Abstract

Third-order nonlinear optical phenomena lie at the heart of all-optical signal processing, where laser pulses are used to switch, modulate, or gate another laser pulse. Here we report that the solidified silk film possesses extremely large third-order susceptibilities (~10−9 esu) in a wide near-infrared spectral region. The nonlinearity of silk protein can be substantially enhanced by inducing stronger molecular interactions from van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding. The biocompatibility and capability of nanofabrication techniques will enable us to pave new ways for nonlinear bioimaging and biosensing applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (4)

H. Tao, B. Marelli, M. Yang, B. An, M. S. Onses, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Inkjet printing of regerated silk fibroin: from printable forms to printable functions,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4273–4279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Park, Y. Choi, M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “Novel and simple route to fabricate fully biocompatible plasmonic mushroom arrays adhered on silk biopolymer,” Nanoscale 7(2), 426–431 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “A highly tunable and fully biocompatible silk nanoplasmonic optical sensor,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3358–3363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “A Fully biocompatible single-mode distributed feedback laser,” Lab Chip 15(3), 642–645 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E.-S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

S.-W. Hwang, X. Huang, J.-H. Seo, J.-K. Song, S. Kim, S. Hage-Ali, H.-J. Chung, H. Tao, F. G. Omenetto, Z. Ma, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for bioresorbable radio frequency electronics,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3526–3531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hanczyc, M. Samoc, and B. Norden, “Multiphoton absorption in amyloid protein fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 969–972 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk protein based hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8897–8903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Applegate, B. Marelli, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Determination of multiphoton absorption of silk fibroin using the Z-scan technique,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29637–29642 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

S. A. Oladepo, K. Xiong, Z. Hong, S. A. Asher, J. Handen, and I. K. Lednev, “UV resonance Raman investigations of peptide and protein structure and dynamics,” Chem. Rev. 112(5), 2604–2628 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Collini, “Cooperative effects to enhance two-photon absorption efficiency: intra- versus inter-molecular approach,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(11), 3725–3736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Yuan, Y. Tao, J. Chen, P. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnO micro/nanowire,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 833–838 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

X. Hu, K. Shmelev, L. Sun, E.-S. Gil, S.-H. Park, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Regulation of silk material structure by temperature-controlled water vapor annealing,” Biomacromolecules 12(5), 1686–1696 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-Q. Yan, X.-L. Zhang, S. Shi, Z.-B. Liu, and J.-G. Tian, “Third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor elements of CS2 at femtosecond time scale,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5559–5564 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. J. Kiran, H. W. Lee, H. C. Sampath Kumar, B. J. Rudresha, B. R. Bhat, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “The ultrafast nonlinear optical response and multi-photon absorption of a new metal complex in the near-infrared spectral range,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035211 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. G. Omenetto and D. L. Kaplan, “New opportunities for an ancient material,” Science 329(5991), 528–531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

T. He, T. Cheng, Y. Du, and Y. Mo, “Z-scan determination of third-order nonlinear optical nonlinearity of three azobenzenes doped polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 240–244 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, and J. G. Grote, “Complex nonlinear refractive index of DNA,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1-3), 132–134 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmiun sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181913 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Humphrey and D. Kuciauskas, “Charge-transfer states determine iron porphyrin film third-rrder nonlinear optical properties in the near-IR spectral region,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(32), 12016–12023 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, E. H. Sargent, and Z. Y. Wang, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearity of fullerenecontaining polyurethane films at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2115–2117 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Satoshi, F. Makoto, S. Yasuhiro, I. Izumi, T. Minquan, and M. Hiroyuki, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. D. Slepkov, F. A. Hegmann, Y. Zhao, R. R. Tykwinski, and K. Kamada, “Ultrafast optical Kerr effect measurements of third-order nonlinearities in cross-conjugated iso-polydiacetylene oligomers,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(9), 3834–3840 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C.-Z. Zhou, F. Confalonieri, M. Jacquet, R. Perasso, Z.-G. Li, and J. Janin, “Silk fibroin: Structural inplications of a remarkable amino acid sequence,” Protein: Struture, Function, and Genetics 44, 119–122 (2001).

