Abstract

Nonlinear optical refraction properties of azo dye doped nematic liquid crystals were investigated with a He-Ne laser (λ = 632.8 nm) as off-resonant light irradiation using spatial self-phase modulation method. Compared with the experimental results of resonant light (λ = 532 nm), the sample irradiated by He-Ne laser exhibited lower optical threshold and the number of diffraction rings was sensitive to the laser polarization. The mechanism of nonlinear optical response of azo dye doped nematic liquid crystals at 632.8 nm could be mainly attributed to photoisomerization effect. Moreover, the diffractions of holographic gratings recorded by He-Ne laser in azo dye doped liquid crystals were consistent with the grating formation based on photoisomerization effect.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Khoshsima, H. Goodarzi, S. A. Kandijani, and R. A. Sabet, “The study of dynamic behavior of transient grating in azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 560(1), 62–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Lucchetti and J. Tasseva, “Optically recorded tunable microlenses based on dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181111 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

X. Tong and Y. Zhao, “Multiple photochemical processes in liquid crystalline azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 21(17), 4047–4054 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

C. Torres-Torres, A. V. Khomenko, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, Y. Mao, and W. H. Watson, “Measurements of nonlinear optical refraction and absorption in an amino-triazole push-pull derivative by a vectorial self-diffraction method,” Opt. Commun. 281(12), 3369–3374 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Photo-triggered surface relief grating formation in supramolecular liquid crystalline polymer systems with detachable azobenzene units,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 516–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, E. Brasselet, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Light-induced orientational effects in periodic photonic structures with pure and dye-doped nematic liquid crystal defects,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053823 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(3), 370–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, “Pretransitional enhancement of the optical nonlinearity of thin dye-doped liquid crystals in the nematic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151117 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Fuh, H. C. Lin, T. S. Mo, and C. H. Chen, “Nonlinear optical property of azo-dye doped liquid crystals determined by biphotonic Z-scan technique,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10634–10641 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Becchi, I. Janossy, D. S. Shankar Rao, and D. Statman, “Anomalous intensity dependence of optical reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(5), 051707 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(3), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic grating in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4285–4287 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Statman and I. Janossy, “Study of photoisomerization of azo dyes in liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3222–3232 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photoinduced reorientation and thermal effects in an oligothiophene-doped liquid crystal system,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5558–5563 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(4), 4598–4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1992 (2)

1990 (1)

I. Janossy, A. D. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherrett, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition in an absorbing liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179(1), 1–12 (1990).

1981 (1)

Arakelian, S. M.

Becchi, M.

M. Becchi, I. Janossy, D. S. Shankar Rao, and D. Statman, “Anomalous intensity dependence of optical reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(5), 051707 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brady, D. J.

Brasselet, E.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, E. Brasselet, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Light-induced orientational effects in periodic photonic structures with pure and dye-doped nematic liquid crystal defects,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053823 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, A. G.

Chen, C. H.

Chen, C. P.

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K.-T.

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic grating in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4285–4287 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chu, C.-W.

De Sio, L.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durbin, S. D.

Fabrizio, M. D.

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(3), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ferjani, S.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francescangeli, O.

L. Lucchetti, F. Vita, E. Scharrer, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Optical nonlinearity in the nematic phase of bent-core mesogens,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 2953–2956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(3), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fu, T.-L.

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic grating in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4285–4287 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fuh, A. Y.

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

H.-C. Lin, C.-W. Chu, M.-S. Li, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Biphotonic-induced reorientation inversion in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13118–13125 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic grating in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4285–4287 (2003).
[Crossref]

Galstian, T.

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(3), 370–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gao, H. Y.

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gentili, M.

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, “Pretransitional enhancement of the optical nonlinearity of thin dye-doped liquid crystals in the nematic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Goodarzi, H.

H. Khoshsima, H. Goodarzi, S. A. Kandijani, and R. A. Sabet, “The study of dynamic behavior of transient grating in azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 560(1), 62–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, G. H.

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Z. H.

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, T.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photoinduced reorientation and thermal effects in an oligothiophene-doped liquid crystal system,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5558–5563 (2002).
[Crossref]

Janossy, I.

M. Becchi, I. Janossy, D. S. Shankar Rao, and D. Statman, “Anomalous intensity dependence of optical reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(5), 051707 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Statman and I. Janossy, “Study of photoisomerization of azo dyes in liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3222–3232 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. Janossy, A. D. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherrett, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition in an absorbing liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179(1), 1–12 (1990).

Jánossy, I.

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(4), 4598–4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Jánossy and T. Kósa, “Influence of anthraquinone dyes on optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 17(17), 1183–1185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanazawa, A.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photoinduced reorientation and thermal effects in an oligothiophene-doped liquid crystal system,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5558–5563 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kandijani, S. A.

