavier, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “White electrofluorescence switching from electrochemically convertible yellow fluorescent dyad,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(17), 3556–3561 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Seo, H. Shin, C. Park, H. Lim, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of fluorescent polymer film,” Macromol. Res. 21(3), 284–289 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Clavier and P. Audebert, “s-Tetrazines as building blocks for new functional molecules and molecular materials,” Chem. Rev. 110(6), 3299–3314 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. P. de Silva, H. Q. Gunaratne, T. Gunnlaugsson, A. J. Huxley, C. P. McCoy, J. T. Rademacher, and T. E. Rice, “Signaling recognition events with fluorescent sensors and switches,” Chem. Rev. 97(5), 1515–1566 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Ding, H. Zhou, J. Xu, and X. Lu, “Electrofluorochromic detection of cyanide anions using a benzothiadiazole-containing conjugated copolymer,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(6), 655–657 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Voicescu, D. Rother, F. Bardischewsky, C. G. Friedrich, and P. Hellwig, “A combined fluorescence spectroscopic and electrochemical approach for the study of thioredoxins,” Biochemistry 50(1), 17–24 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. H. Wu and G. S. Liou, “Fluorescence: High‐Performance Electrofluorochromic Devices Based on Electrochromism and Photoluminescence‐Active Novel Poly (4‐Cyanotriphenylamine),” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6406 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Xia and R. C. Advincula, “Decreased Aggregation Phenomena in Polyfluorenes by Introducing Carbazole Copolymer Units,” Macromolecules 34(17), 5854–5859 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Yoo, T. Kwon, B. D. Sarwade, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Multistate fluorescence switching of s-triazine-bridged p-phenylene vinylene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241107 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  17. Y. C. Kung and S. H. Hsiao, “Pyrenylamine‐functionalized aromatic polyamides as efficient blue‐emitters and multicolored electrochromic materials,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 49(16), 3475–3490 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. C.-P. Kuo, C.-L. Chang, C.-W. Hu, C.-N. Chuang, K.-C. Ho, and M. K. Leung, “Tunable electrofluorochromic device from electrochemically controlled complementary fluorescent conjugated polymer films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17402–17409 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. R. Craig, M. M. de Kok, J. W. Hofstraat, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Improving color purity and stability in a blue emitting polyfluorene by monomer purification,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2861–2862 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. P. Kulkarni, Y. Zhu, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Quinoxaline-containing polyfluorenes: synthesis, photophysics, and stable blue electroluminescence,” Macromolecules 38(5), 1553–1563 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  21. J.-I. Lee, G. Klaerner, and R. D. Miller, “Oxidative stability and its effect on the photoluminescence of poly (fluorene) derivatives: end group effects,” Chem. Mater. 11(4), 1083–1088 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Electroactive subwavelength gratings (ESWGs) from conjugated polymers for color and intensity modulation,” Nanoscale 4(12), 3679–3686 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. Quinton, V. Alain-Rizzo, C. Dumas-Verdes, F. Miomandre, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “Redox-controlled fluorescence modulation (electrofluorochromism) in triphenylamine derivatives,” RSC Advances 4(65), 34332–34342 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (5)

G. Ding, H. Zhou, J. Xu, and X. Lu, “Electrofluorochromic detection of cyanide anions using a benzothiadiazole-containing conjugated copolymer,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(6), 655–657 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Wu and G. S. Liou, “Fluorescence: High‐Performance Electrofluorochromic Devices Based on Electrochromism and Photoluminescence‐Active Novel Poly (4‐Cyanotriphenylamine),” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6406 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-P. Kuo, C.-L. Chang, C.-W. Hu, C.-N. Chuang, K.-C. Ho, and M. K. Leung, “Tunable electrofluorochromic device from electrochemically controlled complementary fluorescent conjugated polymer films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17402–17409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Quinton, V. Alain-Rizzo, C. Dumas-Verdes, F. Miomandre, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “Redox-controlled fluorescence modulation (electrofluorochromism) in triphenylamine derivatives,” RSC Advances 4(65), 34332–34342 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Seo, H. Shin, C. Park, H. Lim, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of fluorescent polymer film,” Macromol. Res. 21(3), 284–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Seo, Y. Kim, Q. Zhou, G. Clavier, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “White electrofluorescence switching from electrochemically convertible yellow fluorescent dyad,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(17), 3556–3561 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Electroactive subwavelength gratings (ESWGs) from conjugated polymers for color and intensity modulation,” Nanoscale 4(12), 3679–3686 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y. C. Kung and S. H. Hsiao, “Pyrenylamine‐functionalized aromatic polyamides as efficient blue‐emitters and multicolored electrochromic materials,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 49(16), 3475–3490 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Voicescu, D. Rother, F. Bardischewsky, C. G. Friedrich, and P. Hellwig, “A combined fluorescence spectroscopic and electrochemical approach for the study of thioredoxins,” Biochemistry 50(1), 17–24 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