2000 (1)

M. K. Stephen, G. D. Robert, and L. A. Harry, “Large third-order electronic polarizability of a conjugated porphyrin polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(2), 339–347 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 243–278 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

V. Philippart, M. Dumont, J. M. Nunzi, and F. Charra, “Femtosecond Kerr ellipsometry in polydiacetylene solutions: Two-Photon Effects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(1), 29–34 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

M. Hosida, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-oder optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(4), 1071–1075 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osahenim, J. S. Meth, and H. Vanherzeele, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole),” Chem. Mater. 4(3), 683–687 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1973 (1)

J. P. Hermann, “Absolute measurements of third order susceptibilities,” Opt. Commun. 9(1), 74–79 (1973).
[Crossref]

Adant, C.

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 243–278 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. H.

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

Alonso, J. C.

Amsden, J. J.

S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
[Crossref]

An, B.

H. Tao, B. Marelli, M. Yang, B. An, M. S. Onses, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Inkjet printing of regerated silk fibroin: from printable forms to printable functions,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4273–4279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applegate, M. B.

Asher, S. A.

S. A. Oladepo, K. Xiong, Z. Hong, S. A. Asher, J. Handen, and I. K. Lednev, “UV resonance Raman investigations of peptide and protein structure and dynamics,” Chem. Rev. 112(5), 2604–2628 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, I. H.

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Balogh-Nair, V.

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmiun sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181913 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bao, J.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, D. L. V.

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmiun sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181913 (2005).
[Crossref]

Benfenati, V.

S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bhat, B. R.

A. J. Kiran, H. W. Lee, H. C. Sampath Kumar, B. J. Rudresha, B. R. Bhat, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “The ultrafast nonlinear optical response and multi-photon absorption of a new metal complex in the near-infrared spectral range,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035211 (2010).
[Crossref]

Biney, A.

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmiun sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181913 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bredas, J. L.

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 243–278 (1994).
[Crossref]

Brenckle, M. A.

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E.-S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, Y. M.

Cavallini, S.

S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cebe, P.

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O. Krupka, A. El-ghayoury, I. Rau, B. Sahraoui, J. G. Grote, and F. Kajzar, “NLO properties of functionalized DNA thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516(24), 8932–8936 (2008).
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W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
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C.-Z. Zhou, F. Confalonieri, M. Jacquet, R. Perasso, Z.-G. Li, and J. Janin, “Silk fibroin: Structural inplications of a remarkable amino acid sequence,” Protein: Struture, Function, and Genetics 44, 119–122 (2001).

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M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “A highly tunable and fully biocompatible silk nanoplasmonic optical sensor,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3358–3363 (2015).
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J. Park, Y. Choi, M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “Novel and simple route to fabricate fully biocompatible plasmonic mushroom arrays adhered on silk biopolymer,” Nanoscale 7(2), 426–431 (2015).
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Y. Choi, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “A Fully biocompatible single-mode distributed feedback laser,” Lab Chip 15(3), 642–645 (2015).
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Kajzar, F.

O. Krupka, A. El-ghayoury, I. Rau, B. Sahraoui, J. G. Grote, and F. Kajzar, “NLO properties of functionalized DNA thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516(24), 8932–8936 (2008).
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A. D. Slepkov, F. A. Hegmann, Y. Zhao, R. R. Tykwinski, and K. Kamada, “Ultrafast optical Kerr effect measurements of third-order nonlinearities in cross-conjugated iso-polydiacetylene oligomers,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(9), 3834–3840 (2002).
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Kaneko, A.

M. Hosida, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-oder optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(4), 1071–1075 (1992).
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H. Tao, B. Marelli, M. Yang, B. An, M. S. Onses, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Inkjet printing of regerated silk fibroin: from printable forms to printable functions,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4273–4279 (2015).
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S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E.-S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
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M. B. Applegate, B. Marelli, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Determination of multiphoton absorption of silk fibroin using the Z-scan technique,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29637–29642 (2013).
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S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk protein based hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8897–8903 (2013).
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S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, K. Shmelev, L. Sun, E.-S. Gil, S.-H. Park, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Regulation of silk material structure by temperature-controlled water vapor annealing,” Biomacromolecules 12(5), 1686–1696 (2011).
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F. G. Omenetto and D. L. Kaplan, “New opportunities for an ancient material,” Science 329(5991), 528–531 (2010).
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Kim, K.

