Abstract

A dual-frequency liquid crystal polarization grating is fabricated by photoalignment and demonstrated as an optical switch. A high diffraction efficiency up to 95% is obtained for a single first order with circular incident polarization. Via merely alternating the frequency of applied electric field, the switch On and Off time reach 350 μs and 550 μs, respectively. This work supplies a new design for fast-response and high-efficiency optical switch with the merits of easy fabrication and low power consumption.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (5)

J. Heo, J. W. Huh, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, B. Y. Wei, W. Ji, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, F. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary and reconfigurable optical vortex generation: a high-efficiency technique using director-varying liquid crystal fork gratings,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Du, F. Fan, A. M. W. Tam, J. Sun, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. Sing Kwok, “Complex nanoscale-ordered liquid crystal polymer film for high transmittance holographic polarizer,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7191–7195 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Y. Zheng, S. J. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

2012 (5)

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary photo-patterning in liquid crystal alignments using DMD based lithography system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16684–16689 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Srivastava, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, A. Kiselev, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable grating based on orthogonal photo alignments of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031112 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Li, C. Liu, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on tunable aperture,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3306–3308 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

2009 (2)

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(1), 1–47 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, “Dual frequency liquid crystals: a review,” Liq. Cryst. 36(6–7), 717–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

X. J. Wang, Z. D. Huang, J. Feng, X. F. Chen, X. Liang, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal modulator with ultra-wide dynamic range and adjustable driving voltage,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13168–13174 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zheng, J. Song, Y. Liu, F. Guo, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Single-step exposure for two-dimensional electrically-tuneable diffraction grating based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 35(4), 489–499 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

D. Cupelli, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, and F. Nicoletta, “Photoswitching in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024508 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121105 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Presnyakov, K. Asatryan, T. Galstian, and V. Chigrinov, “Optical polarization grating induced liquid crystal micro-structure using azo-dye command layer,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10558–10564 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed variable optical attenuator with submillisecond response time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(3), 1292–1295 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wen and S. T. Wu, “Dielectric heating effects of dual-frequency liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(23), 231104 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W. Lee and H. C. Chen, “Diffraction efficiency of a holographic grating in a liquid-crystal cell composed of asymmetrically patterned electrodes,” Nanotechnology 14(9), 987–990 (2003).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. V. Berry, “The adiabatic phase and Pancharatnam’s phase for polarized light,” J. Mod. Opt. 34(11), 1401–1407 (1987).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

M. Schadt, “Low-frequency dielectric relaxations in nematics and dual-frequency addressing of field effects,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 89(1–4), 77–92 (1982).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

S. Pancharatnam, “Generalized theory of interference, and its applications. Part I. Coherent pencils,” Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. A 44, 247–262 (1952).

Asatryan, K.

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry, “The adiabatic phase and Pancharatnam’s phase for polarized light,” J. Mod. Opt. 34(11), 1401–1407 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. C.

W. Lee and H. C. Chen, “Diffraction efficiency of a holographic grating in a liquid-crystal cell composed of asymmetrically patterned electrodes,” Nanotechnology 14(9), 987–990 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, B. Y. Wei, W. Ji, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, F. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary and reconfigurable optical vortex generation: a high-efficiency technique using director-varying liquid crystal fork gratings,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Y. Zheng, S. J. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. F.

Chen, Y.

Chidichimo, G.

D. Cupelli, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, and F. Nicoletta, “Photoswitching in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Y. Zheng, S. J. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, B. Y. Wei, W. Ji, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, F. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary and reconfigurable optical vortex generation: a high-efficiency technique using director-varying liquid crystal fork gratings,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Srivastava, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, A. Kiselev, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable grating based on orthogonal photo alignments of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031112 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary photo-patterning in liquid crystal alignments using DMD based lithography system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16684–16689 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Presnyakov, K. Asatryan, T. Galstian, and V. Chigrinov, “Optical polarization grating induced liquid crystal micro-structure using azo-dye command layer,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10558–10564 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V. G.

T. Du, F. Fan, A. M. W. Tam, J. Sun, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. Sing Kwok, “Complex nanoscale-ordered liquid crystal polymer film for high transmittance holographic polarizer,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7191–7195 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Q. Wang, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Switchable Fresnel lens based on micropatterned alignment,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1775–1777 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. W.

Cipparrone, G.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cui, G. X.

Cui, H. Q.

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cupelli, D.

D. Cupelli, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, and F. Nicoletta, “Photoswitching in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024508 (2006).
[Crossref]

De Filpo, G.

D. Cupelli, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, and F. Nicoletta, “Photoswitching in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Du, F.

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed variable optical attenuator with submillisecond response time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(3), 1292–1295 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[Crossref]

Du, T.

