Abstract

To understand the chiroptical responses of polyfluorene–phenylene (PFP) films, circular dichroism (CD), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), attenuated total reflection (ATR), and spectroscopic ellipsometry studies were performed. The pristine PFP films exhibited significant CD at room temperature, and the chirality increased by thermal annealing at 120 °C (above the glass transition temperature). SERS and ATR spectra indicated that the chirality enhancement was due to the rearrangement of the polymer backbones on the glass substrate by thermal annealing and/or self-organization. In addition, comparison of PFP and polyfluorene polymers indicated that molecular structure of polymer backbone plays an important role in the chiroptical responses of the chiral polymers.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

25 February 2016: A correction was made to the acknowledgments.


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2015 (1)

M. Liu, L. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Supramolecular chirality in self-assembled systems,” Chem. Rev. 115(15), 7304–7397 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Oh, G. S. He, W. C. Law, A. Baev, H. Jee, X. Liu, A. Urbas, C. W. Lee, B. L. Choi, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Manipulating nanoscale interactions in a polymer nanocomposite for chiral control of linear and nonlinear optical functions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1607–1611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Guha, M. Knaapila, D. Moghe, Z. Konopkova, M. Torkkeli, M. Fritsch, and U. Scherf, “Persistence of nematic liquid crystalline phase in a polyfluorene‐based organic semiconductor: A high pressure study,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(15), 1014–1023 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

G. S. He, M. J. Cho, W. J. Kim, A. Baev, A. Urbas, and P. N. Prasad, “Polarimetric z-scan study of nonlinear chiroptic properties of chiral polyfluorene,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 763–767 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Nowacki, H. Oh, C. Zanlorenzi, H. Jee, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, and L. Akcelrud, “Design and synthesis of polymers for chiral photonics,” Macromolecules 46(18), 7158–7165 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Savoini, P. Biagioni, S. C. J. Meskers, L. Duo, B. Hecht, and M. Finazzi, “Spontaneous formation of left-and right-handed cholesterically ordered domains in an enantiopure chiral polyfluorene film,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(12), 1359–1362 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. J. George, T. F. A. de Greef, R. Bovee, J. L. J. van Dongen, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Photodimerization processes in self-assembled chiral oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) bolaamphiphiles,” Chem. Asian J. 4(6), 910–917 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lakhwani, J. Gielen, M. Kemerink, P. C. M. Christianen, R. A. J. Janssen, and S. C. J. Meskers, “Intensive chiroptical properties of chiral polyfluorenes associated with fibril formation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(43), 14047–14051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Abdulhalim, “Surface plasmon TE and TM waves at the anisotropic film–metal interface,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015002 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

P. L. Stiles, J. A. Dieringer, N. C. Shah, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 1(1), 601–626 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Abbel, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Molecular weight optimum in the mesoscopic order of chiral fluorene copolymer films,” Macromolecules 41(20), 7497–7504 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. C. Tsoi and D. G. Lidzey, “Raman spectroscopy of fluorene oligomers in the α-, β-and γ-phases,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(12), 125213 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

C. Volz, M. Arif, and S. Guha, “Conformations in dioctyl substituted polyfluorene: A combined theoretical and experimental Raman scattering study,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(6), 064905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Yan, X. Cheng, Q. L. Zhou, and J. Pei, “Chiral polyfluorene derivatives: Synthesis, chiroptical properties, and investigation of the structure-property relationships,” Macromolecules 40(4), 832–839 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. R. A. Palmans and E. W. Meijer, “Amplification of chirality in dynamic supramolecular aggregates,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46(47), 8948–8968 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Arif, C. Volz, and S. Guha, “Chain morphologies in semicrystalline polyfluorene: Evidence from Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 025503 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

W. Chunwaschirasiri, B. Tanto, D. L. Huber, and M. J. Winokur, “Chain conformations and photoluminescence of poly(di-n-octylfluorene),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(10), 107402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lee, J. Park, E. Kim, Y. Lee, K. Kim, H. Cheong, C. Yoon, Y. D. Son, and J. Jang, “Microstructure of femtosecond laser-induced grating in amorphous silicon,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6445–6453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, C. E. Murphy, and R. H. Friend, “Phase separation in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymer blends: Lateral and vertical analysis of blend spin-cast thin films,” Macromolecules 37(8), 2861–2871 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