G. Clavier and P. Audebert, “s-Tetrazines as building blocks for new functional molecules and molecular materials,” Chem. Rev. 110(6), 3299–3314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic diffraction from nanopatterned poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. Yoo, T. Kwon, B. D. Sarwade, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Multistate fluorescence switching of s-triazine-bridged p-phenylene vinylene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Kim, E. Kim, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “New tetrazine-based fluoroelectrochromic window; modulation of the fluorescence through applied potential,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 34, 3612–3614 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. P. Kulkarni, Y. Zhu, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Quinoxaline-containing polyfluorenes: synthesis, photophysics, and stable blue electroluminescence,” Macromolecules 38(5), 1553–1563 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. R. Craig, M. M. de Kok, J. W. Hofstraat, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Improving color purity and stability in a blue emitting polyfluorene by monomer purification,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2861–2862 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Xia and R. C. Advincula, “Decreased Aggregation Phenomena in Polyfluorenes by Introducing Carbazole Copolymer Units,” Macromolecules 34(17), 5854–5859 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J.-I. Lee, G. Klaerner, and R. D. Miller, “Oxidative stability and its effect on the photoluminescence of poly (fluorene) derivatives: end group effects,” Chem. Mater. 11(4), 1083–1088 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. P. de Silva, H. Q. Gunaratne, T. Gunnlaugsson, A. J. Huxley, C. P. McCoy, J. T. Rademacher, and T. E. Rice, “Signaling recognition events with fluorescent sensors and switches,” Chem. Rev. 97(5), 1515–1566 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Advincula, R. C.

C. Xia and R. C. Advincula, “Decreased Aggregation Phenomena in Polyfluorenes by Introducing Carbazole Copolymer Units,” Macromolecules 34(17), 5854–5859 (2001).
[Crossref]

Alain-Rizzo, V.

C. Quinton, V. Alain-Rizzo, C. Dumas-Verdes, F. Miomandre, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “Redox-controlled fluorescence modulation (electrofluorochromism) in triphenylamine derivatives,” RSC Advances 4(65), 34332–34342 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allain, C.

S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andraud, C.

S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Audebert, P.

C. Quinton, V. Alain-Rizzo, C. Dumas-Verdes, F. Miomandre, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “Redox-controlled fluorescence modulation (electrofluorochromism) in triphenylamine derivatives,” RSC Advances 4(65), 34332–34342 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Seo, Y. Kim, Q. Zhou, G. Clavier, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “White electrofluorescence switching from electrochemically convertible yellow fluorescent dyad,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(17), 3556–3561 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Clavier and P. Audebert, “s-Tetrazines as building blocks for new functional molecules and molecular materials,” Chem. Rev. 110(6), 3299–3314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, E. Kim, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “New tetrazine-based fluoroelectrochromic window; modulation of the fluorescence through applied potential,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 34, 3612–3614 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bardischewsky, F.

M. Voicescu, D. Rother, F. Bardischewsky, C. G. Friedrich, and P. Hellwig, “A combined fluorescence spectroscopic and electrochemical approach for the study of thioredoxins,” Biochemistry 50(1), 17–24 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhuvana, T.

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Electroactive subwavelength gratings (ESWGs) from conjugated polymers for color and intensity modulation,” Nanoscale 4(12), 3679–3686 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-L.

C.-P. Kuo, C.-L. Chang, C.-W. Hu, C.-N. Chuang, K.-C. Ho, and M. K. Leung, “Tunable electrofluorochromic device from electrochemically controlled complementary fluorescent conjugated polymer films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17402–17409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, C.-N.