T. Du, F. Fan, A. M. W. Tam, J. Sun, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. Sing Kwok, “Complex nanoscale-ordered liquid crystal polymer film for high transmittance holographic polarizer,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7191–7195 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, F.

T. Du, F. Fan, A. M. W. Tam, J. Sun, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. Sing Kwok, “Complex nanoscale-ordered liquid crystal polymer film for high transmittance holographic polarizer,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7191–7195 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, J.

Friends, M.

Galstian, T.

Ge, S. J.

P. Chen, B. Y. Wei, W. Ji, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, F. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary and reconfigurable optical vortex generation: a high-efficiency technique using director-varying liquid crystal fork gratings,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Y. Zheng, S. J. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Ge, W. Ji, G. X. Cui, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable optical vortex generator based on blue phase liquid crystal fork grating,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(12), 2535–2541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, F.

Z. Zheng, J. Song, Y. Liu, F. Guo, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Single-step exposure for two-dimensional electrically-tuneable diffraction grating based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 35(4), 489–499 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

J. Heo, J. W. Huh, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, Y. C.

Hsu, J. S.

Hu, H. C.

Hu, W.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Y. Zheng, S. J. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, B. Y. Wei, W. Ji, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, F. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary and reconfigurable optical vortex generation: a high-efficiency technique using director-varying liquid crystal fork gratings,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Ge, W. Ji, G. X. Cui, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable optical vortex generator based on blue phase liquid crystal fork grating,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(12), 2535–2541 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Srivastava, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, A. Kiselev, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable grating based on orthogonal photo alignments of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031112 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary photo-patterning in liquid crystal alignments using DMD based lithography system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16684–16689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. K.

Huang, Z. D.

Huh, J. W.

J. Heo, J. W. Huh, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jarem, J. M.

Ji, W.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Y. Zheng, S. J. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, B. Y. Wei, W. Ji, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, F. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary and reconfigurable optical vortex generation: a high-efficiency technique using director-varying liquid crystal fork gratings,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. J. Ge, W. Ji, G. X. Cui, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable optical vortex generator based on blue phase liquid crystal fork grating,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(12), 2535–2541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kimball, B.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(1), 1–47 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kiselev, A.

A. Srivastava, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, A. Kiselev, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable grating based on orthogonal photo alignments of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kowel, S. T.

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kulick, J. H.

Kwok, H. S.

Lee, W.

Leslie, T. M.

Li, J. N.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Li, Y.

Liang, X.

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. J. Wang, Z. D. Huang, J. Feng, X. F. Chen, X. Liang, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal modulator with ultra-wide dynamic range and adjustable driving voltage,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13168–13174 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed variable optical attenuator with submillisecond response time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(3), 1292–1295 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. L.

H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, “Dual frequency liquid crystals: a review,” Liq. Cryst. 36(6–7), 717–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, X. W.

Lin, Y. T.

Lindquist, R. G.

Liu, C.

Liu, Y.

Z. Zheng, J. Song, Y. Liu, F. Guo, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Single-step exposure for two-dimensional electrically-tuneable diffraction grating based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 35(4), 489–499 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lu, J. G.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. Q.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Y. Zheng, S. J. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, B. Y. Wei, W. Ji, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, F. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary and reconfigurable optical vortex generation: a high-efficiency technique using director-varying liquid crystal fork gratings,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Ge, W. Ji, G. X. Cui, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable optical vortex generator based on blue phase liquid crystal fork grating,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(12), 2535–2541 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Srivastava, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, A. Kiselev, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable grating based on orthogonal photo alignments of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031112 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, W. Hu, H. C. Hu, X. W. Lin, G. Zhu, J. W. Choi, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary photo-patterning in liquid crystal alignments using DMD based lithography system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16684–16689 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. J. Wang, Z. D. Huang, J. Feng, X. F. Chen, X. Liang, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal modulator with ultra-wide dynamic range and adjustable driving voltage,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13168–13174 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed variable optical attenuator with submillisecond response time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(3), 1292–1295 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

Z. Zheng, J. Song, Y. Liu, F. Guo, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Single-step exposure for two-dimensional electrically-tuneable diffraction grating based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 35(4), 489–499 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ming, Y.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Y. Zheng, S. J. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nersisyan, S.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(1), 1–47 (2009).
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D. Cupelli, G. De Filpo, G. Chidichimo, and F. Nicoletta, “Photoswitching in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024508 (2006).
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Pagliusi, P.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121105 (2006).
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S. Pancharatnam, “Generalized theory of interference, and its applications. Part I. Coherent pencils,” Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. A 44, 247–262 (1952).

Presnyakov, V.

Provenzano, C.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rubin, S.

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
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M. Schadt, “Low-frequency dielectric relaxations in nematics and dual-frequency addressing of field effects,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 89(1–4), 77–92 (1982).
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Schmitt, K.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Shen, D.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H. P. D.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sing Kwok, H.

