Abstract

The known photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass is a photosensitive multi-component silicate glass containing fluorine and bromine and doped with cerium, antimony, and silver. The UV irradiation and subsequent heat treatment of this glass result in the crystalline phase precipitation and negative refractive index change up to 1000 ppm in the UV-irradiated area. This effect is used for holographic recording the volume Bragg’s gratings. In the present research, we developed and studied the new class of chlorine-containing PTR glasses in which the UV irradiation and subsequent heat treatment cause the precipitation of silver nanoparticles with a shell consisting of mixed silver and sodium chlorides. The growth of the shell on the silver nanoparticle was shown to lead to a local positive refractive index change in the UV-irradiated area against the unirradiated one up to 1500 ppm.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. L. Glebov, O. Mokhun, A. Rapaport, S. Vergnole, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Volume Bragg gratings as ultra-narrow and multiband optical filters,” Proc. SPIE 8428(May), 84280C (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. A. Ivanov, A. E. Angervaks, and A. S. Shcheulin, “Application of photo-thermo-refractive glass as a holographic medium for holographic collimator gun sights,” Proc. SPIE 9131, 91311B (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. A. Ivanov and V. A. Aseev, “Resonator free Er-Yb laser based on photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass,” Proc. SPIE 8959, 89591E (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. B. Glebov, “Photosensitive holographic glass – new approach to creation of high power lasers,” Phys. Chem. Glas. J. Glas. Sci. Technol. Part B 48(3), 123–128 (2007).
  6. A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Sgibnev, N. Nikonorov, A. Ignatiev, V. Vasilyev, and M. Sorokina, “Photostructurable photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4563 (2016).
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  8. Y. M. Sgibnev, N. V. Nikonorov, V. N. Vasilev, and A. I. Ignatiev, “Optical gradient waveguides in photo-thermo-refractive glass formed by ion exchange method,”J. Lightw. Tech. 33(17), 3730–3735 (2015).
  9. N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, I. V. Tunimanova, and A. V. Chukharev, “Influence of glass composition on the refractive index change upon photothermoinduced crystallization,” Glass Phys. Chem. 27(3), 241–249 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full-color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 5114 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. I. Dyamant, A. S. Abyzov, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. N. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics of NaF in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 378, 115–120 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. A. N. Nikonorov, V. Aseev, A. Ignatiev, and E. Kolobkova, “Novel glasses and nanoglassceramics for photonic and plasmonic applications,” in Thirteenth International Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids, 2012, 89.
  16. L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).
  17. T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  18. N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiĭ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 32(1), 139–146 (2009).
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    [Crossref]
  23. H. Kakiuchida, N. Shimodaira, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Refractive index and density in F- and Cl-doped silica glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161907 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  24. O. V. Butov, K. M. Golant, A. L. Tomashuk, M. J. N. van Stralen, and A. H. E. Breuls, “Refractive index dispersion of doped silica for fiber optics,” Opt. Commun. 213(4-6), 301–308 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  25. F. Funabiki, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Doping effects in amorphous oxides,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 120(1407), 447–457 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Zhao, Z.-H. Li, W.-N. Wang, and K.-N. Fan, “Density functional study of the interaction of chlorine atom with small neutral and charged silver clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(14), 144701 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. C. Sinistri, R. Riccardu, C. Margheritis, and P. Tittarelli, “Thermodynamic properties of solid systems AgCl + NaCl and AgBr + NaBr from miscibility gap measurements,” Z. Naturforsch. A 21(1), 149–154 (1972).
  28. A. L. Patterson, “The scherrer formula for X-ray particle size determination,” Phys. Rev. 56(10), 978–982 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  29. H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, “Width of cluster plasmon resonances: Bulk dielectric functions and chemical interface damping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(24), 18178–18188 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  31. H. H. Moore, “Refractive index of alkaline earth halides and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9(1), 161–290 (1982).

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

Y. M. Sgibnev, N. V. Nikonorov, V. N. Vasilev, and A. I. Ignatiev, “Optical gradient waveguides in photo-thermo-refractive glass formed by ion exchange method,”J. Lightw. Tech. 33(17), 3730–3735 (2015).