A. J. Kiran, H. W. Lee, H. C. Sampath Kumar, B. J. Rudresha, B. R. Bhat, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “The ultrafast nonlinear optical response and multi-photon absorption of a new metal complex in the near-infrared spectral range,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035211 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

Y. Choi, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “A Fully biocompatible single-mode distributed feedback laser,” Lab Chip 15(3), 642–645 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Park, Y. Choi, M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “Novel and simple route to fabricate fully biocompatible plasmonic mushroom arrays adhered on silk biopolymer,” Nanoscale 7(2), 426–431 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “A highly tunable and fully biocompatible silk nanoplasmonic optical sensor,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3358–3363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E.-S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk protein based hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8897–8903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Hwang, X. Huang, J.-H. Seo, J.-K. Song, S. Kim, S. Hage-Ali, H.-J. Chung, H. Tao, F. G. Omenetto, Z. Ma, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for bioresorbable radio frequency electronics,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3526–3531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kiran, A. J.

A. J. Kiran, H. W. Lee, H. C. Sampath Kumar, B. J. Rudresha, B. R. Bhat, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “The ultrafast nonlinear optical response and multi-photon absorption of a new metal complex in the near-infrared spectral range,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035211 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

Krupka, O.

O. Krupka, A. El-ghayoury, I. Rau, B. Sahraoui, J. G. Grote, and F. Kajzar, “NLO properties of functionalized DNA thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516(24), 8932–8936 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuang, L.

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, E. H. Sargent, and Z. Y. Wang, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearity of fullerenecontaining polyurethane films at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2115–2117 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuciauskas, D.

J. Humphrey and D. Kuciauskas, “Charge-transfer states determine iron porphyrin film third-rrder nonlinear optical properties in the near-IR spectral region,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(32), 12016–12023 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lednev, I. K.

S. A. Oladepo, K. Xiong, Z. Hong, S. A. Asher, J. Handen, and I. K. Lednev, “UV resonance Raman investigations of peptide and protein structure and dynamics,” Chem. Rev. 112(5), 2604–2628 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. W.

A. J. Kiran, H. W. Lee, H. C. Sampath Kumar, B. J. Rudresha, B. R. Bhat, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “The ultrafast nonlinear optical response and multi-photon absorption of a new metal complex in the near-infrared spectral range,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035211 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.

J. Park, Y. Choi, M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “Novel and simple route to fabricate fully biocompatible plasmonic mushroom arrays adhered on silk biopolymer,” Nanoscale 7(2), 426–431 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “A highly tunable and fully biocompatible silk nanoplasmonic optical sensor,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3358–3363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.-G.

C.-Z. Zhou, F. Confalonieri, M. Jacquet, R. Perasso, Z.-G. Li, and J. Janin, “Silk fibroin: Structural inplications of a remarkable amino acid sequence,” Protein: Struture, Function, and Genetics 44, 119–122 (2001).

Lim, H.

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.-B.

López-Suárez, A.

Lu, P.

K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Yuan, Y. Tao, J. Chen, P. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnO micro/nanowire,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 833–838 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

S.-W. Hwang, X. Huang, J.-H. Seo, J.-K. Song, S. Kim, S. Hage-Ali, H.-J. Chung, H. Tao, F. G. Omenetto, Z. Ma, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for bioresorbable radio frequency electronics,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3526–3531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makoto, F.

T. Satoshi, F. Makoto, S. Yasuhiro, I. Izumi, T. Minquan, and M. Hiroyuki, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marelli, B.

H. Tao, B. Marelli, M. Yang, B. An, M. S. Onses, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Inkjet printing of regerated silk fibroin: from printable forms to printable functions,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4273–4279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E.-S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Applegate, B. Marelli, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Determination of multiphoton absorption of silk fibroin using the Z-scan technique,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29637–29642 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, C.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meth, J. S.

