Abstract

Using a series of different concentration polymer-free graphene oxide (GO) films as saturable absorbers (SAs), we demonstrate high-power passively continuous-wave mode-locking (CW-ML) and Q-switching mode-locking (QS-ML) for a Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1 μm. CW-ML pulses of 6.62 ps with maximum output power of 3.89 W have been achieved to give the highest pulse peak power of 4.85 kW and pulse energy of 32.14 nJ under 15-W pumping by using SAs of 84.4% transmittance. Using SAs with a lower transmittance having a larger modulation depth of 75.9% and 63.4%, we obtain both the CW-ML pulses of 4.85-ps and QS-ML pulses with 2.73 W and 1.92 W output powers, respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

2015 (13)

H. R. Chen, C. Y. Tsai, C. Y. Chang, K. H. Lin, C. S. Chang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Investigation of graphene dispersion from Kelly sideband in stable mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser by few-layer graphene saturable absorbers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 4406–4412 (2015).

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Boguslawski, G. Sobon, R. Zybala, and J. Sotor, “Dissipative soliton generation in Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2786–2789 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. Wang, Q. Song, Y. Gao, B. Zhang, W. Wang, M. Wang, Q. Zhang, W. Liu, D. Sun, F. Peng, and G. Sun, “Passively Q-switched mode locking performance of Nd:GdTaO4 crystal by MoS2 saturable absorber at 1066 nm,” Appl. Opt. 54(18), 5829–5832 (2015).
[PubMed]

B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Ning, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3691–3694 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Multilayer graphene-based saturable absorbers with scalable modulation depth for mode-locked Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 2884–2894 (2015).

D. Mao, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, C. J. Ma, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. B. Zheng, and J. L. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).

K. Yin, B. Zhang, L. Li, T. Jiang, X. F. Zhou, and J. Hou, “Soliton mode-locked fiber laser based on topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanosheets at 2 μm,” Photonics Res. 3, 72–76 (2015).

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” Photonics Res. 3, A30–A42 (2015).

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Band-gap modulation of two-dimensional saturable absorbers for solid-state lasers,” Photonics Res. 3, A10–A20 (2015).

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (11)

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, C. Yang, M. Liu, Q. J. Huang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, X. Meng, and F. Y. Liu, “Watt-level passively Q-switched mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1.06 μm using graphene as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 393–397 (2014).

Y. Cai, G. Zhang, and Y. W. Zhang, “Layer-dependent band alignment and work function of few-layer phosphorene,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6677 (2014).
[PubMed]

X. Li, Y. L. Tang, Z. Y. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Z. Liang, H. D. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. P. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1101107 (2014).

S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Stable Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser based on Topological Insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 987 (2014).

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. S. Xiao, H. W. Zhu, Z. P. Sun, and C. X. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1100705 (2014).

L. F. Li, X. L. Zheng, X. M. Chen, M. Qi, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, and Z. P. Sun, “High-power diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG solid laser mode-locked by CVD graphene,” Opt. Commun. 315, 204–207 (2014).

P. X. Li, G. J. Zhang, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, J. J. Chi, Z. Q. Zhao, C. Yang, H. W. Hu, and Y. F. Yao, “Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser by Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 1912–1915 (2014).

F. Bonaccorso and Z. P. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2d crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 63–78 (2014).

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. R. Chen, C. Y. Tsai, H. M. Cheng, K. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Passive mode locking of ytterbium- and erbium-doped all-fiber lasers using graphene oxide saturable absorbers,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12880–12889 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (8)

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[PubMed]

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
[PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2 μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).

C. Feng, Y. G. Wang, J. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, Y. R. Song, and Z. H. Yu, “3 W high-power laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 298, 168–170 (2013).

Y. G. Wang, H. R. Chen, W. F. Hsieh, and Y. H. Tsang, “Mode-locked Nd: GdVO4 laser with graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol composite material absorber as well as an output coupler,” Opt. Commun. 289, 119–122 (2013).

Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

2012 (6)

2011 (5)

H. R. Chen, Y. G. Wang, C. Y. Tsai, K. H. Lin, T. Y. Chang, J. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “High-power, passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser using single-walled carbon nanotubes as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1284–1286 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, Y. Z. Wu, X. P. Hao, J. L. He, and K. J. Yang, “Graphene saturable absorber mirror for ultra-fast-pulse solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1948–1950 (2011).
[PubMed]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 21, 2072–2075 (2011).