A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. A. Ivanov, A. E. Angervaks, and A. S. Shcheulin, “Application of photo-thermo-refractive glass as a holographic medium for holographic collimator gun sights,” Proc. SPIE 9131, 91311B (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ivanov and V. A. Aseev, “Resonator free Er-Yb laser based on photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass,” Proc. SPIE 8959, 89591E (2014).
[Crossref]

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

I. Dyamant, A. S. Abyzov, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. N. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics of NaF in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 378, 115–120 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. L. Glebov, O. Mokhun, A. Rapaport, S. Vergnole, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Volume Bragg gratings as ultra-narrow and multiband optical filters,” Proc. SPIE 8428(May), 84280C (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Funabiki, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Doping effects in amorphous oxides,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 120(1407), 447–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiĭ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. B. Glebov, “Photosensitive holographic glass – new approach to creation of high power lasers,” Phys. Chem. Glas. J. Glas. Sci. Technol. Part B 48(3), 123–128 (2007).

2005 (2)

H. Kakiuchida, N. Shimodaira, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Refractive index and density in F- and Cl-doped silica glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161907 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, Z.-H. Li, W.-N. Wang, and K.-N. Fan, “Density functional study of the interaction of chlorine atom with small neutral and charged silver clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(14), 144701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
[Crossref]

O. V. Butov, K. M. Golant, A. L. Tomashuk, M. J. N. van Stralen, and A. H. E. Breuls, “Refractive index dispersion of doped silica for fiber optics,” Opt. Commun. 213(4-6), 301–308 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, I. V. Tunimanova, and A. V. Chukharev, “Influence of glass composition on the refractive index change upon photothermoinduced crystallization,” Glass Phys. Chem. 27(3), 241–249 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. E. Paje, M. A. García, M. A. Villegas, and J. Llopis, “Optical properties of silver ion-exchanged antimony doped glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 278(1-3), 128–136 (2000).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, “Width of cluster plasmon resonances: Bulk dielectric functions and chemical interface damping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(24), 18178–18188 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

1982 (1)

H. H. Moore, “Refractive index of alkaline earth halides and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9(1), 161–290 (1982).

1978 (1)

S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full-color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 5114 (1978).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

C. Sinistri, R. Riccardu, C. Margheritis, and P. Tittarelli, “Thermodynamic properties of solid systems AgCl + NaCl and AgBr + NaBr from miscibility gap measurements,” Z. Naturforsch. A 21(1), 149–154 (1972).

1950 (1)

1939 (1)

A. L. Patterson, “The scherrer formula for X-ray particle size determination,” Phys. Rev. 56(10), 978–982 (1939).
[Crossref]

Abyzov, A. S.

I. Dyamant, A. S. Abyzov, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. N. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics of NaF in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 378, 115–120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Agafonova, D. S.

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

Angervaks, A. E.

S. A. Ivanov, A. E. Angervaks, and A. S. Shcheulin, “Application of photo-thermo-refractive glass as a holographic medium for holographic collimator gun sights,” Proc. SPIE 9131, 91311B (2014).
[Crossref]

Aseev, V.

S. A. N. Nikonorov, V. Aseev, A. Ignatiev, and E. Kolobkova, “Novel glasses and nanoglassceramics for photonic and plasmonic applications,” in Thirteenth International Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids, 2012, 89.

Aseev, V. A.

S. A. Ivanov and V. A. Aseev, “Resonator free Er-Yb laser based on photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass,” Proc. SPIE 8959, 89591E (2014).
[Crossref]

Beall, G. H.

S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full-color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 5114 (1978).
[Crossref]

Breuls, A. H. E.

O. V. Butov, K. M. Golant, A. L. Tomashuk, M. J. N. van Stralen, and A. H. E. Breuls, “Refractive index dispersion of doped silica for fiber optics,” Opt. Commun. 213(4-6), 301–308 (2002).
[Crossref]

Butov, O. V.

O. V. Butov, K. M. Golant, A. L. Tomashuk, M. J. N. van Stralen, and A. H. E. Breuls, “Refractive index dispersion of doped silica for fiber optics,” Opt. Commun. 213(4-6), 301–308 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cardinal, T.

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chukharev, A. V.

N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, I. V. Tunimanova, and A. V. Chukharev, “Influence of glass composition on the refractive index change upon photothermoinduced crystallization,” Glass Phys. Chem. 27(3), 241–249 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ciapurin, I. V.

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dubrovin, V. D.

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dyamant, I.

I. Dyamant, A. S. Abyzov, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. N. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics of NaF in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 378, 115–120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Efimov, O. M.

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fan, K.-N.

S. Zhao, Z.-H. Li, W.-N. Wang, and K.-N. Fan, “Density functional study of the interaction of chlorine atom with small neutral and charged silver clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(14), 144701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fokin, V. M.