U. Scherf and E. J. List, “Semiconducting polyfluorenes–Towards reliable structure–property relationships,” Adv. Mater. 14(7), 477–487 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, I. V. Sunjic, D. Richter, W. Regenstein, and D. Neher, “Chiroptical properties of chiral substituted polyfluorenes,” Macromolecules 35(18), 6792–6798 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lee, K. Kim, and J. I. Jin, “Mechanism of one-and two-photon absorption induced photoluminescence in PPV type, electroluminescent polymer,” Opt. Commun. 203(1-2), 151–157 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. Miteva, A. Meisel, W. Knoll, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. C. Muller, and D. Neher, “Improving the performance of polyfluorene‐based organic light‐emitting diodes via end‐capping,” Adv. Mater. 13(8), 565–570 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

M. Gross, D. C. Muller, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. Neher, C. Brauchle, and K. Meerholz, “Improving the performance of doped π-conjugated polymers for use in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nature 405(6787), 661–665 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid‐crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. 12(5), 362–365 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. T. Bernius, M. Inbasekaran, J. O’Brien, and W. Wu, “Progress with light-emitting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 12(23), 1737–1750 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kolomenskii, P. D. Gershon, and H. A. Schuessler, “Surface-plasmon resonance spectrometry and characterization of absorbing liquids,” Appl. Opt. 39(19), 3314–3320 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, G. Ungar, J. Hill, and K. S. Whitehead, “Interplay of physical structure and photophysics for a liquid crystalline polyfluorene,” Macromolecules 32(18), 5810–5817 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Fiesel, C. E. Halkyard, M. E. Rampey, L. Kloppenburg, S. L. Studer-Martinez, U. Scherf, and U. H. F. Bunz, “Aggregation and chiroptical behavior of a high molecular weight chirally substituted dialkylpoly(p-phenyleneethynylene),” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 20(3), 107–111 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. Fiesel and U. Scherf, “Aggregation-induced CD effects in chiral poly(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenylene)s,” Acta Polym. 49(8), 445–449 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

M. M. Bournan and E. W. Meijer, “Stereomutation in optically active regioregular polythiophenes,” Adv. Mater. 7(4), 385–387 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. McBranch, I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Optical determination of chain orientation in electroluminescent polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(10), 1175–1177 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1981 (1)

Abbel, R.

R. Abbel, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Molecular weight optimum in the mesoscopic order of chiral fluorene copolymer films,” Macromolecules 41(20), 7497–7504 (2008).
[Crossref]

Abdulhalim, I.

I. Abdulhalim, “Surface plasmon TE and TM waves at the anisotropic film–metal interface,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Akcelrud, L.

B. Nowacki, H. Oh, C. Zanlorenzi, H. Jee, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, and L. Akcelrud, “Design and synthesis of polymers for chiral photonics,” Macromolecules 46(18), 7158–7165 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arif, M.

C. Volz, M. Arif, and S. Guha, “Conformations in dioctyl substituted polyfluorene: A combined theoretical and experimental Raman scattering study,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(6), 064905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Arif, C. Volz, and S. Guha, “Chain morphologies in semicrystalline polyfluorene: Evidence from Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 025503 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ariu, M.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baev, A.

H. S. Oh, G. S. He, W. C. Law, A. Baev, H. Jee, X. Liu, A. Urbas, C. W. Lee, B. L. Choi, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Manipulating nanoscale interactions in a polymer nanocomposite for chiral control of linear and nonlinear optical functions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1607–1611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. He, M. J. Cho, W. J. Kim, A. Baev, A. Urbas, and P. N. Prasad, “Polarimetric z-scan study of nonlinear chiroptic properties of chiral polyfluorene,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 763–767 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Nowacki, H. Oh, C. Zanlorenzi, H. Jee, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, and L. Akcelrud, “Design and synthesis of polymers for chiral photonics,” Macromolecules 46(18), 7158–7165 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernius, M. T.

M. T. Bernius, M. Inbasekaran, J. O’Brien, and W. Wu, “Progress with light-emitting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 12(23), 1737–1750 (2000).
[Crossref]

Biagioni, P.

M. Savoini, P. Biagioni, S. C. J. Meskers, L. Duo, B. Hecht, and M. Finazzi, “Spontaneous formation of left-and right-handed cholesterically ordered domains in an enantiopure chiral polyfluorene film,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(12), 1359–1362 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bin, J. K.

M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bournan, M. M.