C.-P. Kuo, C.-L. Chang, C.-W. Hu, C.-N. Chuang, K.-C. Ho, and M. K. Leung, “Tunable electrofluorochromic device from electrochemically controlled complementary fluorescent conjugated polymer films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17402–17409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clavier, G.

C. Quinton, V. Alain-Rizzo, C. Dumas-Verdes, F. Miomandre, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “Redox-controlled fluorescence modulation (electrofluorochromism) in triphenylamine derivatives,” RSC Advances 4(65), 34332–34342 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Seo, Y. Kim, Q. Zhou, G. Clavier, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “White electrofluorescence switching from electrochemically convertible yellow fluorescent dyad,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(17), 3556–3561 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Clavier and P. Audebert, “s-Tetrazines as building blocks for new functional molecules and molecular materials,” Chem. Rev. 110(6), 3299–3314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, E. Kim, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “New tetrazine-based fluoroelectrochromic window; modulation of the fluorescence through applied potential,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 34, 3612–3614 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craig, M. R.

M. R. Craig, M. M. de Kok, J. W. Hofstraat, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Improving color purity and stability in a blue emitting polyfluorene by monomer purification,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2861–2862 (2003).
[Crossref]

de Kok, M. M.

M. R. Craig, M. M. de Kok, J. W. Hofstraat, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Improving color purity and stability in a blue emitting polyfluorene by monomer purification,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2861–2862 (2003).
[Crossref]

de Silva, A. P.

A. P. de Silva, H. Q. Gunaratne, T. Gunnlaugsson, A. J. Huxley, C. P. McCoy, J. T. Rademacher, and T. E. Rice, “Signaling recognition events with fluorescent sensors and switches,” Chem. Rev. 97(5), 1515–1566 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, G.

G. Ding, H. Zhou, J. Xu, and X. Lu, “Electrofluorochromic detection of cyanide anions using a benzothiadiazole-containing conjugated copolymer,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(6), 655–657 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumas-Verdes, C.

C. Quinton, V. Alain-Rizzo, C. Dumas-Verdes, F. Miomandre, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “Redox-controlled fluorescence modulation (electrofluorochromism) in triphenylamine derivatives,” RSC Advances 4(65), 34332–34342 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fabre-Francke, I.

O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
[Crossref]

Friedrich, C. G.

M. Voicescu, D. Rother, F. Bardischewsky, C. G. Friedrich, and P. Hellwig, “A combined fluorescence spectroscopic and electrochemical approach for the study of thioredoxins,” Biochemistry 50(1), 17–24 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galangau, O.

O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gunaratne, H. Q.

A. P. de Silva, H. Q. Gunaratne, T. Gunnlaugsson, A. J. Huxley, C. P. McCoy, J. T. Rademacher, and T. E. Rice, “Signaling recognition events with fluorescent sensors and switches,” Chem. Rev. 97(5), 1515–1566 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gunnlaugsson, T.

A. P. de Silva, H. Q. Gunaratne, T. Gunnlaugsson, A. J. Huxley, C. P. McCoy, J. T. Rademacher, and T. E. Rice, “Signaling recognition events with fluorescent sensors and switches,” Chem. Rev. 97(5), 1515–1566 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartl, F.

O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hellwig, P.

M. Voicescu, D. Rother, F. Bardischewsky, C. G. Friedrich, and P. Hellwig, “A combined fluorescence spectroscopic and electrochemical approach for the study of thioredoxins,” Biochemistry 50(1), 17–24 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, K.-C.

C.-P. Kuo, C.-L. Chang, C.-W. Hu, C.-N. Chuang, K.-C. Ho, and M. K. Leung, “Tunable electrofluorochromic device from electrochemically controlled complementary fluorescent conjugated polymer films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17402–17409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofstraat, J. W.

M. R. Craig, M. M. de Kok, J. W. Hofstraat, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Improving color purity and stability in a blue emitting polyfluorene by monomer purification,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2861–2862 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, S. H.

Y. C. Kung and S. H. Hsiao, “Pyrenylamine‐functionalized aromatic polyamides as efficient blue‐emitters and multicolored electrochromic materials,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 49(16), 3475–3490 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.-W.