H. Khoshsima, H. Goodarzi, S. A. Kandijani, and R. A. Sabet, “The study of dynamic behavior of transient grating in azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 560(1), 62–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kato, J.

Khomenko, A. V.

C. Torres-Torres, A. V. Khomenko, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, Y. Mao, and W. H. Watson, “Measurements of nonlinear optical refraction and absorption in an amino-triazole push-pull derivative by a vectorial self-diffraction method,” Opt. Commun. 281(12), 3369–3374 (2008).
[Crossref]

Khoshsima, H.

H. Khoshsima, H. Goodarzi, S. A. Kandijani, and R. A. Sabet, “The study of dynamic behavior of transient grating in azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 560(1), 62–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, E. Brasselet, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Light-induced orientational effects in periodic photonic structures with pure and dye-doped nematic liquid crystal defects,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053823 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kósa, T.

Lee, C.-R.

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic grating in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4285–4287 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, H. J.

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-S.

Li, X.

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. C.

Lin, H.-C.

Lloyd, A. D.

I. Janossy, A. D. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherrett, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition in an absorbing liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179(1), 1–12 (1990).

Lu, J. G.

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lucchetti, L.

L. Lucchetti, F. Vita, E. Scharrer, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Optical nonlinearity in the nematic phase of bent-core mesogens,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 2953–2956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti and J. Tasseva, “Optically recorded tunable microlenses based on dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181111 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, “Pretransitional enhancement of the optical nonlinearity of thin dye-doped liquid crystals in the nematic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151117 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(3), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mao, Y.

C. Torres-Torres, A. V. Khomenko, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, Y. Mao, and W. H. Watson, “Measurements of nonlinear optical refraction and absorption in an amino-triazole push-pull derivative by a vectorial self-diffraction method,” Opt. Commun. 281(12), 3369–3374 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, E. Brasselet, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Light-induced orientational effects in periodic photonic structures with pure and dye-doped nematic liquid crystal defects,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053823 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mizoshita, N.

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Photo-triggered surface relief grating formation in supramolecular liquid crystalline polymer systems with detachable azobenzene units,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 516–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mo, T. S.

Mo, T.-S.

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic grating in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4285–4287 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nagano, S.

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Photo-triggered surface relief grating formation in supramolecular liquid crystalline polymer systems with detachable azobenzene units,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 516–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ogasawara, T.

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Photo-triggered surface relief grating formation in supramolecular liquid crystalline polymer systems with detachable azobenzene units,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 516–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

C. Torres-Torres, A. V. Khomenko, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, Y. Mao, and W. H. Watson, “Measurements of nonlinear optical refraction and absorption in an amino-triazole push-pull derivative by a vectorial self-diffraction method,” Opt. Commun. 281(12), 3369–3374 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sabet, R. A.

H. Khoshsima, H. Goodarzi, S. A. Kandijani, and R. A. Sabet, “The study of dynamic behavior of transient grating in azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 560(1), 62–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scharrer, E.

Seki, T.

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Photo-triggered surface relief grating formation in supramolecular liquid crystalline polymer systems with detachable azobenzene units,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 516–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Serak, S.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shankar Rao, D. S.

M. Becchi, I. Janossy, D. S. Shankar Rao, and D. Statman, “Anomalous intensity dependence of optical reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(5), 051707 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

Shiino, S.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photoinduced reorientation and thermal effects in an oligothiophene-doped liquid crystal system,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5558–5563 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shiono, T.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photoinduced reorientation and thermal effects in an oligothiophene-doped liquid crystal system,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5558–5563 (2002).
[Crossref]

Simoni, F.

L. Lucchetti, F. Vita, E. Scharrer, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Optical nonlinearity in the nematic phase of bent-core mesogens,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 2953–2956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, “Pretransitional enhancement of the optical nonlinearity of thin dye-doped liquid crystals in the nematic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151117 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(3), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Statman, D.

M. Becchi, I. Janossy, D. S. Shankar Rao, and D. Statman, “Anomalous intensity dependence of optical reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(5), 051707 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Statman and I. Janossy, “Study of photoisomerization of azo dyes in liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3222–3232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

Szabados, L.

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(4), 4598–4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tabiryan, N.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamayo-Rivera, L.

C. Torres-Torres, A. V. Khomenko, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, Y. Mao, and W. H. Watson, “Measurements of nonlinear optical refraction and absorption in an amino-triazole push-pull derivative by a vectorial self-diffraction method,” Opt. Commun. 281(12), 3369–3374 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

Tasseva, J.