M. M. Bournan and E. W. Meijer, “Stereomutation in optically active regioregular polythiophenes,” Adv. Mater. 7(4), 385–387 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bovee, R.

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M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
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M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, G. Ungar, J. Hill, and K. S. Whitehead, “Interplay of physical structure and photophysics for a liquid crystalline polyfluorene,” Macromolecules 32(18), 5810–5817 (1999).
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G. S. He, M. J. Cho, W. J. Kim, A. Baev, A. Urbas, and P. N. Prasad, “Polarimetric z-scan study of nonlinear chiroptic properties of chiral polyfluorene,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 763–767 (2013).
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H. S. Oh, G. S. He, W. C. Law, A. Baev, H. Jee, X. Liu, A. Urbas, C. W. Lee, B. L. Choi, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Manipulating nanoscale interactions in a polymer nanocomposite for chiral control of linear and nonlinear optical functions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1607–1611 (2014).
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M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
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G. Lakhwani, J. Gielen, M. Kemerink, P. C. M. Christianen, R. A. J. Janssen, and S. C. J. Meskers, “Intensive chiroptical properties of chiral polyfluorenes associated with fibril formation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(43), 14047–14051 (2009).
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W. Chunwaschirasiri, B. Tanto, D. L. Huber, and M. J. Winokur, “Chain conformations and photoluminescence of poly(di-n-octylfluorene),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(10), 107402 (2005).
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S. J. George, T. F. A. de Greef, R. Bovee, J. L. J. van Dongen, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Photodimerization processes in self-assembled chiral oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) bolaamphiphiles,” Chem. Asian J. 4(6), 910–917 (2009).
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M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ferraris, J. P.

D. McBranch, I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Optical determination of chain orientation in electroluminescent polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(10), 1175–1177 (1995).
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Fiesel, R.

R. Fiesel, C. E. Halkyard, M. E. Rampey, L. Kloppenburg, S. L. Studer-Martinez, U. Scherf, and U. H. F. Bunz, “Aggregation and chiroptical behavior of a high molecular weight chirally substituted dialkylpoly(p-phenyleneethynylene),” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 20(3), 107–111 (1999).
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R. Fiesel and U. Scherf, “Aggregation-induced CD effects in chiral poly(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenylene)s,” Acta Polym. 49(8), 445–449 (1998).
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M. Savoini, P. Biagioni, S. C. J. Meskers, L. Duo, B. Hecht, and M. Finazzi, “Spontaneous formation of left-and right-handed cholesterically ordered domains in an enantiopure chiral polyfluorene film,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(12), 1359–1362 (2011).
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Friend, R. H.

J. S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, C. E. Murphy, and R. H. Friend, “Phase separation in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymer blends: Lateral and vertical analysis of blend spin-cast thin films,” Macromolecules 37(8), 2861–2871 (2004).
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Fritsch, M.

S. Guha, M. Knaapila, D. Moghe, Z. Konopkova, M. Torkkeli, M. Fritsch, and U. Scherf, “Persistence of nematic liquid crystalline phase in a polyfluorene‐based organic semiconductor: A high pressure study,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(15), 1014–1023 (2014).
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S. J. George, T. F. A. de Greef, R. Bovee, J. L. J. van Dongen, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Photodimerization processes in self-assembled chiral oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) bolaamphiphiles,” Chem. Asian J. 4(6), 910–917 (2009).
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Gershon, P. D.

Gielen, J.

G. Lakhwani, J. Gielen, M. Kemerink, P. C. M. Christianen, R. A. J. Janssen, and S. C. J. Meskers, “Intensive chiroptical properties of chiral polyfluorenes associated with fibril formation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(43), 14047–14051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grell, M.

M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, G. Ungar, J. Hill, and K. S. Whitehead, “Interplay of physical structure and photophysics for a liquid crystalline polyfluorene,” Macromolecules 32(18), 5810–5817 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gross, M.

M. Gross, D. C. Muller, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. Neher, C. Brauchle, and K. Meerholz, “Improving the performance of doped π-conjugated polymers for use in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nature 405(6787), 661–665 (2000).
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Guha, S.

S. Guha, M. Knaapila, D. Moghe, Z. Konopkova, M. Torkkeli, M. Fritsch, and U. Scherf, “Persistence of nematic liquid crystalline phase in a polyfluorene‐based organic semiconductor: A high pressure study,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(15), 1014–1023 (2014).
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R. Fiesel, C. E. Halkyard, M. E. Rampey, L. Kloppenburg, S. L. Studer-Martinez, U. Scherf, and U. H. F. Bunz, “Aggregation and chiroptical behavior of a high molecular weight chirally substituted dialkylpoly(p-phenyleneethynylene),” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 20(3), 107–111 (1999).
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He, G. S.