C.-P. Kuo, C.-L. Chang, C.-W. Hu, C.-N. Chuang, K.-C. Ho, and M. K. Leung, “Tunable electrofluorochromic device from electrochemically controlled complementary fluorescent conjugated polymer films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17402–17409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, J.

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huxley, A. J.

A. P. de Silva, H. Q. Gunaratne, T. Gunnlaugsson, A. J. Huxley, C. P. McCoy, J. T. Rademacher, and T. E. Rice, “Signaling recognition events with fluorescent sensors and switches,” Chem. Rev. 97(5), 1515–1566 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jenekhe, S. A.

A. P. Kulkarni, Y. Zhu, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Quinoxaline-containing polyfluorenes: synthesis, photophysics, and stable blue electroluminescence,” Macromolecules 38(5), 1553–1563 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Electroactive subwavelength gratings (ESWGs) from conjugated polymers for color and intensity modulation,” Nanoscale 4(12), 3679–3686 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, E.

S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Seo, H. Shin, C. Park, H. Lim, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of fluorescent polymer film,” Macromol. Res. 21(3), 284–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Electroactive subwavelength gratings (ESWGs) from conjugated polymers for color and intensity modulation,” Nanoscale 4(12), 3679–3686 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Seo, Y. Kim, Q. Zhou, G. Clavier, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “White electrofluorescence switching from electrochemically convertible yellow fluorescent dyad,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(17), 3556–3561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic diffraction from nanopatterned poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yoo, T. Kwon, B. D. Sarwade, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Multistate fluorescence switching of s-triazine-bridged p-phenylene vinylene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, E. Kim, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “New tetrazine-based fluoroelectrochromic window; modulation of the fluorescence through applied potential,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 34, 3612–3614 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic diffraction from nanopatterned poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

S. Seo, Y. Kim, Q. Zhou, G. Clavier, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “White electrofluorescence switching from electrochemically convertible yellow fluorescent dyad,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(17), 3556–3561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic diffraction from nanopatterned poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic diffraction from nanopatterned poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoo, T. Kwon, B. D. Sarwade, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Multistate fluorescence switching of s-triazine-bridged p-phenylene vinylene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, E. Kim, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “New tetrazine-based fluoroelectrochromic window; modulation of the fluorescence through applied potential,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 34, 3612–3614 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klaerner, G.

J.-I. Lee, G. Klaerner, and R. D. Miller, “Oxidative stability and its effect on the photoluminescence of poly (fluorene) derivatives: end group effects,” Chem. Mater. 11(4), 1083–1088 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kulkarni, A. P.

A. P. Kulkarni, Y. Zhu, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Quinoxaline-containing polyfluorenes: synthesis, photophysics, and stable blue electroluminescence,” Macromolecules 38(5), 1553–1563 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kung, Y. C.

Y. C. Kung and S. H. Hsiao, “Pyrenylamine‐functionalized aromatic polyamides as efficient blue‐emitters and multicolored electrochromic materials,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 49(16), 3475–3490 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C.-P.

C.-P. Kuo, C.-L. Chang, C.-W. Hu, C.-N. Chuang, K.-C. Ho, and M. K. Leung, “Tunable electrofluorochromic device from electrochemically controlled complementary fluorescent conjugated polymer films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17402–17409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, T.

J. Yoo, T. Kwon, B. D. Sarwade, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Multistate fluorescence switching of s-triazine-bridged p-phenylene vinylene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-I.

J.-I. Lee, G. Klaerner, and R. D. Miller, “Oxidative stability and its effect on the photoluminescence of poly (fluorene) derivatives: end group effects,” Chem. Mater. 11(4), 1083–1088 (1999).
[Crossref]

Leung, M. K.

C.-P. Kuo, C.-L. Chang, C.-W. Hu, C.-N. Chuang, K.-C. Ho, and M. K. Leung, “Tunable electrofluorochromic device from electrochemically controlled complementary fluorescent conjugated polymer films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17402–17409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, H.

S. Seo, H. Shin, C. Park, H. Lim, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of fluorescent polymer film,” Macromol. Res. 21(3), 284–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liou, G. S.