Y. G. Wang, H. R. Chen, X. M. Wen, W. F. Hsieh, and J. Tang, “A highly efficient graphene oxide absorber for Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers,” Nanotechnology 22(45), 455203 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (6)

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: Topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. C. Marcano, D. V. Kosynkin, J. M. Berlin, A. Sinitskii, Z. Sun, A. Slesarev, L. B. Alemany, W. Lu, and J. M. Tour, “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4806–4814 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Chiu, Y. F. Lan, C. M. Chang, X. Z. Chen, C. Y. Yeh, C. K. Lee, G. R. Lin, J. J. Lin, and W. H. Cheng, “Concentration effect of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber on stabilizing and shortening mode-locked pulse,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3592–3600 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (5)

G. H. Zhang, H. J. Qin, J. Teng, J. D. Guo, Q. L. Guo, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and K. H. Wu, “Quintuple-layer epitaxy of thin films of topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 053114 (2009).

V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 25–29 (2009).
[PubMed]

H. R. Chen, J. H. Lin, K. T. Song, K. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Passive mode-locking in diode-pumped c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 19–23 (2009).

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

2008 (1)

Z. Wang, H. Zhang, E. Xu, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Z. Shao, “High-power, continuous-wave, Nd:LuVO4 microchip lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 25–28 (2008).

2006 (1)

H. C. Schniepp, J. L. Li, M. J. McAllister, H. Sai, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. H. Adamson, R. K. Prud’homme, R. Car, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(17), 8535–8539 (2006).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

1958 (1)

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 1339 (1958).

Abellan, G.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Abramski, K. M.

Adamson, D. H.

H. C. Schniepp, J. L. Li, M. J. McAllister, H. Sai, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. H. Adamson, R. K. Prud’homme, R. Car, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(17), 8535–8539 (2006).
[PubMed]

Ahn, J. H.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2 μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).

Aksay, I. A.

H. C. Schniepp, J. L. Li, M. J. McAllister, H. Sai, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. H. Adamson, R. K. Prud’homme, R. Car, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(17), 8535–8539 (2006).
[PubMed]

Alemany, L. B.

D. C. Marcano, D. V. Kosynkin, J. M. Berlin, A. Sinitskii, Z. Sun, A. Slesarev, L. B. Alemany, W. Lu, and J. M. Tour, “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4806–4814 (2010).
[PubMed]

Allen, M. J.

V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 25–29 (2009).
[PubMed]

Antipov, O. L.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2 μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).

Backes, C.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Bae, S.

Bai, J. T.

L. F. Li, X. L. Zheng, X. M. Chen, M. Qi, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, and Z. P. Sun, “High-power diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG solid laser mode-locked by CVD graphene,” Opt. Commun. 315, 204–207 (2014).

Bao, Q. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

Beecher, S. J.

Berlin, J. M.

D. C. Marcano, D. V. Kosynkin, J. M. Berlin, A. Sinitskii, Z. Sun, A. Slesarev, L. B. Alemany, W. Lu, and J. M. Tour, “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4806–4814 (2010).
[PubMed]

Berner, N. C.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Bi, D.

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, C. Yang, M. Liu, Q. J. Huang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, X. Meng, and F. Y. Liu, “Watt-level passively Q-switched mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1.06 μm using graphene as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 393–397 (2014).

Blau, W. J.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Boguslawski, J.

Boland, C.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso and Z. P. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2d crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 63–78 (2014).

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Brown, C. T. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2 μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).

Brown, G.

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, G. Zhang, and Y. W. Zhang, “Layer-dependent band alignment and work function of few-layer phosphorene,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6677 (2014).
[PubMed]

Car, R.

H. C. Schniepp, J. L. Li, M. J. McAllister, H. Sai, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. H. Adamson, R. K. Prud’homme, R. Car, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(17), 8535–8539 (2006).
[PubMed]

Chang, C. M.

Chang, C. S.

Chang, C. Y.

Chang, T. Y.

Chen, C. S.

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, C. Yang, M. Liu, Q. J. Huang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, X. Meng, and F. Y. Liu, “Watt-level passively Q-switched mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1.06 μm using graphene as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 393–397 (2014).

Chen, H. R.

H. R. Chen, C. Y. Tsai, C. Y. Chang, K. H. Lin, C. S. Chang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Investigation of graphene dispersion from Kelly sideband in stable mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser by few-layer graphene saturable absorbers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 4406–4412 (2015).

H. R. Chen, C. Y. Tsai, H. M. Cheng, K. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Passive mode locking of ytterbium- and erbium-doped all-fiber lasers using graphene oxide saturable absorbers,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12880–12889 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. G. Wang, H. R. Chen, W. F. Hsieh, and Y. H. Tsang, “Mode-locked Nd: GdVO4 laser with graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol composite material absorber as well as an output coupler,” Opt. Commun. 289, 119–122 (2013).