I. Dyamant, A. S. Abyzov, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. N. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics of NaF in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 378, 115–120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Francois-Saint-Cyr, H. G.

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fritz, S.

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, “Width of cluster plasmon resonances: Bulk dielectric functions and chemical interface damping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(24), 18178–18188 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Funabiki, F.

F. Funabiki, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Doping effects in amorphous oxides,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 120(1407), 447–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

García, M. A.

S. E. Paje, M. A. García, M. A. Villegas, and J. Llopis, “Optical properties of silver ion-exchanged antimony doped glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 278(1-3), 128–136 (2000).
[Crossref]

Glebov, A. L.

A. L. Glebov, O. Mokhun, A. Rapaport, S. Vergnole, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Volume Bragg gratings as ultra-narrow and multiband optical filters,” Proc. SPIE 8428(May), 84280C (2012).
[Crossref]

Glebov, L. B.

I. Dyamant, A. S. Abyzov, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. N. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics of NaF in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 378, 115–120 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. L. Glebov, O. Mokhun, A. Rapaport, S. Vergnole, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Volume Bragg gratings as ultra-narrow and multiband optical filters,” Proc. SPIE 8428(May), 84280C (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. B. Glebov, “Photosensitive holographic glass – new approach to creation of high power lasers,” Phys. Chem. Glas. J. Glas. Sci. Technol. Part B 48(3), 123–128 (2007).

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

Glebova, L.

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glebova, L. N.

I. Dyamant, A. S. Abyzov, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. N. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics of NaF in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 378, 115–120 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

Golant, K. M.

O. V. Butov, K. M. Golant, A. L. Tomashuk, M. J. N. van Stralen, and A. H. E. Breuls, “Refractive index dispersion of doped silica for fiber optics,” Opt. Commun. 213(4-6), 301–308 (2002).
[Crossref]

Golubkov, V.

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hilger, A.

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, “Width of cluster plasmon resonances: Bulk dielectric functions and chemical interface damping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(24), 18178–18188 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hosono, H.

F. Funabiki, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Doping effects in amorphous oxides,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 120(1407), 447–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hövel, H.

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, “Width of cluster plasmon resonances: Bulk dielectric functions and chemical interface damping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(24), 18178–18188 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ignatiev, A.

Y. Sgibnev, N. Nikonorov, A. Ignatiev, V. Vasilyev, and M. Sorokina, “Photostructurable photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4563 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. N. Nikonorov, V. Aseev, A. Ignatiev, and E. Kolobkova, “Novel glasses and nanoglassceramics for photonic and plasmonic applications,” in Thirteenth International Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids, 2012, 89.

Ignatiev, A. I.

Y. M. Sgibnev, N. V. Nikonorov, V. N. Vasilev, and A. I. Ignatiev, “Optical gradient waveguides in photo-thermo-refractive glass formed by ion exchange method,”J. Lightw. Tech. 33(17), 3730–3735 (2015).

A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ikushima, A. J.

H. Kakiuchida, N. Shimodaira, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Refractive index and density in F- and Cl-doped silica glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, S. A.

S. A. Ivanov and V. A. Aseev, “Resonator free Er-Yb laser based on photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass,” Proc. SPIE 8959, 89591E (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ivanov, A. E. Angervaks, and A. S. Shcheulin, “Application of photo-thermo-refractive glass as a holographic medium for holographic collimator gun sights,” Proc. SPIE 9131, 91311B (2014).
[Crossref]

Kakiuchida, H.

H. Kakiuchida, N. Shimodaira, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Refractive index and density in F- and Cl-doped silica glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kamiya, T.

F. Funabiki, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Doping effects in amorphous oxides,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 120(1407), 447–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

Klimov, M.

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klyukin, D. A.

Kolobkova, E.

S. A. N. Nikonorov, V. Aseev, A. Ignatiev, and E. Kolobkova, “Novel glasses and nanoglassceramics for photonic and plasmonic applications,” in Thirteenth International Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids, 2012, 89.

Kreibig, U.

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, “Width of cluster plasmon resonances: Bulk dielectric functions and chemical interface damping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(24), 18178–18188 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazareva, K. E.

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiĭ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leontieva, V. S.

Li, Z.-H.

S. Zhao, Z.-H. Li, W.-N. Wang, and K.-N. Fan, “Density functional study of the interaction of chlorine atom with small neutral and charged silver clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(14), 144701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Llopis, J.