J. H. Wu and G. S. Liou, “Fluorescence: High‐Performance Electrofluorochromic Devices Based on Electrochromism and Photoluminescence‐Active Novel Poly (4‐Cyanotriphenylamine),” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

G. Ding, H. Zhou, J. Xu, and X. Lu, “Electrofluorochromic detection of cyanide anions using a benzothiadiazole-containing conjugated copolymer,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(6), 655–657 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malinge, J.

S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maury, O.

S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
[Crossref]

McCoy, C. P.

A. P. de Silva, H. Q. Gunaratne, T. Gunnlaugsson, A. J. Huxley, C. P. McCoy, J. T. Rademacher, and T. E. Rice, “Signaling recognition events with fluorescent sensors and switches,” Chem. Rev. 97(5), 1515–1566 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Méallet-Renault, R.

O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meijer, E. W.

M. R. Craig, M. M. de Kok, J. W. Hofstraat, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Improving color purity and stability in a blue emitting polyfluorene by monomer purification,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2861–2862 (2003).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. D.

J.-I. Lee, G. Klaerner, and R. D. Miller, “Oxidative stability and its effect on the photoluminescence of poly (fluorene) derivatives: end group effects,” Chem. Mater. 11(4), 1083–1088 (1999).
[Crossref]

Miomandre, F.

C. Quinton, V. Alain-Rizzo, C. Dumas-Verdes, F. Miomandre, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “Redox-controlled fluorescence modulation (electrofluorochromism) in triphenylamine derivatives,” RSC Advances 4(65), 34332–34342 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
[Crossref]

Munteanu, S.

O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
[Crossref]

Na, J.

S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pansu, R.

O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, C.

S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Seo, H. Shin, C. Park, H. Lim, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of fluorescent polymer film,” Macromol. Res. 21(3), 284–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pascal, S.

S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Quinton, C.

C. Quinton, V. Alain-Rizzo, C. Dumas-Verdes, F. Miomandre, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “Redox-controlled fluorescence modulation (electrofluorochromism) in triphenylamine derivatives,” RSC Advances 4(65), 34332–34342 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rademacher, J. T.

A. P. de Silva, H. Q. Gunaratne, T. Gunnlaugsson, A. J. Huxley, C. P. McCoy, J. T. Rademacher, and T. E. Rice, “Signaling recognition events with fluorescent sensors and switches,” Chem. Rev. 97(5), 1515–1566 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rice, T. E.

A. P. de Silva, H. Q. Gunaratne, T. Gunnlaugsson, A. J. Huxley, C. P. McCoy, J. T. Rademacher, and T. E. Rice, “Signaling recognition events with fluorescent sensors and switches,” Chem. Rev. 97(5), 1515–1566 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rother, D.

M. Voicescu, D. Rother, F. Bardischewsky, C. G. Friedrich, and P. Hellwig, “A combined fluorescence spectroscopic and electrochemical approach for the study of thioredoxins,” Biochemistry 50(1), 17–24 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarwade, B. D.

S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yoo, T. Kwon, B. D. Sarwade, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Multistate fluorescence switching of s-triazine-bridged p-phenylene vinylene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schenning, A. P. H. J.

M. R. Craig, M. M. de Kok, J. W. Hofstraat, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Improving color purity and stability in a blue emitting polyfluorene by monomer purification,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2861–2862 (2003).
[Crossref]

Seo, S.

S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Seo, H. Shin, C. Park, H. Lim, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of fluorescent polymer film,” Macromol. Res. 21(3), 284–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Seo, Y. Kim, Q. Zhou, G. Clavier, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “White electrofluorescence switching from electrochemically convertible yellow fluorescent dyad,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(17), 3556–3561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shin, H.

S. Seo, H. Shin, C. Park, H. Lim, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of fluorescent polymer film,” Macromol. Res. 21(3), 284–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Electroactive subwavelength gratings (ESWGs) from conjugated polymers for color and intensity modulation,” Nanoscale 4(12), 3679–3686 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, K.

S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Voicescu, M.

M. Voicescu, D. Rother, F. Bardischewsky, C. G. Friedrich, and P. Hellwig, “A combined fluorescence spectroscopic and electrochemical approach for the study of thioredoxins,” Biochemistry 50(1), 17–24 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J. H.