S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osahenim, J. S. Meth, and H. Vanherzeele, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole),” Chem. Mater. 4(3), 683–687 (1992).
[Crossref]

Minoshima, K.

Minquan, T.

T. Satoshi, F. Makoto, S. Yasuhiro, I. Izumi, T. Minquan, and M. Hiroyuki, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mitropoulos, A. N.

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E.-S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk protein based hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8897–8903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mo, Y.

T. He, T. Cheng, Y. Du, and Y. Mo, “Z-scan determination of third-order nonlinear optical nonlinearity of three azobenzenes doped polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 240–244 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muccini, M.

S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Natali, M.

S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Norden, B.

P. Hanczyc, M. Samoc, and B. Norden, “Multiphoton absorption in amyloid protein fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 969–972 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nunzi, J. M.

V. Philippart, M. Dumont, J. M. Nunzi, and F. Charra, “Femtosecond Kerr ellipsometry in polydiacetylene solutions: Two-Photon Effects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(1), 29–34 (1993).
[Crossref]

Oladepo, S. A.

S. A. Oladepo, K. Xiong, Z. Hong, S. A. Asher, J. Handen, and I. K. Lednev, “UV resonance Raman investigations of peptide and protein structure and dynamics,” Chem. Rev. 112(5), 2604–2628 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliver, A.

Omenetto, F. G.

H. Tao, B. Marelli, M. Yang, B. An, M. S. Onses, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Inkjet printing of regerated silk fibroin: from printable forms to printable functions,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4273–4279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E.-S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk protein based hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8897–8903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Hwang, X. Huang, J.-H. Seo, J.-K. Song, S. Kim, S. Hage-Ali, H.-J. Chung, H. Tao, F. G. Omenetto, Z. Ma, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for bioresorbable radio frequency electronics,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3526–3531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Applegate, B. Marelli, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Determination of multiphoton absorption of silk fibroin using the Z-scan technique,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29637–29642 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. G. Omenetto and D. L. Kaplan, “New opportunities for an ancient material,” Science 329(5991), 528–531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onses, M. S.

H. Tao, B. Marelli, M. Yang, B. An, M. S. Onses, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Inkjet printing of regerated silk fibroin: from printable forms to printable functions,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4273–4279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osahenim, J. A.

S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osahenim, J. S. Meth, and H. Vanherzeele, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole),” Chem. Mater. 4(3), 683–687 (1992).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

J. Park, Y. Choi, M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “Novel and simple route to fabricate fully biocompatible plasmonic mushroom arrays adhered on silk biopolymer,” Nanoscale 7(2), 426–431 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.-H.

X. Hu, K. Shmelev, L. Sun, E.-S. Gil, S.-H. Park, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Regulation of silk material structure by temperature-controlled water vapor annealing,” Biomacromolecules 12(5), 1686–1696 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perasso, R.

C.-Z. Zhou, F. Confalonieri, M. Jacquet, R. Perasso, Z.-G. Li, and J. Janin, “Silk fibroin: Structural inplications of a remarkable amino acid sequence,” Protein: Struture, Function, and Genetics 44, 119–122 (2001).

Persoons, A.

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 243–278 (1994).
[Crossref]

Philippart, V.

V. Philippart, M. Dumont, J. M. Nunzi, and F. Charra, “Femtosecond Kerr ellipsometry in polydiacetylene solutions: Two-Photon Effects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(1), 29–34 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pierce, B. M.

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 243–278 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

Rau, I.

O. Krupka, A. El-ghayoury, I. Rau, B. Sahraoui, J. G. Grote, and F. Kajzar, “NLO properties of functionalized DNA thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516(24), 8932–8936 (2008).
[Crossref]

Robert, G. D.