S. E. Paje, M. A. García, M. A. Villegas, and J. Llopis, “Optical properties of silver ion-exchanged antimony doped glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 278(1-3), 128–136 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lumeau, J.

I. Dyamant, A. S. Abyzov, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. N. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics of NaF in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 378, 115–120 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[Crossref]

Margheritis, C.

C. Sinistri, R. Riccardu, C. Margheritis, and P. Tittarelli, “Thermodynamic properties of solid systems AgCl + NaCl and AgBr + NaBr from miscibility gap measurements,” Z. Naturforsch. A 21(1), 149–154 (1972).

Mock, J. J.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mokhun, O.

A. L. Glebov, O. Mokhun, A. Rapaport, S. Vergnole, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Volume Bragg gratings as ultra-narrow and multiband optical filters,” Proc. SPIE 8428(May), 84280C (2012).
[Crossref]

Moore, H. H.

H. H. Moore, “Refractive index of alkaline earth halides and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9(1), 161–290 (1982).

Nikonorov, N.

Nikonorov, N. V.

A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Sgibnev, N. V. Nikonorov, V. N. Vasilev, and A. I. Ignatiev, “Optical gradient waveguides in photo-thermo-refractive glass formed by ion exchange method,”J. Lightw. Tech. 33(17), 3730–3735 (2015).

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiĭ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, I. V. Tunimanova, and A. V. Chukharev, “Influence of glass composition on the refractive index change upon photothermoinduced crystallization,” Glass Phys. Chem. 27(3), 241–249 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

Nikonorov, S. A. N.

S. A. N. Nikonorov, V. Aseev, A. Ignatiev, and E. Kolobkova, “Novel glasses and nanoglassceramics for photonic and plasmonic applications,” in Thirteenth International Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids, 2012, 89.

Paje, S. E.

S. E. Paje, M. A. García, M. A. Villegas, and J. Llopis, “Optical properties of silver ion-exchanged antimony doped glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 278(1-3), 128–136 (2000).
[Crossref]

Panysheva, E. I.

N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, I. V. Tunimanova, and A. V. Chukharev, “Influence of glass composition on the refractive index change upon photothermoinduced crystallization,” Glass Phys. Chem. 27(3), 241–249 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

Patterson, A. L.

A. L. Patterson, “The scherrer formula for X-ray particle size determination,” Phys. Rev. 56(10), 978–982 (1939).
[Crossref]

Petrovskii, G. T.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

Pierson, J. E.

S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full-color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 5114 (1978).
[Crossref]

Plyler, E. K.

Rapaport, A.

A. L. Glebov, O. Mokhun, A. Rapaport, S. Vergnole, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Volume Bragg gratings as ultra-narrow and multiband optical filters,” Proc. SPIE 8428(May), 84280C (2012).
[Crossref]

Riccardu, R.

C. Sinistri, R. Riccardu, C. Margheritis, and P. Tittarelli, “Thermodynamic properties of solid systems AgCl + NaCl and AgBr + NaBr from miscibility gap measurements,” Z. Naturforsch. A 21(1), 149–154 (1972).

Saito, K.

H. Kakiuchida, N. Shimodaira, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Refractive index and density in F- and Cl-doped silica glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Savvin, V. V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

Schultz, S.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sekiya, E. H.

H. Kakiuchida, N. Shimodaira, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Refractive index and density in F- and Cl-doped silica glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sgibnev, Y.

Sgibnev, Y. M.

Y. M. Sgibnev, N. V. Nikonorov, V. N. Vasilev, and A. I. Ignatiev, “Optical gradient waveguides in photo-thermo-refractive glass formed by ion exchange method,”J. Lightw. Tech. 33(17), 3730–3735 (2015).

Shakhverdov, T. A.

A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shcheulin, A. S.

S. A. Ivanov, A. E. Angervaks, and A. S. Shcheulin, “Application of photo-thermo-refractive glass as a holographic medium for holographic collimator gun sights,” Proc. SPIE 9131, 91311B (2014).
[Crossref]

Shimodaira, N.

H. Kakiuchida, N. Shimodaira, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Refractive index and density in F- and Cl-doped silica glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sidorov, A. I.

A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiĭ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sinistri, C.

C. Sinistri, R. Riccardu, C. Margheritis, and P. Tittarelli, “Thermodynamic properties of solid systems AgCl + NaCl and AgBr + NaBr from miscibility gap measurements,” Z. Naturforsch. A 21(1), 149–154 (1972).