J. H. Wu and G. S. Liou, “Fluorescence: High‐Performance Electrofluorochromic Devices Based on Electrochromism and Photoluminescence‐Active Novel Poly (4‐Cyanotriphenylamine),” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, C.

C. Xia and R. C. Advincula, “Decreased Aggregation Phenomena in Polyfluorenes by Introducing Carbazole Copolymer Units,” Macromolecules 34(17), 5854–5859 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

G. Ding, H. Zhou, J. Xu, and X. Lu, “Electrofluorochromic detection of cyanide anions using a benzothiadiazole-containing conjugated copolymer,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(6), 655–657 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Electroactive subwavelength gratings (ESWGs) from conjugated polymers for color and intensity modulation,” Nanoscale 4(12), 3679–3686 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, J.

J. Yoo, T. Kwon, B. D. Sarwade, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Multistate fluorescence switching of s-triazine-bridged p-phenylene vinylene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

You, J.

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yun, C.

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

G. Ding, H. Zhou, J. Xu, and X. Lu, “Electrofluorochromic detection of cyanide anions using a benzothiadiazole-containing conjugated copolymer,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(6), 655–657 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

S. Seo, Y. Kim, Q. Zhou, G. Clavier, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “White electrofluorescence switching from electrochemically convertible yellow fluorescent dyad,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(17), 3556–3561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

A. P. Kulkarni, Y. Zhu, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Quinoxaline-containing polyfluorenes: synthesis, photophysics, and stable blue electroluminescence,” Macromolecules 38(5), 1553–1563 (2005).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

C.-P. Kuo, C.-L. Chang, C.-W. Hu, C.-N. Chuang, K.-C. Ho, and M. K. Leung, “Tunable electrofluorochromic device from electrochemically controlled complementary fluorescent conjugated polymer films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17402–17409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic diffraction from nanopatterned poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

S. Seo, Y. Kim, Q. Zhou, G. Clavier, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “White electrofluorescence switching from electrochemically convertible yellow fluorescent dyad,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(17), 3556–3561 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Wu and G. S. Liou, “Fluorescence: High‐Performance Electrofluorochromic Devices Based on Electrochromism and Photoluminescence‐Active Novel Poly (4‐Cyanotriphenylamine),” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (2)

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Yoo, T. Kwon, B. D. Sarwade, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Multistate fluorescence switching of s-triazine-bridged p-phenylene vinylene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biochemistry (1)

M. Voicescu, D. Rother, F. Bardischewsky, C. G. Friedrich, and P. Hellwig, “A combined fluorescence spectroscopic and electrochemical approach for the study of thioredoxins,” Biochemistry 50(1), 17–24 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2)

Y. Kim, E. Kim, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “New tetrazine-based fluoroelectrochromic window; modulation of the fluorescence through applied potential,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 34, 3612–3614 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ding, H. Zhou, J. Xu, and X. Lu, “Electrofluorochromic detection of cyanide anions using a benzothiadiazole-containing conjugated copolymer,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(6), 655–657 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (1)

J.-I. Lee, G. Klaerner, and R. D. Miller, “Oxidative stability and its effect on the photoluminescence of poly (fluorene) derivatives: end group effects,” Chem. Mater. 11(4), 1083–1088 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (2)

G. Clavier and P. Audebert, “s-Tetrazines as building blocks for new functional molecules and molecular materials,” Chem. Rev. 110(6), 3299–3314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. de Silva, H. Q. Gunaratne, T. Gunnlaugsson, A. J. Huxley, C. P. McCoy, J. T. Rademacher, and T. E. Rice, “Signaling recognition events with fluorescent sensors and switches,” Chem. Rev. 97(5), 1515–1566 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Sci. (Camb.) (1)

S. Seo, S. Pascal, C. Park, K. Shin, X. Yang, O. Maury, B. D. Sarwade, C. Andraud, and E. Kim, “NIR electrochemical fluorescence switching from polymethine dyes,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 5(4), 1538–1544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electrochim. Acta (1)