Y. G. Wang, H. R. Chen, X. M. Wen, W. F. Hsieh, and J. Tang, “A highly efficient graphene oxide absorber for Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers,” Nanotechnology 22(45), 455203 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. R. Chen, Y. G. Wang, C. Y. Tsai, K. H. Lin, T. Y. Chang, J. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “High-power, passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser using single-walled carbon nanotubes as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1284–1286 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. R. Chen, J. H. Lin, K. T. Song, K. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Passive mode-locking in diode-pumped c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 19–23 (2009).

Chen, L. Y.

Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

Chen, S.

Chen, S. Q.

S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Stable Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser based on Topological Insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 987 (2014).

Chen, X. M.

L. F. Li, X. L. Zheng, X. M. Chen, M. Qi, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, and Z. P. Sun, “High-power diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG solid laser mode-locked by CVD graphene,” Opt. Commun. 315, 204–207 (2014).

Chen, X. Z.

Chen, Y.

D. Mao, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, C. J. Ma, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. B. Zheng, and J. L. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).

S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Stable Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser based on Topological Insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 987 (2014).

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[PubMed]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).

Chen, Y. S.

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).

Cheng, H. M.

Cheng, W. H.

Cheng, X. P.

X. Li, Y. L. Tang, Z. Y. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Z. Liang, H. D. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. P. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Chhowalla, M.

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
[PubMed]

Chi, J. J.

P. X. Li, G. J. Zhang, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, J. J. Chi, Z. Q. Zhao, C. Yang, H. W. Hu, and Y. F. Yao, “Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser by Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 1912–1915 (2014).

Chiu, J. C.

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Coleman, J. N.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Cong, Z. H.

Cucinotta, C. S.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Dai, X.

G. H. Zhang, H. J. Qin, J. Teng, J. D. Guo, Q. L. Guo, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and K. H. Wu, “Quintuple-layer epitaxy of thin films of topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 053114 (2009).

Ding, S. J.

Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

Doherty, E.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Du, J.

Duesberg, G. S.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Eda, G.

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
[PubMed]

Fan, D. Y.

Fang, J. X.

Fang, Z.

G. H. Zhang, H. J. Qin, J. Teng, J. D. Guo, Q. L. Guo, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and K. H. Wu, “Quintuple-layer epitaxy of thin films of topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 053114 (2009).

Feng, C.

C. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. J. Liu, Z. H. Cong, H. Rao, Q. P. Wang, and J. X. Fang, “Passively mode-locked Nd3+:YVO4 laser using a molybdenum disulfide as saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 1358–1366 (2016).

C. Feng, Y. G. Wang, J. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, Y. R. Song, and Z. H. Yu, “3 W high-power laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 298, 168–170 (2013).

Ferrari, A. C.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2 μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
[PubMed]

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R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
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D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
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K. Yin, B. Zhang, L. Li, T. Jiang, X. F. Zhou, and J. Hou, “Soliton mode-locked fiber laser based on topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanosheets at 2 μm,” Photonics Res. 3, 72–76 (2015).

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D. C. Marcano, D. V. Kosynkin, J. M. Berlin, A. Sinitskii, Z. Sun, A. Slesarev, L. B. Alemany, W. Lu, and J. M. Tour, “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4806–4814 (2010).
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Luo, Z. C.

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[PubMed]

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D. Mao, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, C. J. Ma, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. B. Zheng, and J. L. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).

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Mao, D.

D. Mao, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, C. J. Ma, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. B. Zheng, and J. L. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[PubMed]

Marcano, D. C.

D. C. Marcano, D. V. Kosynkin, J. M. Berlin, A. Sinitskii, Z. Sun, A. Slesarev, L. B. Alemany, W. Lu, and J. M. Tour, “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4806–4814 (2010).
[PubMed]

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McAllister, M. J.

H. C. Schniepp, J. L. Li, M. J. McAllister, H. Sai, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. H. Adamson, R. K. Prud’homme, R. Car, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(17), 8535–8539 (2006).
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D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Mei, T.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[PubMed]

Meng, B.

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
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X. Li, Y. L. Tang, Z. Y. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Z. Liang, H. D. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. P. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Meng, X.

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, C. Yang, M. Liu, Q. J. Huang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, X. Meng, and F. Y. Liu, “Watt-level passively Q-switched mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1.06 μm using graphene as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 393–397 (2014).

Miao, L. L.

Milana, S.

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
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Moser, M.

Moynihan, G.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

Nicolosi, V.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
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O’Regan, D. D.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
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D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
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Popa, D.