H. S. Oh, G. S. He, W. C. Law, A. Baev, H. Jee, X. Liu, A. Urbas, C. W. Lee, B. L. Choi, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Manipulating nanoscale interactions in a polymer nanocomposite for chiral control of linear and nonlinear optical functions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1607–1611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. He, M. J. Cho, W. J. Kim, A. Baev, A. Urbas, and P. N. Prasad, “Polarimetric z-scan study of nonlinear chiroptic properties of chiral polyfluorene,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 763–767 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hecht, B.

M. Savoini, P. Biagioni, S. C. J. Meskers, L. Duo, B. Hecht, and M. Finazzi, “Spontaneous formation of left-and right-handed cholesterically ordered domains in an enantiopure chiral polyfluorene film,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(12), 1359–1362 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heliotis, G.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hill, J.

M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, G. Ungar, J. Hill, and K. S. Whitehead, “Interplay of physical structure and photophysics for a liquid crystalline polyfluorene,” Macromolecules 32(18), 5810–5817 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ho, P. K. H.

J. S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, C. E. Murphy, and R. H. Friend, “Phase separation in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymer blends: Lateral and vertical analysis of blend spin-cast thin films,” Macromolecules 37(8), 2861–2871 (2004).
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Hong, T. R.

M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
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Hong, Y. R.

H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
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Huber, D. L.

W. Chunwaschirasiri, B. Tanto, D. L. Huber, and M. J. Winokur, “Chain conformations and photoluminescence of poly(di-n-octylfluorene),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(10), 107402 (2005).
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Janssen, R. A. J.

G. Lakhwani, J. Gielen, M. Kemerink, P. C. M. Christianen, R. A. J. Janssen, and S. C. J. Meskers, “Intensive chiroptical properties of chiral polyfluorenes associated with fibril formation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(43), 14047–14051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jee, H.

H. S. Oh, G. S. He, W. C. Law, A. Baev, H. Jee, X. Liu, A. Urbas, C. W. Lee, B. L. Choi, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Manipulating nanoscale interactions in a polymer nanocomposite for chiral control of linear and nonlinear optical functions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1607–1611 (2014).
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B. Nowacki, H. Oh, C. Zanlorenzi, H. Jee, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, and L. Akcelrud, “Design and synthesis of polymers for chiral photonics,” Macromolecules 46(18), 7158–7165 (2013).
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H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
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H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lee, K. Kim, and J. I. Jin, “Mechanism of one-and two-photon absorption induced photoluminescence in PPV type, electroluminescent polymer,” Opt. Commun. 203(1-2), 151–157 (2002).
[Crossref]

Joo, J.

H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
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Kang, H. S.

H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. S.

M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kemerink, M.

G. Lakhwani, J. Gielen, M. Kemerink, P. C. M. Christianen, R. A. J. Janssen, and S. C. J. Meskers, “Intensive chiroptical properties of chiral polyfluorenes associated with fibril formation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(43), 14047–14051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, E.

Kim, H. J.

M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, C. E. Murphy, and R. H. Friend, “Phase separation in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymer blends: Lateral and vertical analysis of blend spin-cast thin films,” Macromolecules 37(8), 2861–2871 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

G. J. Lee, J. Park, E. Kim, Y. Lee, K. Kim, H. Cheong, C. Yoon, Y. D. Son, and J. Jang, “Microstructure of femtosecond laser-induced grating in amorphous silicon,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6445–6453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Lee, K. Kim, and J. I. Jin, “Mechanism of one-and two-photon absorption induced photoluminescence in PPV type, electroluminescent polymer,” Opt. Commun. 203(1-2), 151–157 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. M.

H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. S.

H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. J.

M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, W. J.

G. S. He, M. J. Cho, W. J. Kim, A. Baev, A. Urbas, and P. N. Prasad, “Polarimetric z-scan study of nonlinear chiroptic properties of chiral polyfluorene,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 763–767 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kloppenburg, L.