O. Galangau, I. Fabre-Francke, S. Munteanu, C. Dumas-Verdes, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, R. Pansu, F. Hartl, and F. Miomandre, “Electrochromic and electrofluorochromic properties of a new boron dipyrromethene–ferrocene conjugate,” Electrochim. Acta 87, 809–815 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

M. R. Craig, M. M. de Kok, J. W. Hofstraat, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Improving color purity and stability in a blue emitting polyfluorene by monomer purification,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2861–2862 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. (1)

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. (1)

Y. C. Kung and S. H. Hsiao, “Pyrenylamine‐functionalized aromatic polyamides as efficient blue‐emitters and multicolored electrochromic materials,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 49(16), 3475–3490 (2011).
[Crossref]

Macromol. Res. (1)

S. Seo, H. Shin, C. Park, H. Lim, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of fluorescent polymer film,” Macromol. Res. 21(3), 284–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (2)

C. Xia and R. C. Advincula, “Decreased Aggregation Phenomena in Polyfluorenes by Introducing Carbazole Copolymer Units,” Macromolecules 34(17), 5854–5859 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. P. Kulkarni, Y. Zhu, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Quinoxaline-containing polyfluorenes: synthesis, photophysics, and stable blue electroluminescence,” Macromolecules 38(5), 1553–1563 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (2)

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Electroactive subwavelength gratings (ESWGs) from conjugated polymers for color and intensity modulation,” Nanoscale 4(12), 3679–3686 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Seo, C. Allain, J. Na, S. Kim, X. Yang, C. Park, J. Malinge, P. Audebert, and E. Kim, “Electrofluorescence switching of tetrazine-modified TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(16), 7321–7327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

RSC Advances (1)

C. Quinton, V. Alain-Rizzo, C. Dumas-Verdes, F. Miomandre, G. Clavier, and P. Audebert, “Redox-controlled fluorescence modulation (electrofluorochromism) in triphenylamine derivatives,” RSC Advances 4(65), 34332–34342 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

S. Seo, C. Park, X. Yang, J. You, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Reversible multi-color electrofluorescence switching,” in SPIE OPTO, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2012), 82580N.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Chemical structures of (a) PFO and (b) P(ProDOT-Ph) and their electrochemical conversions. R = 2-ethylhexyl.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Structures of the mono- and multi-color electrofluorochromic devices containing working and counter electrodes, an electrolyte, and the polymer layers (P(ProDOT-Ph) and PFO). The polymers were spin-coated onto the working or counter electrodes. (b) Schematic diagram for the characterization of the electrofluorochromic switching with the light source (λexc = 365 nm), EF device, potentiostat, and fluorescence spectrometry.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Cyclic voltammograms of PFO and P(ProDOT-Ph) coated on ITO electrode in PC containing 0.1 M LiBTI recorded at a scan rate of 20 mV s−1 with the polymer coated ITO glass, Ag/AgCl, and a stainless steel plate as the working, reference, and counter electrodes, respectively. (b) Cyclic voltammograms for the two-electrode system with two ITO electrodes of the same polymer films in (a). Eon and Ep represent the onset and peak potential for oxidation, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fluorescence change of PFO (a) and P(ProDOT-Ph) (b) in the two-electrode system at different applied potentials. The inset photographic images were obtained under UV excitation at 0 V and 2.0 V for PFO and at 0 V and 1.5 V for P(ProDOT-Ph).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The fluorescence changes in the multi-color EF device at different applied potentials ranging from 1.5 V (blue) to −2.0 V (yellow) with a 0.5 V decrease at each step in the two-electrode system. (b) The reversible color coordinates plot in chromaticity diagram corresponding for the multi-color EF device with different applied potentials.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The fluorescent emission mechanism of the multi-color EF device driven by the different applied potentials. The fluorescence images were captured with a visible camera in the two-electrode system.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Fluorescence switching responses of the multi-color EF device monitored at 545 nm under different applied potentials with a 10-s step duration time in the two-electrode system. (b) The cyclability test of the multi-color EF device monitored at 428 nm (black line) and 545 nm (red line) with a 10-s step duration time under switching potentials of Y/B. It was measured over 2000 s.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The optical and electrochemical properties of multi-color electrofluorochromic device

Equations (1)

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E EF = r c1/c2 /C

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