Abstract

The generation of nanosecond pulses in a thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by a black phosphorus saturable absorber (BP-SA) was experimentally demonstrated. The high quality BP-SA with a modulation depth of ~24% was fabricated by depositing ~23 nm thickness of BP nanoplatelets onto a fiber ferrule. By inserting the BP-SA into a thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser cavity, stable Q-switched operation was achieved with the maximum pulse energy up to 632.4 nJ, the shortest pulse width of 731 ns and pulse repetition rates varying from 69.4 to 113.3 kHz. These results suggested that BP could be developed as an effective SA for pulsed laser operation at 2 μm.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2015 (6)

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, M. Jung, J. Koo, C. Chi, and J. H. Lee, “Passively Q-switched 1.89 μm fiber laser using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 31–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. N. Rudenko and M. I. Katsnelson, “Quasiparticle band structure and tight-binging model for single-and bilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(20), 201408 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynksi, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

A. Chamorovskiy, A. V. Marakulin, A. S. Kurkov, T. Leinonen, and O. G. Okhonikov, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched Holmium fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(3), 679–683 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, J. Xu, and P. Wang, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched 2 μm thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5319–5322 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wei, D. P. Zhou, H. Y. Fan, and W. K. Liu, “Graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 1853–1855 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

B. Dong, J. Z. Hao, J. H. Hu, and C. Y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(2), 105–107 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “In-situ monitoring of optical deposition of carbon nanotubes onto fiber end,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5711–5715 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. J. Zayhowski and P. L. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(9), 2220–2225 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

Analytis, J. G.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Bao, Q. L.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched Ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chamorovskiy, A.

A. Chamorovskiy, A. V. Marakulin, A. S. Kurkov, T. Leinonen, and O. G. Okhonikov, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched Holmium fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(3), 679–683 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chardon, A. M.

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

Chi, C.

J. Lee, M. Jung, J. Koo, C. Chi, and J. H. Lee, “Passively Q-switched 1.89 μm fiber laser using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 31–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chu, J. H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarkson, W. A.

Dai, X.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doganov, R. A.

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, B.

B. Dong, J. Z. Hao, J. H. Hu, and C. Y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(2), 105–107 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

Fan, D. Y.

Fan, H. Y.

L. Wei, D. P. Zhou, H. Y. Fan, and W. K. Liu, “Graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 1853–1855 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, I. R.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gini, E.

Girard, S.

Grodecki, K.

Guo, Z.

Guo, Z. N.

Hao, J. Z.

B. Dong, J. Z. Hao, J. H. Hu, and C. Y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(2), 105–107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Häring, R.

Haus, H. A.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hennrich, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hu, J. H.

B. Dong, J. Z. Hao, J. H. Hu, and C. Y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(2), 105–107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Huang, Y.

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ACS Nano (1)

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
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J. Lee, M. Jung, J. Koo, C. Chi, and J. H. Lee, “Passively Q-switched 1.89 μm fiber laser using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 31–36 (2015).
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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched Ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The SEM image and (b) the AFM image of the BP NPs, (c) the height profile, (d) corresponding Raman.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical image of the fiber end-facet after deposition. Inset: Schematic diagram of optical deposition for BP NPs, (b) nonlinear transmission curve of the BP-SA, (c) the transmission spectrum of the BP NPs on quartz substrate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The experimental setup of the BP Q-switched THDFL.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The various pulse trains obtained under different pump powers.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) A typical Q-switched pulse train (insert is the large time scale), (b) single pulse profile, (c) the corresponding optical spectrum of the Q-switched THDFL obtained at a pump power of 293 mW, (d) the ratio-frequency optical spectrum at the fundamental frequency.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The pulse duration and the pulse repetition rate as a function of the pump power, (b) the average output power and the single-pulse energy of the Q-switched THDFL as a function of the pump power.

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