T. Du, F. Fan, A. M. W. Tam, J. Sun, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. Sing Kwok, “Complex nanoscale-ordered liquid crystal polymer film for high transmittance holographic polarizer,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7191–7195 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

Z. Zheng, J. Song, Y. Liu, F. Guo, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Single-step exposure for two-dimensional electrically-tuneable diffraction grating based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 35(4), 489–499 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, A.

A. Srivastava, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, A. Kiselev, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable grating based on orthogonal photo alignments of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, A. K.

Steeves, D.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(1), 1–47 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

T. Du, F. Fan, A. M. W. Tam, J. Sun, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. Sing Kwok, “Complex nanoscale-ordered liquid crystal polymer film for high transmittance holographic polarizer,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7191–7195 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, X. F.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tabiryan, N.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Optical axis gratings in liquid crystals and their use for polarization insensitive optical switching,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(1), 1–47 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tam, A. M. W.

T. Du, F. Fan, A. M. W. Tam, J. Sun, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. Sing Kwok, “Complex nanoscale-ordered liquid crystal polymer film for high transmittance holographic polarizer,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7191–7195 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, C. Y.

Timofeev, I.

Tsutsumi, O.

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vithana, H.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. F.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. T.

Wang, H. Y.

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed variable optical attenuator with submillisecond response time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(3), 1292–1295 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. G.

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. H.

Wang, X. J.

Wang, X. Q.

Wei, B. Y.

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Y. Zheng, S. J. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, B. Y. Wei, W. Ji, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, F. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary and reconfigurable optical vortex generation: a high-efficiency technique using director-varying liquid crystal fork gratings,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. J. Ge, W. Ji, G. X. Cui, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable optical vortex generator based on blue phase liquid crystal fork grating,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(12), 2535–2541 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. H. Wen and S. T. Wu, “Dielectric heating effects of dual-frequency liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(23), 231104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. Y.

Wu, H.

Wu, S. T.

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, “Dual frequency liquid crystals: a review,” Liq. Cryst. 36(6–7), 717–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wen and S. T. Wu, “Dielectric heating effects of dual-frequency liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(23), 231104 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed variable optical attenuator with submillisecond response time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(3), 1292–1295 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. H.

X. Liang, Y. Q. Lu, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, H. Y. Wang, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed variable optical attenuator with submillisecond response time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(3), 1292–1295 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xianyu, H.

H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, and C. L. Lin, “Dual frequency liquid crystals: a review,” Liq. Cryst. 36(6–7), 717–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

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P. Chen, B. Y. Wei, W. Ji, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, F. Xu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Arbitrary and reconfigurable optical vortex generation: a high-efficiency technique using director-varying liquid crystal fork gratings,” Photonics Res. 3(4), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xuan, L.

Z. Zheng, J. Song, Y. Liu, F. Guo, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Single-step exposure for two-dimensional electrically-tuneable diffraction grating based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 35(4), 489–499 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

Yoon, T. H.

J. Heo, J. W. Huh, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, L. Y.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Y. Zheng, S. J. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Z.

Z. Zheng, J. Song, Y. Liu, F. Guo, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Single-step exposure for two-dimensional electrically-tuneable diffraction grating based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 35(4), 489–499 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z. G.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

Zou, Y. H.

Zyryanov, V. Y.

Adv. Mater. (2)

T. Du, F. Fan, A. M. W. Tam, J. Sun, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. Sing Kwok, “Complex nanoscale-ordered liquid crystal polymer film for high transmittance holographic polarizer,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7191–7195 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIP Adv. (1)

J. Heo, J. W. Huh, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Srivastava, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, A. Kiselev, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast switchable grating based on orthogonal photo alignments of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031112 (2012).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Top views of the director distributions at (a) On and (b) Off states of the DFLC polarization grating, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Theoretical director distribution of polarization gratings. (b) The micrograph of a DFLC polarization grating with crossed polarizers. Scale bar: 50 μm. (c) Diffraction pattern captured by CCD without applied field for linearly polarized incident light.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Voltage dependent efficiency curves of circularly polarized incident light at frequencies of (a) 1 kHz and (b) 65 kHz, respectively. Diffraction patterns of (c) Off state and On states of (d) right (R) and (e) left (L) incident circular polarization.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Switch performance of the sample (black line) and the applied signals (blue line).

Equations (3)

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T(x) = R(α)( exp(iΓ/2) 0 0 exp(iΓ/2) )R(α) =cos Γ 2 Iisin Γ 2 ( cos 2πx Λ sin 2πx Λ sin 2πx Λ cos 2πx Λ ),
D m = 1 Λ 0 Λ T(x) E in e i2πmx/Λ dx.
η 0 = cos 2 Γ 2 , η ±1 = 1± S 3 ' 2 sin 2 Γ 2 , η m =0 (m0,±1),

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