M. K. Stephen, G. D. Robert, and L. A. Harry, “Large third-order electronic polarizability of a conjugated porphyrin polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(2), 339–347 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

H. Tao, B. Marelli, M. Yang, B. An, M. S. Onses, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Inkjet printing of regerated silk fibroin: from printable forms to printable functions,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4273–4279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Hwang, X. Huang, J.-H. Seo, J.-K. Song, S. Kim, S. Hage-Ali, H.-J. Chung, H. Tao, F. G. Omenetto, Z. Ma, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for bioresorbable radio frequency electronics,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3526–3531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotermund, F.

A. J. Kiran, H. W. Lee, H. C. Sampath Kumar, B. J. Rudresha, B. R. Bhat, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “The ultrafast nonlinear optical response and multi-photon absorption of a new metal complex in the near-infrared spectral range,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035211 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ruani, G.

Rudresha, B. J.

A. J. Kiran, H. W. Lee, H. C. Sampath Kumar, B. J. Rudresha, B. R. Bhat, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “The ultrafast nonlinear optical response and multi-photon absorption of a new metal complex in the near-infrared spectral range,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035211 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sahraoui, B.

O. Krupka, A. El-ghayoury, I. Rau, B. Sahraoui, J. G. Grote, and F. Kajzar, “NLO properties of functionalized DNA thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516(24), 8932–8936 (2008).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Samoc, A.

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, and J. G. Grote, “Complex nonlinear refractive index of DNA,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1-3), 132–134 (2006).
[Crossref]

Samoc, M.

P. Hanczyc, M. Samoc, and B. Norden, “Multiphoton absorption in amyloid protein fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 969–972 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, and J. G. Grote, “Complex nonlinear refractive index of DNA,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1-3), 132–134 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sampath Kumar, H. C.

A. J. Kiran, H. W. Lee, H. C. Sampath Kumar, B. J. Rudresha, B. R. Bhat, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “The ultrafast nonlinear optical response and multi-photon absorption of a new metal complex in the near-infrared spectral range,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035211 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sargent, E. H.

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, E. H. Sargent, and Z. Y. Wang, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearity of fullerenecontaining polyurethane films at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2115–2117 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

M. Hosida, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-oder optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(4), 1071–1075 (1992).
[Crossref]

Satoshi, T.

T. Satoshi, F. Makoto, S. Yasuhiro, I. Izumi, T. Minquan, and M. Hiroyuki, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

Seo, J.-H.

S.-W. Hwang, X. Huang, J.-H. Seo, J.-K. Song, S. Kim, S. Hage-Ali, H.-J. Chung, H. Tao, F. G. Omenetto, Z. Ma, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for bioresorbable radio frequency electronics,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3526–3531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, S.

Shmelev, K.

X. Hu, K. Shmelev, L. Sun, E.-S. Gil, S.-H. Park, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Regulation of silk material structure by temperature-controlled water vapor annealing,” Biomacromolecules 12(5), 1686–1696 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slepkov, A. D.

A. D. Slepkov, F. A. Hegmann, Y. Zhao, R. R. Tykwinski, and K. Kamada, “Ultrafast optical Kerr effect measurements of third-order nonlinearities in cross-conjugated iso-polydiacetylene oligomers,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(9), 3834–3840 (2002).
[Crossref]

Song, J.-K.

S.-W. Hwang, X. Huang, J.-H. Seo, J.-K. Song, S. Kim, S. Hage-Ali, H.-J. Chung, H. Tao, F. G. Omenetto, Z. Ma, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for bioresorbable radio frequency electronics,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3526–3531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spitzberg, J. D.

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk protein based hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8897–8903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stephen, M. K.

M. K. Stephen, G. D. Robert, and L. A. Harry, “Large third-order electronic polarizability of a conjugated porphyrin polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(2), 339–347 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

X. Hu, K. Shmelev, L. Sun, E.-S. Gil, S.-H. Park, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Regulation of silk material structure by temperature-controlled water vapor annealing,” Biomacromolecules 12(5), 1686–1696 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tackx, P.

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 243–278 (1994).
[Crossref]

Taiji, M.

Taliani, C.

Tamayo-Rivera, L.

Tao, H.