R. Fiesel, C. E. Halkyard, M. E. Rampey, L. Kloppenburg, S. L. Studer-Martinez, U. Scherf, and U. H. F. Bunz, “Aggregation and chiroptical behavior of a high molecular weight chirally substituted dialkylpoly(p-phenyleneethynylene),” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 20(3), 107–111 (1999).
[Crossref]

Knaapila, M.

S. Guha, M. Knaapila, D. Moghe, Z. Konopkova, M. Torkkeli, M. Fritsch, and U. Scherf, “Persistence of nematic liquid crystalline phase in a polyfluorene‐based organic semiconductor: A high pressure study,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(15), 1014–1023 (2014).
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T. Miteva, A. Meisel, W. Knoll, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. C. Muller, and D. Neher, “Improving the performance of polyfluorene‐based organic light‐emitting diodes via end‐capping,” Adv. Mater. 13(8), 565–570 (2001).
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Kolomenskii, A. A.

Konopkova, Z.

S. Guha, M. Knaapila, D. Moghe, Z. Konopkova, M. Torkkeli, M. Fritsch, and U. Scherf, “Persistence of nematic liquid crystalline phase in a polyfluorene‐based organic semiconductor: A high pressure study,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(15), 1014–1023 (2014).
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Kwon, J. H.

M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lakhwani, G.

G. Lakhwani, J. Gielen, M. Kemerink, P. C. M. Christianen, R. A. J. Janssen, and S. C. J. Meskers, “Intensive chiroptical properties of chiral polyfluorenes associated with fibril formation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(43), 14047–14051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Law, W. C.

H. S. Oh, G. S. He, W. C. Law, A. Baev, H. Jee, X. Liu, A. Urbas, C. W. Lee, B. L. Choi, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Manipulating nanoscale interactions in a polymer nanocomposite for chiral control of linear and nonlinear optical functions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1607–1611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B. S.

M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
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H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
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H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
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M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
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M. Liu, L. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Supramolecular chirality in self-assembled systems,” Chem. Rev. 115(15), 7304–7397 (2015).
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H. S. Oh, G. S. He, W. C. Law, A. Baev, H. Jee, X. Liu, A. Urbas, C. W. Lee, B. L. Choi, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Manipulating nanoscale interactions in a polymer nanocomposite for chiral control of linear and nonlinear optical functions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1607–1611 (2014).
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A. R. A. Palmans and E. W. Meijer, “Amplification of chirality in dynamic supramolecular aggregates,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46(47), 8948–8968 (2007).
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T. Miteva, A. Meisel, W. Knoll, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. C. Muller, and D. Neher, “Improving the performance of polyfluorene‐based organic light‐emitting diodes via end‐capping,” Adv. Mater. 13(8), 565–570 (2001).
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T. Miteva, A. Meisel, W. Knoll, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. C. Muller, and D. Neher, “Improving the performance of polyfluorene‐based organic light‐emitting diodes via end‐capping,” Adv. Mater. 13(8), 565–570 (2001).
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M. Gross, D. C. Muller, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. Neher, C. Brauchle, and K. Meerholz, “Improving the performance of doped π-conjugated polymers for use in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nature 405(6787), 661–665 (2000).
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M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid‐crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. 12(5), 362–365 (2000).
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T. Miteva, A. Meisel, W. Knoll, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. C. Muller, and D. Neher, “Improving the performance of polyfluorene‐based organic light‐emitting diodes via end‐capping,” Adv. Mater. 13(8), 565–570 (2001).
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M. Gross, D. C. Muller, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. Neher, C. Brauchle, and K. Meerholz, “Improving the performance of doped π-conjugated polymers for use in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nature 405(6787), 661–665 (2000).
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M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid‐crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. 12(5), 362–365 (2000).
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B. Nowacki, H. Oh, C. Zanlorenzi, H. Jee, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, and L. Akcelrud, “Design and synthesis of polymers for chiral photonics,” Macromolecules 46(18), 7158–7165 (2013).
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H. S. Oh, G. S. He, W. C. Law, A. Baev, H. Jee, X. Liu, A. Urbas, C. W. Lee, B. L. Choi, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Manipulating nanoscale interactions in a polymer nanocomposite for chiral control of linear and nonlinear optical functions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1607–1611 (2014).
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A. R. A. Palmans and E. W. Meijer, “Amplification of chirality in dynamic supramolecular aggregates,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46(47), 8948–8968 (2007).
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Park, K. T.