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
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Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).

Popov, S. V.

Prud’homme, R. K.

H. C. Schniepp, J. L. Li, M. J. McAllister, H. Sai, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. H. Adamson, R. K. Prud’homme, R. Car, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(17), 8535–8539 (2006).
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Qi, M.

L. F. Li, X. L. Zheng, X. M. Chen, M. Qi, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, and Z. P. Sun, “High-power diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG solid laser mode-locked by CVD graphene,” Opt. Commun. 315, 204–207 (2014).

Qi, X.

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
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Ren, Z. Y.

L. F. Li, X. L. Zheng, X. M. Chen, M. Qi, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, and Z. P. Sun, “High-power diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG solid laser mode-locked by CVD graphene,” Opt. Commun. 315, 204–207 (2014).

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Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Sai, H.

H. C. Schniepp, J. L. Li, M. J. McAllister, H. Sai, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. H. Adamson, R. K. Prud’homme, R. Car, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(17), 8535–8539 (2006).
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D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
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H. C. Schniepp, J. L. Li, M. J. McAllister, H. Sai, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. H. Adamson, R. K. Prud’homme, R. Car, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(17), 8535–8539 (2006).
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H. C. Schniepp, J. L. Li, M. J. McAllister, H. Sai, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. H. Adamson, R. K. Prud’homme, R. Car, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(17), 8535–8539 (2006).
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Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

Shum, P. P.

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
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Sibbett, W.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2 μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).

Sinitskii, A.

D. C. Marcano, D. V. Kosynkin, J. M. Berlin, A. Sinitskii, Z. Sun, A. Slesarev, L. B. Alemany, W. Lu, and J. M. Tour, “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4806–4814 (2010).
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Slesarev, A.

D. C. Marcano, D. V. Kosynkin, J. M. Berlin, A. Sinitskii, Z. Sun, A. Slesarev, L. B. Alemany, W. Lu, and J. M. Tour, “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4806–4814 (2010).
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Song, K. T.

H. R. Chen, J. H. Lin, K. T. Song, K. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Passive mode-locking in diode-pumped c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 19–23 (2009).

Song, Q.

Song, Y. R.

C. Feng, Y. G. Wang, J. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, Y. R. Song, and Z. H. Yu, “3 W high-power laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 298, 168–170 (2013).

Sotor, J.

Strupinski, W.

Su, C. Y.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).

Su, X.

Sun, D.

Sun, G.

Sun, H. D.

X. Li, Y. L. Tang, Z. Y. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Z. Liang, H. D. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. P. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Sun, Q. Q.

Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

Sun, W.

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, W. Sun, Z. H. Han, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, J. M. Li, and J. Tang, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with sandwich structured wallpaper graphene oxide absorber,” Laser Phys. 22, 133–136 (2012).

Sun, Z.

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
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A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2 μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
[PubMed]

D. C. Marcano, D. V. Kosynkin, J. M. Berlin, A. Sinitskii, Z. Sun, A. Slesarev, L. B. Alemany, W. Lu, and J. M. Tour, “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4806–4814 (2010).
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Sun, Z. P.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. S. Xiao, H. W. Zhu, Z. P. Sun, and C. X. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1100705 (2014).

L. F. Li, X. L. Zheng, X. M. Chen, M. Qi, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, and Z. P. Sun, “High-power diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG solid laser mode-locked by CVD graphene,” Opt. Commun. 315, 204–207 (2014).

F. Bonaccorso and Z. P. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2d crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 63–78 (2014).

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Sundaram, R. S.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2 μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Tan, W. D.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

Tang, J.

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, W. Sun, Z. H. Han, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, J. M. Li, and J. Tang, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with sandwich structured wallpaper graphene oxide absorber,” Laser Phys. 22, 133–136 (2012).

Y. G. Wang, H. R. Chen, X. M. Wen, W. F. Hsieh, and J. Tang, “A highly efficient graphene oxide absorber for Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers,” Nanotechnology 22(45), 455203 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. R. Chen, Y. G. Wang, C. Y. Tsai, K. H. Lin, T. Y. Chang, J. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “High-power, passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser using single-walled carbon nanotubes as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1284–1286 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tang, Y. L.

X. Li, Y. L. Tang, Z. Y. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Z. Liang, H. D. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. P. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Taylor, J. R.

Teng, J.

G. H. Zhang, H. J. Qin, J. Teng, J. D. Guo, Q. L. Guo, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and K. H. Wu, “Quintuple-layer epitaxy of thin films of topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 053114 (2009).

Tian, J. G.

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).

Torrisi, F.

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” Photonics Res. 3, A30–A42 (2015).