Smirnov, V.

A. L. Glebov, O. Mokhun, A. Rapaport, S. Vergnole, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Volume Bragg gratings as ultra-narrow and multiband optical filters,” Proc. SPIE 8428(May), 84280C (2012).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, V. I.

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sorokina, M.

Stephens, R. E.

Stickley, C. M.

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, and I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stookey, S. D.

S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full-color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 5114 (1978).
[Crossref]

Tilton, L. W.

Tittarelli, P.

C. Sinistri, R. Riccardu, C. Margheritis, and P. Tittarelli, “Thermodynamic properties of solid systems AgCl + NaCl and AgBr + NaBr from miscibility gap measurements,” Z. Naturforsch. A 21(1), 149–154 (1972).

Tomashuk, A. L.

O. V. Butov, K. M. Golant, A. L. Tomashuk, M. J. N. van Stralen, and A. H. E. Breuls, “Refractive index dispersion of doped silica for fiber optics,” Opt. Commun. 213(4-6), 301–308 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tsekhomskii, V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

Tsekhomskii, V. A.

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiĭ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tunimanova, I. V.

N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, I. V. Tunimanova, and A. V. Chukharev, “Influence of glass composition on the refractive index change upon photothermoinduced crystallization,” Glass Phys. Chem. 27(3), 241–249 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

van Stralen, M. J. N.

O. V. Butov, K. M. Golant, A. L. Tomashuk, M. J. N. van Stralen, and A. H. E. Breuls, “Refractive index dispersion of doped silica for fiber optics,” Opt. Commun. 213(4-6), 301–308 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vasilev, V. N.

Y. M. Sgibnev, N. V. Nikonorov, V. N. Vasilev, and A. I. Ignatiev, “Optical gradient waveguides in photo-thermo-refractive glass formed by ion exchange method,”J. Lightw. Tech. 33(17), 3730–3735 (2015).

Vasilyev, V.

Vergnole, S.

A. L. Glebov, O. Mokhun, A. Rapaport, S. Vergnole, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Volume Bragg gratings as ultra-narrow and multiband optical filters,” Proc. SPIE 8428(May), 84280C (2012).
[Crossref]

Villegas, M. A.

S. E. Paje, M. A. García, M. A. Villegas, and J. Llopis, “Optical properties of silver ion-exchanged antimony doped glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 278(1-3), 128–136 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, M.

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, “Width of cluster plasmon resonances: Bulk dielectric functions and chemical interface damping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(24), 18178–18188 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.-N.

S. Zhao, Z.-H. Li, W.-N. Wang, and K.-N. Fan, “Density functional study of the interaction of chlorine atom with small neutral and charged silver clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(14), 144701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zanotto, E. D.

I. Dyamant, A. S. Abyzov, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. N. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics of NaF in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 378, 115–120 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

S. Zhao, Z.-H. Li, W.-N. Wang, and K.-N. Fan, “Density functional study of the interaction of chlorine atom with small neutral and charged silver clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(14), 144701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Kakiuchida, N. Shimodaira, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Refractive index and density in F- and Cl-doped silica glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Glass Phys. Chem. (1)

N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, I. V. Tunimanova, and A. V. Chukharev, “Influence of glass composition on the refractive index change upon photothermoinduced crystallization,” Glass Phys. Chem. 27(3), 241–249 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. D. Stookey, G. H. Beall, and J. E. Pierson, “Full-color photosensitive glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 5114 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. (1)

F. Funabiki, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Doping effects in amorphous oxides,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 120(1407), 447–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Zhao, Z.-H. Li, W.-N. Wang, and K.-N. Fan, “Density functional study of the interaction of chlorine atom with small neutral and charged silver clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(14), 144701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lightw. Tech. (1)

Y. M. Sgibnev, N. V. Nikonorov, V. N. Vasilev, and A. I. Ignatiev, “Optical gradient waveguides in photo-thermo-refractive glass formed by ion exchange method,”J. Lightw. Tech. 33(17), 3730–3735 (2015).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (5)

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Dyamant, A. S. Abyzov, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. N. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics of NaF in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 378, 115–120 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, H. G. Francois-Saint-Cyr, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, and V. I. Smirnov, “Comparative study of photo-induced variations of X-ray diffraction and refractive index in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325(1-3), 275–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. E. Paje, M. A. García, M. A. Villegas, and J. Llopis, “Optical properties of silver ion-exchanged antimony doped glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 278(1-3), 128–136 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

H. H. Moore, “Refractive index of alkaline earth halides and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9(1), 161–290 (1982).