H. S. Kang, K. H. Kim, M. S. Kim, K. T. Park, K. M. Kim, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Lee, J. Joo, D. W. Lee, Y. R. Hong, K. Kim, G. J. Lee, and J. I. Jin, “Electrical characteristics of light-emitting diode based on poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives: CzEH-PPV and OxdEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 130(3), 279–283 (2002).
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B. Nowacki, H. Oh, C. Zanlorenzi, H. Jee, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, and L. Akcelrud, “Design and synthesis of polymers for chiral photonics,” Macromolecules 46(18), 7158–7165 (2013).
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H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
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M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, I. V. Sunjic, D. Richter, W. Regenstein, and D. Neher, “Chiroptical properties of chiral substituted polyfluorenes,” Macromolecules 35(18), 6792–6798 (2002).
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Richter, D.

M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, I. V. Sunjic, D. Richter, W. Regenstein, and D. Neher, “Chiroptical properties of chiral substituted polyfluorenes,” Macromolecules 35(18), 6792–6798 (2002).
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M. Savoini, P. Biagioni, S. C. J. Meskers, L. Duo, B. Hecht, and M. Finazzi, “Spontaneous formation of left-and right-handed cholesterically ordered domains in an enantiopure chiral polyfluorene film,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(12), 1359–1362 (2011).
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S. J. George, T. F. A. de Greef, R. Bovee, J. L. J. van Dongen, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Photodimerization processes in self-assembled chiral oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) bolaamphiphiles,” Chem. Asian J. 4(6), 910–917 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Abbel, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, “Molecular weight optimum in the mesoscopic order of chiral fluorene copolymer films,” Macromolecules 41(20), 7497–7504 (2008).
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S. Guha, M. Knaapila, D. Moghe, Z. Konopkova, M. Torkkeli, M. Fritsch, and U. Scherf, “Persistence of nematic liquid crystalline phase in a polyfluorene‐based organic semiconductor: A high pressure study,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(15), 1014–1023 (2014).
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U. Scherf and E. J. List, “Semiconducting polyfluorenes–Towards reliable structure–property relationships,” Adv. Mater. 14(7), 477–487 (2002).
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M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, I. V. Sunjic, D. Richter, W. Regenstein, and D. Neher, “Chiroptical properties of chiral substituted polyfluorenes,” Macromolecules 35(18), 6792–6798 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Miteva, A. Meisel, W. Knoll, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. C. Muller, and D. Neher, “Improving the performance of polyfluorene‐based organic light‐emitting diodes via end‐capping,” Adv. Mater. 13(8), 565–570 (2001).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid‐crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. 12(5), 362–365 (2000).
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Shah, N. C.

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D. McBranch, I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Optical determination of chain orientation in electroluminescent polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(10), 1175–1177 (1995).
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Son, Y. H.

M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
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P. L. Stiles, J. A. Dieringer, N. C. Shah, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 1(1), 601–626 (2008).
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[Crossref]

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M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, I. V. Sunjic, D. Richter, W. Regenstein, and D. Neher, “Chiroptical properties of chiral substituted polyfluorenes,” Macromolecules 35(18), 6792–6798 (2002).
[Crossref]

Swihart, M. T.

H. S. Oh, G. S. He, W. C. Law, A. Baev, H. Jee, X. Liu, A. Urbas, C. W. Lee, B. L. Choi, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Manipulating nanoscale interactions in a polymer nanocomposite for chiral control of linear and nonlinear optical functions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1607–1611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
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W. C. Tsoi and D. G. Lidzey, “Raman spectroscopy of fluorene oligomers in the α-, β-and γ-phases,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(12), 125213 (2008).
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M. J. Cho, S. J. Kim, S. H. Yoon, J. Shin, T. R. Hong, H. J. Kim, Y. H. Son, J. S. Kang, H. A. Um, T. W. Lee, J. K. Bin, B. S. Lee, J. H. Yang, G. S. Chae, J. H. Kwon, and D. H. Choi, “New bipolar host materials for realizing blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at 1000 cd/m2.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19808–19815 (2014).
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G. S. He, M. J. Cho, W. J. Kim, A. Baev, A. Urbas, and P. N. Prasad, “Polarimetric z-scan study of nonlinear chiroptic properties of chiral polyfluorene,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 763–767 (2013).
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van Dongen, J. L. J.