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2 μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).

Tour, J. M.

D. C. Marcano, D. V. Kosynkin, J. M. Berlin, A. Sinitskii, Z. Sun, A. Slesarev, L. B. Alemany, W. Lu, and J. M. Tour, “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4806–4814 (2010).
[PubMed]

Travers, J. C.

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).

Tsai, C. Y.

Tsang, Y. H.

C. Feng, Y. G. Wang, J. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, Y. R. Song, and Z. H. Yu, “3 W high-power laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 298, 168–170 (2013).

Y. G. Wang, H. R. Chen, W. F. Hsieh, and Y. H. Tsang, “Mode-locked Nd: GdVO4 laser with graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol composite material absorber as well as an output coupler,” Opt. Commun. 289, 119–122 (2013).

Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, J. Liu, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene oxide absorbers for watt-level high-power passive mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser operating at 1 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3259–3262 (2012).

Tung, V. C.

V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 25–29 (2009).
[PubMed]

Wan, L.

Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

Wang, F. Q.

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Wang, G.

Wang, J.

C. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. J. Liu, Z. H. Cong, H. Rao, Q. P. Wang, and J. X. Fang, “Passively mode-locked Nd3+:YVO4 laser using a molybdenum disulfide as saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 1358–1366 (2016).

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Zhang, E. Xu, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Z. Shao, “High-power, continuous-wave, Nd:LuVO4 microchip lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 25–28 (2008).

Wang, K.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, M.

Wang, P.

Wang, P. F.

Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

Wang, Q. J.

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. Li, Y. L. Tang, Z. Y. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Z. Liang, H. D. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. P. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Wang, Q. P.

Wang, S. X.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Band-gap modulation of two-dimensional saturable absorbers for solid-state lasers,” Photonics Res. 3, A10–A20 (2015).

Wang, W.

Wang, X. B.

Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

Wang, Y.

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
[PubMed]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[PubMed]

X. Li, Y. L. Tang, Z. Y. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Z. Liang, H. D. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. P. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

Wang, Y. G.

C. Feng, Y. G. Wang, J. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, Y. R. Song, and Z. H. Yu, “3 W high-power laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 298, 168–170 (2013).

Y. G. Wang, H. R. Chen, W. F. Hsieh, and Y. H. Tsang, “Mode-locked Nd: GdVO4 laser with graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol composite material absorber as well as an output coupler,” Opt. Commun. 289, 119–122 (2013).

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, W. Sun, Z. H. Han, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, J. M. Li, and J. Tang, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with sandwich structured wallpaper graphene oxide absorber,” Laser Phys. 22, 133–136 (2012).

Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, J. Liu, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene oxide absorbers for watt-level high-power passive mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser operating at 1 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3259–3262 (2012).

H. R. Chen, Y. G. Wang, C. Y. Tsai, K. H. Lin, T. Y. Chang, J. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “High-power, passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser using single-walled carbon nanotubes as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1284–1286 (2011).
[PubMed]

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 21, 2072–2075 (2011).

Y. G. Wang, H. R. Chen, X. M. Wen, W. F. Hsieh, and J. Tang, “A highly efficient graphene oxide absorber for Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers,” Nanotechnology 22(45), 455203 (2011).
[PubMed]

Wang, Z.

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Zhang, E. Xu, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Z. Shao, “High-power, continuous-wave, Nd:LuVO4 microchip lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 25–28 (2008).

Wang, Z. T.

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).

Wen, S.

Wen, S. C.

Wen, X. M.

Y. G. Wang, H. R. Chen, X. M. Wen, W. F. Hsieh, and J. Tang, “A highly efficient graphene oxide absorber for Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers,” Nanotechnology 22(45), 455203 (2011).
[PubMed]

Woodward, R. I.

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” Photonics Res. 3, A30–A42 (2015).

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[PubMed]

Wu, K.

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wu, K. H.

G. H. Zhang, H. J. Qin, J. Teng, J. D. Guo, Q. L. Guo, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and K. H. Wu, “Quintuple-layer epitaxy of thin films of topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 053114 (2009).

Wu, M.

S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Stable Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser based on Topological Insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 987 (2014).

Wu, S.

Wu, Y. P.

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).

Wu, Y. Z.

Xiao, X. S.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. S. Xiao, H. W. Zhu, Z. P. Sun, and C. X. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1100705 (2014).

Xie, G.

Xie, G. Q.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).

Xu, E.

Z. Wang, H. Zhang, E. Xu, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Z. Shao, “High-power, continuous-wave, Nd:LuVO4 microchip lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 25–28 (2008).

Xu, J.

Xu, J. L.