L. Lucchetti and J. Tasseva, “Optically recorded tunable microlenses based on dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tong, X.

X. Tong and Y. Zhao, “Multiple photochemical processes in liquid crystalline azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 21(17), 4047–4054 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(3), 370–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Torres-Torres, C.

C. Torres-Torres, A. V. Khomenko, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, Y. Mao, and W. H. Watson, “Measurements of nonlinear optical refraction and absorption in an amino-triazole push-pull derivative by a vectorial self-diffraction method,” Opt. Commun. 281(12), 3369–3374 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsutsumi, O.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photoinduced reorientation and thermal effects in an oligothiophene-doped liquid crystal system,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5558–5563 (2002).
[Crossref]

Umeton, C.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veltri, A.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vita, F.

Wang, G.

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(3), 370–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Watson, W. H.

C. Torres-Torres, A. V. Khomenko, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, Y. Mao, and W. H. Watson, “Measurements of nonlinear optical refraction and absorption in an amino-triazole push-pull derivative by a vectorial self-diffraction method,” Opt. Commun. 281(12), 3369–3374 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wherrett, B. S.

I. Janossy, A. D. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherrett, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition in an absorbing liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179(1), 1–12 (1990).

Xiong, Y.

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, I.

Yavrian, A.

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(3), 370–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z. C.

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zettsu, N.

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Photo-triggered surface relief grating formation in supramolecular liquid crystalline polymer systems with detachable azobenzene units,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 516–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photoinduced reorientation and thermal effects in an oligothiophene-doped liquid crystal system,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5558–5563 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

X. Tong and Y. Zhao, “Multiple photochemical processes in liquid crystalline azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 21(17), 4047–4054 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(3), 370–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(3), 370–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Photo-triggered surface relief grating formation in supramolecular liquid crystalline polymer systems with detachable azobenzene units,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 516–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic grating in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4285–4287 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Lucchetti and J. Tasseva, “Optically recorded tunable microlenses based on dye-doped liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181111 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, “Pretransitional enhancement of the optical nonlinearity of thin dye-doped liquid crystals in the nematic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

X. Tong and Y. Zhao, “Multiple photochemical processes in liquid crystalline azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 21(17), 4047–4054 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photoinduced reorientation and thermal effects in an oligothiophene-doped liquid crystal system,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5558–5563 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. Statman and I. Janossy, “Study of photoisomerization of azo dyes in liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3222–3232 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

X. Li, C. P. Chen, H. Y. Gao, Z. H. He, Y. Xiong, H. J. Li, W. Hu, Z. C. Ye, G. H. He, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Video-rate holographic display using azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 438–443 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (2)

I. Janossy, A. D. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherrett, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition in an absorbing liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179(1), 1–12 (1990).

H. Khoshsima, H. Goodarzi, S. A. Kandijani, and R. A. Sabet, “The study of dynamic behavior of transient grating in azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 560(1), 62–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(3), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Torres-Torres, A. V. Khomenko, L. Tamayo-Rivera, R. Rangel-Rojo, Y. Mao, and W. H. Watson, “Measurements of nonlinear optical refraction and absorption in an amino-triazole push-pull derivative by a vectorial self-diffraction method,” Opt. Commun. 281(12), 3369–3374 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. E. Miroshnichenko, E. Brasselet, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Light-induced orientational effects in periodic photonic structures with pure and dye-doped nematic liquid crystal defects,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053823 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

M. Becchi, I. Janossy, D. S. Shankar Rao, and D. Statman, “Anomalous intensity dependence of optical reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(5), 051707 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(4), 4598–4604 (1998).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Absorption spectra of nematic liquid crystals doped with ~0.5 wt. % DR1 sandwiched between two substrates. and ⊥ correspond to the polarization directions of the probe light being parallel and perpendicular to the rubbing direction, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photographs of spatial self-phase modulation diffraction rings in DR1 doped liquid crystals irradiated with various intensities: (a) 0.51 W/cm2, (b) 0.70 W/cm2, (c) 0.89 W/cm2, (d) 1.09 W/cm2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The number of diffraction rings in DR1 doped liquid crystals as a function of laser intensity under He-Ne laser and CW Nd:YAG laser irradiations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The number of diffraction rings in DR1 doped liquid crystals versus the direction of laser polarization for (a) λ = 632.8 nm, (b) λ = 532 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 First-order self-diffraction intensities of holographic gratings recorded by He-Ne laser in DR1 doped nematic liquid crystals for different DR1 concentrations with the same recording intensities of 160 mW/cm2. Inset, photograph of self-diffraction in nematic liquid crystals doped with 0.5% DR1.

Equations (1)

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N= Δ ϕ 0 2π = 1 λ d/2 d/2 Δn(z)dz

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