Nano Lett. (1)

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 485–491 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. V. Butov, K. M. Golant, A. L. Tomashuk, M. J. N. van Stralen, and A. H. E. Breuls, “Refractive index dispersion of doped silica for fiber optics,” Opt. Commun. 213(4-6), 301–308 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (Amst) (2)

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (2)

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiĭ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chlorine concentration remained in PTR glass according to XRF analysis vs. its as-batch concentration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thermogram of initial PTR glass, the Cl concentration being 2.2 mol.%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of untreated PTR glasses differing in the chlorine concentration (mol.%): (1) 0, (2) 1.0, (3) 2.2. An inset shows the 250-550 nm region on a larger scale and the photos of untreated PTR glasses differing in the chlorine concentration (mol.%): (1) 0, (2) 1.0, (3) 2.2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of untreated PTR glass refractive index (nd) on the chlorine concentration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of UV irradiation dose on the absorption spectra of PTR glass containing 0.75 mol.% Cl. The exposure duration (sec) that sets a dose is (1) 0, (2) 1, (3) 5, (4) 50, and (5) 500. An inset presents the difference absorption spectra of glass containing 2.2 mol.% Cl for various UV exposure durations, the durations (sec) being (1) 1, (2) 5, (3) 50, and (4) 500.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption spectra of UV-irradiated for 50 sec PTR glasses with the chlorine concentration (mol.%) varying as follows: (1) 0, (2) 0.75, (3) 2.2. An inset shows the effect of chlorine concentration and UV exposure duration (logarithmic scale) on the difference absorption of PTR glasses around 330 nm, the chlorine concentrations in the glasses (mol.%) being (1) 0.5, (2) 0.75, (3) 1.5, and (4) 2.2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption spectra of UV-irradiated and heat-treated PTR glasses for various UV exposure durations. (a) Spectra of PTR glass with no chlorine, the exposure durations (sec) being (1) 0, (2) 1, (3) 5, (4) 50, and (5) 500. (b) Spectra of PTR glass containing 0.5 mol.% Cl, the exposure durations (sec) being (1) 0, (2) 1, (3) 5, (4) 50, and (5) 500. An inset shows the photos of the glass samples for the exposure durations (sec) of (1) 1, (2) 5, (3) 50, and (4) 500.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absorption spectra of UV-irradiated (for 50 sec) and heat-treated PTR glasses with various chlorine concentrations (mol.%) such as (1) 0, (2) 0.15, (3) 0.5, (4) 0.75, (5) 1.0, (6) 1.5, and (7) 2.2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

X-ray diffraction pattern of UV-irradiated and heat treated chloride PTR glass doped with 2.2 mol.% Cl.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Scheme for the photo-thermo-induced crystallization mechanism inherent in chloride PTR glasses for various Cl concentrations (0 – 2.2 mol.%). a – Photoactivation of PTR glass (Ce3+ ion photoionization), formation of neutral silver molecular clusters, and capturing electrons by Sb5+ ions. b – Discharging electrons by Sb and capturing them by Ag ions with the formation of neutral silver atoms and clusters. c – Growth of shell-free silver nanoparticles in glasses containing 0 – 1.0 mol.% Cl and growth of silver nanoparticles with a shell composed of mixed silver and sodium chlorides in glasses containing 0 – 2.2 mol.% Cl.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Absorption spectra of PTR glass containing 2.2 mol.% Cl. (1) is the spectrum for initial untreated glass, (2) is that for glass after the UV irradiation for 50 sec alone, (3) is the spectrum for glass after the heat treatment alone, and (4) is the one for glass after the UV irradiation for 50 sec and subsequent heat treatment. An inset shows the photos and absorption spectra (700-2500nm) of treated chloride PTR glass samples containing 2.2 mol.% Cl. (1) is initial untreated glass, (2) is glass after the UV irradiation for 50 sec alone, (3) is glass after the heat treatment alone, and (4) is glass after the UV irradiation for 50 sec and subsequent heat treatment.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Effect of chlorine concentration on the refractive index (nd) of PTR glass. 1 – untreated glass samples, 2 – glass samples after the heat treatment, 3 – glass samples after the UV irradiation and subsequent heat treatment.

Equations (4)

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C e 3 + + e [ C e 3 + ]
e + S b 5 + [ S b 5 + ]
[ S b 5 + ] S b 5 + + e
n A g + + n e n A g 0

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