Xu, S. C.

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, C. Yang, M. Liu, Q. J. Huang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, X. Meng, and F. Y. Liu, “Watt-level passively Q-switched mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1.06 μm using graphene as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 393–397 (2014).

Xu, W. C.

Xu, X.

Z. Wang, H. Zhang, E. Xu, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Z. Shao, “High-power, continuous-wave, Nd:LuVO4 microchip lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 25–28 (2008).

Yan, W. B.

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).

Yan, Y. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

Yan, Z. Y.

X. Li, Y. L. Tang, Z. Y. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Z. Liang, H. D. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. P. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Yang, C.

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, C. Yang, M. Liu, Q. J. Huang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, X. Meng, and F. Y. Liu, “Watt-level passively Q-switched mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1.06 μm using graphene as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 393–397 (2014).

P. X. Li, G. J. Zhang, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, J. J. Chi, Z. Q. Zhao, C. Yang, H. W. Hu, and Y. F. Yao, “Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser by Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 1912–1915 (2014).

Yang, C. X.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. S. Xiao, H. W. Zhu, Z. P. Sun, and C. X. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1100705 (2014).

Yang, K.

Yang, K. J.

Yang, Q. H.

Yang, S. B.

Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

Yang, Y.

V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 25–29 (2009).
[PubMed]

Yao, Y. F.

P. X. Li, G. J. Zhang, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, J. J. Chi, Z. Q. Zhao, C. Yang, H. W. Hu, and Y. F. Yao, “Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser by Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 1912–1915 (2014).

Yeh, C. Y.

Yin, K.

K. Yin, B. Zhang, L. Li, T. Jiang, X. F. Zhou, and J. Hou, “Soliton mode-locked fiber laser based on topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanosheets at 2 μm,” Photonics Res. 3, 72–76 (2015).

Yu, H. H.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Band-gap modulation of two-dimensional saturable absorbers for solid-state lasers,” Photonics Res. 3, A10–A20 (2015).

Yu, H. J.

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, W. Sun, Z. H. Han, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, J. M. Li, and J. Tang, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with sandwich structured wallpaper graphene oxide absorber,” Laser Phys. 22, 133–136 (2012).

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 21, 2072–2075 (2011).

Yu, X.

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. Li, Y. L. Tang, Z. Y. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Z. Liang, H. D. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. P. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Yu, Z. H.

C. Feng, Y. G. Wang, J. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, Y. R. Song, and Z. H. Yu, “3 W high-power laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 298, 168–170 (2013).

Yuan, P.

Zdrojek, M.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, C.

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, C. Yang, M. Liu, Q. J. Huang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, X. Meng, and F. Y. Liu, “Watt-level passively Q-switched mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1.06 μm using graphene as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 393–397 (2014).

Zhang, D. W.

Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

Zhang, G.

Y. Cai, G. Zhang, and Y. W. Zhang, “Layer-dependent band alignment and work function of few-layer phosphorene,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6677 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhang, G. H.

G. H. Zhang, H. J. Qin, J. Teng, J. D. Guo, Q. L. Guo, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and K. H. Wu, “Quintuple-layer epitaxy of thin films of topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 053114 (2009).

Zhang, G. J.

P. X. Li, G. J. Zhang, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, J. J. Chi, Z. Q. Zhao, C. Yang, H. W. Hu, and Y. F. Yao, “Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser by Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 1912–1915 (2014).

Zhang, H.

D. Mao, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, C. J. Ma, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. B. Zheng, and J. L. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[PubMed]

P. X. Li, G. J. Zhang, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, J. J. Chi, Z. Q. Zhao, C. Yang, H. W. Hu, and Y. F. Yao, “Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser by Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 1912–1915 (2014).

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[PubMed]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

Z. Wang, H. Zhang, E. Xu, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Z. Shao, “High-power, continuous-wave, Nd:LuVO4 microchip lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 25–28 (2008).

Zhang, H. J.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Band-gap modulation of two-dimensional saturable absorbers for solid-state lasers,” Photonics Res. 3, A10–A20 (2015).

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, W. Sun, Z. H. Han, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, J. M. Li, and J. Tang, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with sandwich structured wallpaper graphene oxide absorber,” Laser Phys. 22, 133–136 (2012).

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 21, 2072–2075 (2011).

Zhang, M.

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” Photonics Res. 3, A30–A42 (2015).

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, S.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhang, S. B.

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, W. Sun, Z. H. Han, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, J. M. Li, and J. Tang, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with sandwich structured wallpaper graphene oxide absorber,” Laser Phys. 22, 133–136 (2012).

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 21, 2072–2075 (2011).

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhang, X. L.