H. Tao, B. Marelli, M. Yang, B. An, M. S. Onses, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Inkjet printing of regerated silk fibroin: from printable forms to printable functions,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4273–4279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E.-S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Hwang, X. Huang, J.-H. Seo, J.-K. Song, S. Kim, S. Hage-Ali, H.-J. Chung, H. Tao, F. G. Omenetto, Z. Ma, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for bioresorbable radio frequency electronics,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3526–3531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y.

K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Yuan, Y. Tao, J. Chen, P. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnO micro/nanowire,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 833–838 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, J.-G.

Toffanin, S.

S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tong, L.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torres-Torres, C.

Tsioris, K.

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E.-S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tykwinski, R. R.

A. D. Slepkov, F. A. Hegmann, Y. Zhao, R. R. Tykwinski, and K. Kamada, “Ultrafast optical Kerr effect measurements of third-order nonlinearities in cross-conjugated iso-polydiacetylene oligomers,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(9), 3834–3840 (2002).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vanherzeele, H.

S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osahenim, J. S. Meth, and H. Vanherzeele, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole),” Chem. Mater. 4(3), 683–687 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wada, T.

M. Hosida, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-oder optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(4), 1071–1075 (1992).
[Crossref]

Walser, A. D.

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmiun sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181913 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Yuan, Y. Tao, J. Chen, P. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnO micro/nanowire,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 833–838 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. L.

K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Yuan, Y. Tao, J. Chen, P. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnO micro/nanowire,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 833–838 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. Y.

Q. Chen, L. Kuang, E. H. Sargent, and Z. Y. Wang, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearity of fullerenecontaining polyurethane films at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2115–2117 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, K.

S. A. Oladepo, K. Xiong, Z. Hong, S. A. Asher, J. Handen, and I. K. Lednev, “UV resonance Raman investigations of peptide and protein structure and dynamics,” Chem. Rev. 112(5), 2604–2628 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

M. Hosida, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-oder optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(4), 1071–1075 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.-Q.

Yang, L.

Yang, M.

H. Tao, B. Marelli, M. Yang, B. An, M. S. Onses, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Inkjet printing of regerated silk fibroin: from printable forms to printable functions,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4273–4279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuhiro, S.

T. Satoshi, F. Makoto, S. Yasuhiro, I. Izumi, T. Minquan, and M. Hiroyuki, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yeom, D.-I.

A. J. Kiran, H. W. Lee, H. C. Sampath Kumar, B. J. Rudresha, B. R. Bhat, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “The ultrafast nonlinear optical response and multi-photon absorption of a new metal complex in the near-infrared spectral range,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035211 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yim, J. H.

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yuan, L.

K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Yuan, Y. Tao, J. Chen, P. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnO micro/nanowire,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 833–838 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zamboni, R.

S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Dorsinville, L. Yang, R. R. Alfano, R. Zamboni, R. Danieli, G. Ruani, and C. Taliani, “Nonlinear-optical response in polythiophene films using four-wave mixing techniques,” Opt. Lett. 14(23), 1321–1323 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-L.

Zhao, Y.

A. D. Slepkov, F. A. Hegmann, Y. Zhao, R. R. Tykwinski, and K. Kamada, “Ultrafast optical Kerr effect measurements of third-order nonlinearities in cross-conjugated iso-polydiacetylene oligomers,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(9), 3834–3840 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.-Z.

C.-Z. Zhou, F. Confalonieri, M. Jacquet, R. Perasso, Z.-G. Li, and J. Janin, “Silk fibroin: Structural inplications of a remarkable amino acid sequence,” Protein: Struture, Function, and Genetics 44, 119–122 (2001).

Zhou, J.