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M. Liu, L. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Supramolecular chirality in self-assembled systems,” Chem. Rev. 115(15), 7304–7397 (2015).
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J. C. Yan, X. Cheng, Q. L. Zhou, and J. Pei, “Chiral polyfluorene derivatives: Synthesis, chiroptical properties, and investigation of the structure-property relationships,” Macromolecules 40(4), 832–839 (2007).
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J. C. Yan, X. Cheng, Q. L. Zhou, and J. Pei, “Chiral polyfluorene derivatives: Synthesis, chiroptical properties, and investigation of the structure-property relationships,” Macromolecules 40(4), 832–839 (2007).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Liu, L. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Supramolecular chirality in self-assembled systems,” Chem. Rev. 115(15), 7304–7397 (2015).
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J. C. Yan, X. Cheng, Q. L. Zhou, and J. Pei, “Chiral polyfluorene derivatives: Synthesis, chiroptical properties, and investigation of the structure-property relationships,” Macromolecules 40(4), 832–839 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Nowacki, H. Oh, C. Zanlorenzi, H. Jee, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, and L. Akcelrud, “Design and synthesis of polymers for chiral photonics,” Macromolecules 46(18), 7158–7165 (2013).
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W. Chunwaschirasiri, B. Tanto, D. L. Huber, and M. J. Winokur, “Chain conformations and photoluminescence of poly(di-n-octylfluorene),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(10), 107402 (2005).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Synthetic procedure for and molecular structure of the PFP polymer with pendant alkyl groups. (b) Differential scanning calorimetry scan of the PFP polymer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Circular dichroism spectra of the (a) pristine (PFP1, PFP2, PFP3) and (b) annealed (PFP2A, PFP3A) films. Dissymmetry factor (g–value) spectra of the (c) pristine and (d) annealed films.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Absorption spectra of the pristine (PFP1, PFP2, PFP3) and annealed (PFP3A) films. (b) Normalized absorption spectra of the PFP films (PFP1, PFP3, PFP3A) and the PFP solution. In (b), the absorption spectra are expanded to show the blue shift of the absorption peak.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Fit of the experimental Raman spectrum of the annealed PFP3A film to eight Lorentzian multipeaks. (b) SERS spectra of the pristine (PFP1, PFP2, PFP3) and annealed (PFP3A) films.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Refractive index and extinction coefficient spectra of the (a) pristine (PFP3) and (b) annealed (PFP3A) films.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Extinction spectrum of the PFP film on gold by Mie theory. (b) ATR spectra of p-polarized light for the pristine (PFP1, PFP3) and annealed (PFP3A) films under the Kretschmann configuration. The ATR spectra of the PFP films are compared with that of the bare gold layer. In the ATR spectra, reflection losses of at the entrance and exit facets of the prism are corrected using Fresnel formulas.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Optical absorption and (b) CD spectra of the pristine (PF) and annealed (PF-A) films. (c) Fit of the experimental Raman spectrum of the annealed PF-A film to eight Lorentzian multipeaks. (d) SERS spectra of the pristine and annealed films. In (a), the inset figure shows the molecular structure of the PF polymer with pendant alkyl groups.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Optimized geometries of (a) PF and (b) PFP polymers with pendant alkyl groups. In figure, (F), fluorene; (P), phenylene; (A), alkyl side chains.

Equations (8)

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θ ( λ ) = tan 1 ( E R E L E R + E L ) = tan 1 ( 1 I L / I R 1 + I L / I R ) = tan 1 ( 1 ρ ( λ ) 1 + ρ ( λ ) )   ,   
I L ( R ) ( λ ) = I L ( R ) 0 exp ( 4 π λ k L ( R ) ) ,
ρ ( λ ) = I L ( λ ) / I R ( λ ) = exp ( 4 π λ Δ k ( λ ) ) = exp ( Δ A ( λ ) ) ,
Δ A ( λ ) = A L ( λ ) A R ( λ ) = 4 π λ Δ k ( λ ) = 4 π λ [ k L ( λ ) k R ( λ ) ] .
θ ( λ ) Δ A ( λ ) 4 = π λ Δ k ( λ ) (radians)
g ( λ ) = Δ A A a v g = A L ( λ ) A R ( λ ) ( A L ( λ ) + A R ( λ ) 2 )
d π 2 sin 2 θ d π 2 = 1 1 + k π z 2 k π x
σ e x t ( λ ) = 18 π N V λ ln ( 10 ) ε d 3 / 2 ε m I ( λ ) [ ( ε m R ( λ ) + χ ε d ( λ ) ) 2 + ( ε m I ( λ ) ) 2 ]

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