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).

Zhang, X. Y.

Zhang, Y.

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. Li, Y. L. Tang, Z. Y. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Z. Liang, H. D. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. P. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Zhang, Y. W.

Y. Cai, G. Zhang, and Y. W. Zhang, “Layer-dependent band alignment and work function of few-layer phosphorene,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6677 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, C. J. Ma, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. B. Zheng, and J. L. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).

S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Stable Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser based on Topological Insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 987 (2014).

P. X. Li, G. J. Zhang, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, J. J. Chi, Z. Q. Zhao, C. Yang, H. W. Hu, and Y. F. Yao, “Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser by Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 1912–1915 (2014).

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhao, J. L.

D. Mao, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, C. J. Ma, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. B. Zheng, and J. L. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).

Zhao, R.

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).

Zhao, Z. Q.

P. X. Li, G. J. Zhang, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, J. J. Chi, Z. Q. Zhao, C. Yang, H. W. Hu, and Y. F. Yao, “Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser by Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 1912–1915 (2014).

Zheng, J.

Zheng, J. B.

D. Mao, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, C. J. Ma, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. B. Zheng, and J. L. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).

Zheng, X. L.

L. F. Li, X. L. Zheng, X. M. Chen, M. Qi, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, and Z. P. Sun, “High-power diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG solid laser mode-locked by CVD graphene,” Opt. Commun. 315, 204–207 (2014).

Zheng, X. W.

Zhou, P.

Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

Zhou, X. F.

K. Yin, B. Zhang, L. Li, T. Jiang, X. F. Zhou, and J. Hou, “Soliton mode-locked fiber laser based on topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanosheets at 2 μm,” Photonics Res. 3, 72–76 (2015).

Zhu, H. W.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. S. Xiao, H. W. Zhu, Z. P. Sun, and C. X. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1100705 (2014).

Zou, Y.

Zybala, R.

ACS Nano (1)

D. C. Marcano, D. V. Kosynkin, J. M. Berlin, A. Sinitskii, Z. Sun, A. Slesarev, L. B. Alemany, W. Lu, and J. M. Tour, “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4806–4814 (2010).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

Adv. Mater. (2)

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. R. Chen, J. H. Lin, K. T. Song, K. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Passive mode-locking in diode-pumped c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 19–23 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2 μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).

G. H. Zhang, H. J. Qin, J. Teng, J. D. Guo, Q. L. Guo, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and K. H. Wu, “Quintuple-layer epitaxy of thin films of topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 053114 (2009).

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).

Carbon (1)

Y. Shen, S. B. Yang, P. Zhou, Q. Q. Sun, P. F. Wang, L. Wan, J. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. B. Wang, S. J. Ding, and D. W. Zhang, “Evolution of the band-gap and optical properties of graphene oxide with controllable reduction level,” Carbon 62, 157–164 (2013).

IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. (2)

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. S. Xiao, H. W. Zhu, Z. P. Sun, and C. X. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1100705 (2014).

X. Li, Y. L. Tang, Z. Y. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Z. Liang, H. D. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. P. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top Quant. 20, 1101107 (2014).

IEEE Photonic Tech. L. (2)

S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Stable Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser based on Topological Insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 987 (2014).

P. X. Li, G. J. Zhang, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, J. J. Chi, Z. Q. Zhao, C. Yang, H. W. Hu, and Y. F. Yao, “Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser by Topological insulator Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 26, 1912–1915 (2014).

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W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 1339 (1958).

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H. C. Schniepp, J. L. Li, M. J. McAllister, H. Sai, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. H. Adamson, R. K. Prud’homme, R. Car, D. A. Saville, and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(17), 8535–8539 (2006).
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L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, W. Sun, Z. H. Han, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, J. M. Li, and J. Tang, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with sandwich structured wallpaper graphene oxide absorber,” Laser Phys. 22, 133–136 (2012).

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 21, 2072–2075 (2011).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Wang, H. Zhang, E. Xu, D. Hu, X. Xu, J. Wang, and Z. Shao, “High-power, continuous-wave, Nd:LuVO4 microchip lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 25–28 (2008).

Nano Res. (1)

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).

Nanotechnology (1)

Y. G. Wang, H. R. Chen, X. M. Wen, W. F. Hsieh, and J. Tang, “A highly efficient graphene oxide absorber for Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers,” Nanotechnology 22(45), 455203 (2011).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 25–29 (2009).
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Nature (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
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Opt. Commun. (3)

Y. G. Wang, H. R. Chen, W. F. Hsieh, and Y. H. Tsang, “Mode-locked Nd: GdVO4 laser with graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol composite material absorber as well as an output coupler,” Opt. Commun. 289, 119–122 (2013).