K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Yuan, Y. Tao, J. Chen, P. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnO micro/nanowire,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 833–838 (2012).
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Adv. Mater. (3)

H. Tao, B. Marelli, M. Yang, B. An, M. S. Onses, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Inkjet printing of regerated silk fibroin: from printable forms to printable functions,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4273–4279 (2015).
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S.-W. Hwang, X. Huang, J.-H. Seo, J.-K. Song, S. Kim, S. Hage-Ali, H.-J. Chung, H. Tao, F. G. Omenetto, Z. Ma, and J. A. Rogers, “Materials for bioresorbable radio frequency electronics,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3526–3531 (2013).
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T. Satoshi, F. Makoto, S. Yasuhiro, I. Izumi, T. Minquan, and M. Hiroyuki, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. W. Lee, J. H. Yim, A. J. Kiran, I. H. Baek, S. Lee, D.-I. Yeom, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Bundling influence on ultrafast optical nonlinearities of single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension and composite film,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 157–162 (2009).
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M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmiun sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(18), 181913 (2005).
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S. Toffanin, S. Kim, S. Cavallini, M. Natali, V. Benfenati, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, R. Zamboni, M. Muccini, and F. G. Omenetto, “Low-threshold blue lasing from silk fibroin thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091110 (2012).
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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

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Biomacromolecules (1)

X. Hu, K. Shmelev, L. Sun, E.-S. Gil, S.-H. Park, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Regulation of silk material structure by temperature-controlled water vapor annealing,” Biomacromolecules 12(5), 1686–1696 (2011).
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Chem. Mater. (1)

S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osahenim, J. S. Meth, and H. Vanherzeele, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole),” Chem. Mater. 4(3), 683–687 (1992).
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Nano Lett. (3)

M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “A highly tunable and fully biocompatible silk nanoplasmonic optical sensor,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3358–3363 (2015).
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Nanoscale (1)

J. Park, Y. Choi, M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “Novel and simple route to fabricate fully biocompatible plasmonic mushroom arrays adhered on silk biopolymer,” Nanoscale 7(2), 426–431 (2015).
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Protein: Struture, Function, and Genetics (1)

C.-Z. Zhou, F. Confalonieri, M. Jacquet, R. Perasso, Z.-G. Li, and J. Janin, “Silk fibroin: Structural inplications of a remarkable amino acid sequence,” Protein: Struture, Function, and Genetics 44, 119–122 (2001).

Science (1)

F. G. Omenetto and D. L. Kaplan, “New opportunities for an ancient material,” Science 329(5991), 528–531 (2010).
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O. Krupka, A. El-ghayoury, I. Rau, B. Sahraoui, J. G. Grote, and F. Kajzar, “NLO properties of functionalized DNA thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516(24), 8932–8936 (2008).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of nonlinear optical silk film. The pure silk fibroin aqueous solution was extracted from cocoons and spin-coated on a glass substrate to yield a thin film. The β-sheet secondary molecular structure was induced by simple organic solvent treatment. The silk films exhibited third-order nonlinear optical properties (self-focusing) measured using the Z-scan method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Open- (left column) and closed-aperture (right column) Z-scan results of the silk fibroin films (untreated silk film [U-SF], water-vapor treated silk film [WV-SF], and methanol treated silk films [M-SF]), measured at 720 nm (input power, 11.5 GW/cm2), 800 nm (8.0 GW/cm2), 1220 nm (4.1 GW/cm2), and 1540 nm (3.0 GW/cm2). Solid lines correspond to theoretical fits.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 χ(3) values of silk fibroin films (untreated silk film [U-SF], water-vapor treated silk film [WV-SF], and methanol treated silk films [M-SF]), measured at 720, 800, 1220, and 1540 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Open- (left column) and closed-aperture (right column) Z-scan results of a methanol-treated silk fibroin film measured at 800 nm for four different input intensities. Insets reveal the calculated χI(3) and χR(3) values, and input intensities. Solid lines correspond to theoretical fits.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical Kerr gate (OKG) signals from silk fibroin films (untreated silk film [U-SF], water-vapor treated silk film [WV-SF], and methanol treated silk films [M-SF])), measured at 800 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) UV-absorption spectra for the methanol-treated silk film (M-SF, red curve), the water-vapor treated silk film (WV-SF, blue-curve), and the untreated silk film (U-SF, black curve). (b) Fourier transform-infrared spectra for the M-SF (red curve), the WV-SF (blue curve), and the U-SF (black curve). Absorption peak is arising at 1626 cm−1 as β-sheet content increases.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 χ(3) values of various nonlinear materials

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Table 2 Z-scan and OKG results measured at the wavelength of 800 nm.

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