C. Feng, Y. G. Wang, J. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, Y. R. Song, and Z. H. Yu, “3 W high-power laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 298, 168–170 (2013).

L. F. Li, X. L. Zheng, X. M. Chen, M. Qi, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, and Z. P. Sun, “High-power diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG solid laser mode-locked by CVD graphene,” Opt. Commun. 315, 204–207 (2014).

Opt. Express (10)

H. R. Chen, C. Y. Tsai, H. M. Cheng, K. H. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Passive mode locking of ytterbium- and erbium-doped all-fiber lasers using graphene oxide saturable absorbers,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12880–12889 (2014).
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R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
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J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
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G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene Oxide vs. Reduced Graphene Oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
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R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
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J. C. Chiu, Y. F. Lan, C. M. Chang, X. Z. Chen, C. Y. Yeh, C. K. Lee, G. R. Lin, J. J. Lin, and W. H. Cheng, “Concentration effect of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber on stabilizing and shortening mode-locked pulse,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3592–3600 (2010).
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C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
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S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
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Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, C. Yang, M. Liu, Q. J. Huang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, X. Meng, and F. Y. Liu, “Watt-level passively Q-switched mode-locked YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1.06 μm using graphene as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 393–397 (2014).

Opt. Lett. (7)

Z. Qin, G. Xie, C. Zhao, S. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 56–59 (2016).
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B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Ning, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3691–3694 (2015).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
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H. R. Chen, Y. G. Wang, C. Y. Tsai, K. H. Lin, T. Y. Chang, J. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “High-power, passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser using single-walled carbon nanotubes as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1284–1286 (2011).
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J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, Y. Z. Wu, X. P. Hao, J. L. He, and K. J. Yang, “Graphene saturable absorber mirror for ultra-fast-pulse solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1948–1950 (2011).
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J. Boguslawski, G. Sobon, R. Zybala, and J. Sotor, “Dissipative soliton generation in Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2786–2789 (2015).
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Photonics Res. (4)

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Band-gap modulation of two-dimensional saturable absorbers for solid-state lasers,” Photonics Res. 3, A10–A20 (2015).

D. Mao, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, C. J. Ma, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. B. Zheng, and J. L. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).

K. Yin, B. Zhang, L. Li, T. Jiang, X. F. Zhou, and J. Hou, “Soliton mode-locked fiber laser based on topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanosheets at 2 μm,” Photonics Res. 3, 72–76 (2015).

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” Photonics Res. 3, A30–A42 (2015).

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M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: Topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).

Sci. Rep. (3)

Y. Cai, G. Zhang, and Y. W. Zhang, “Layer-dependent band alignment and work function of few-layer phosphorene,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6677 (2014).
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D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[PubMed]

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25266 (2016).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of GO flake; (b) 2D topographical AFM image of GO flake; (c) and (d) Height profiles of the sections marked in (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Raman spectrum and (b) XRD pattern of GO flakes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Optical transmission spectra of GOSA films incorporating different amounts of GO flakes. (b) Nonlinear transmission of the GOSAs with excitation wavelength at 1064 nm. Dots: measured data; solid curve: fitting to the data.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic setup of the passively ML and QS-ML a-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser with the GOSAs. M1 and M2 are the folding mirrors and OC is the output coupler.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Average output power versus pump power of the Nd:LuVO4 laser for CW, QS-ML and ML operations with output coupling of 18%.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) CW mode-locked pulse trains of the a-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser on nanosecond time scales. The inset shows the millisecond time scales; (b) RF spectrum of mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser (first beat note). Inset: the RF spectrum for 1-GHz scan range; The measured autocorrelation trace and output spectrum of a mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser for (c) sample 1, and (d) sample 2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Time traces of QS-ML pulses at regular state for (a) 139 kHz, and (b) 155 kHz. (c) Expanded temporal shape of a single QS-ML pulse. The inset shows mode-locked pulse trains inside Q-switched envelope. (d) The measured autocorrelation trace (black squares) and curve fitting with Gaussian function (red curve).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear and nonlinear optical properties of GOSAs at 1064 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Passively mode-locked solid state laser based on Nd doped crystals with graphene and graphene-like 2D materials SAs (G: graphene; GO: graphene oxide; BP: black phosphorus; T: transmissive type; R: reflective type; λ: center wavelength; τ: pulse width; P: output power; Ep: pulse energy; Pp: peak power.)

Equations (1)

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I(t)= [ I 0 exp(1.76t/ t 1 )+exp(1.76t/ t 2 ) ] 2 ,

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