Abstract

In this paper we report for the first time a method for the production of transparent computer generated holograms by desktop inkjet printing. Here we demonstrate a methodology suitable for the development of a practical approach towards fabrication of diffraction patterns using a desktop inkjet printer and nonocrystalline sol-gel ink. In particular, the reported inkjet printing method can be used to generate transparent diffraction structures on supports such as those widely applied in security technologies. Transparent highly refractive layers were deposited with a high precision via a wet-to-dry printing method based on the sol-gel transition phenomenon. With this approach we were able to print a diffraction pattern by TiO2 xerogel, with which a transparent computer generated hologram was created. We argue that this new technology can form the foundation for a new generation of commercial protective coating technologies applied by industrial inkjet printing.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2016 (3)

A. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Milichko, V. V. Vinogradov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Inkjet color printing by interference nanostructures,” ACS Nano 10, 3078–3086 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lv, Z. Jia, Y. Liu, J. Mo, P. Li, and X. Lv, “Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094502 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

A. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Milichko, V. V. Vinogradov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Sol-gel assisted inkjet hologram patterning,” Adv. Func. Mater. 25, 7375–7380 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Onses, E. Sutanto, P. M. Ferreira, A. G. Alleyne, and J. A. Rogers, “Mechanisms, capabilities, and applications of high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Small 11, 4237–4266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

Y. Han, C. Wei, and J. Dong, “Super-resolution electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3d printing of micro-structures using phase-change inks,” Manuf. Lett. 2, 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

D. Angmo, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, M. Jørgensen, R. R. Søndergaard, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-Roll inkjet printing and photonic sintering of electrodes for ITO free polymer solar cell modules and facile product integration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 172–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Serra, J. Planell, and M. Navarro, “High-resolution PLA-based composite scaffolds via 3-d printing technology,” Acta Biomater. 9, 5521–5530 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing - process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 673–685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 673–685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Kim, J. Noh, N. Lim, C. Lim, G. Lee, J. Kim, H. Kang, K. Jung, A. D. Leonard, J. M. Tour, and G. Cho, “All-printed and roll-to-roll-printable 13.56-MHz-operated 1-bit RF tag on plastic foils,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 571–580 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Stringer and B. Derby, “Formation and stability of lines produced by inkjet printing,” Langmuir 26, 10365–10372 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. Jang, D. Kim, and J. Moon, “Influence of fluid physical properties on ink-jet printability,” Langmuir 25, 2629–2635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J.-U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang, K. Barton, K. Adair, D. kishore Mukhopadhyay, C. Y. Lee, M. S. Strano, A. G. Alleyne, J. G. Georgiadis, Placid M. Ferreira, and John A. Rogers, “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nat. Mater. 6, 782–789 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Dong, W. W. Carr, D. G. Bucknall, and J. F. Morris, “Temporally-resolved inkjet drop impaction on surfaces,” AIChE J. 53, 2606–2617 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

I. Hołowacz, H. Podbielska, J. Bauer, and A. Ulatowska-Jarża, “Viscosity, surface tension and refractive index of tetraethylorthosilicate-based sol-gel materials depending on ethanol content,” Opt. Appl. 35, 691–699 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

J. R. Marciante, N. O. Farmiga, J. I. Hirsh, M. S. Evans, and H. T. Ta, “Optical measurement of depth and duty cycle for binary diffraction gratings with subwavelength features,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3234–3240 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. Kim, and P. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67, 56–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, “Fabrication of novel biomaterials through molecular self-assembly,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1171–1178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

P. Calverta, “Inkjet printing for materials and devices,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3299–3305 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Calvert, “Inkjet printing for materials and devices,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3299–3305 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Chen, “Anti-reflection (AR) coatings made by sol–gel processes: a review,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 313–336 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. E. Yoldas, “Design of sol-gel coating media for ink-jet printing,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 147–152 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

B. MacCraith, C. McDonagh, G. O’Keeffe, A. McEvoy, T. Butler, and F. Sheridan, “Sol-gel coatings for optical chemical sensors and biosensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 29, 51–57 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. Brinker, G. Frye, A. Hurd, and C. Ashley, “Fundamentals of sol-gel dip coating,” Thin Solid Films 201, 97–108 (1991).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

C. Brinker, K. Keefer, D. Schaefer, and C. Ashley, “Sol-gel transition in simple silicates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48, 47–64 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

I. Botten, M. Craig, R. McPhedran, J. Adams, and J. Andrewartha, “The dielectric lamellar diffraction grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 28, 413–428 (1981).

1975 (1)

E. Palmer, M. Hutley, A. Franks, J. Verrill, and B. Gale, “Diffraction gratings (manufacture),” Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).
[Crossref]

Adair, K.

J.-U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang, K. Barton, K. Adair, D. kishore Mukhopadhyay, C. Y. Lee, M. S. Strano, A. G. Alleyne, J. G. Georgiadis, Placid M. Ferreira, and John A. Rogers, “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nat. Mater. 6, 782–789 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, J.

I. Botten, M. Craig, R. McPhedran, J. Adams, and J. Andrewartha, “The dielectric lamellar diffraction grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 28, 413–428 (1981).

Alleyne, A. G.

M. S. Onses, E. Sutanto, P. M. Ferreira, A. G. Alleyne, and J. A. Rogers, “Mechanisms, capabilities, and applications of high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Small 11, 4237–4266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang, K. Barton, K. Adair, D. kishore Mukhopadhyay, C. Y. Lee, M. S. Strano, A. G. Alleyne, J. G. Georgiadis, Placid M. Ferreira, and John A. Rogers, “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nat. Mater. 6, 782–789 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrewartha, J.

I. Botten, M. Craig, R. McPhedran, J. Adams, and J. Andrewartha, “The dielectric lamellar diffraction grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 28, 413–428 (1981).

Angmo, D.

D. Angmo, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, M. Jørgensen, R. R. Søndergaard, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-Roll inkjet printing and photonic sintering of electrodes for ITO free polymer solar cell modules and facile product integration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 172–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ashley, C.

C. Brinker, G. Frye, A. Hurd, and C. Ashley, “Fundamentals of sol-gel dip coating,” Thin Solid Films 201, 97–108 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. Brinker, K. Keefer, D. Schaefer, and C. Ashley, “Sol-gel transition in simple silicates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48, 47–64 (1982).
[Crossref]

Barton, K.

J.-U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang, K. Barton, K. Adair, D. kishore Mukhopadhyay, C. Y. Lee, M. S. Strano, A. G. Alleyne, J. G. Georgiadis, Placid M. Ferreira, and John A. Rogers, “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nat. Mater. 6, 782–789 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, J.

I. Hołowacz, H. Podbielska, J. Bauer, and A. Ulatowska-Jarża, “Viscosity, surface tension and refractive index of tetraethylorthosilicate-based sol-gel materials depending on ethanol content,” Opt. Appl. 35, 691–699 (2005).

Botten, I.

I. Botten, M. Craig, R. McPhedran, J. Adams, and J. Andrewartha, “The dielectric lamellar diffraction grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 28, 413–428 (1981).

Brickey, S.

X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brinker, C.

C. Brinker, G. Frye, A. Hurd, and C. Ashley, “Fundamentals of sol-gel dip coating,” Thin Solid Films 201, 97–108 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. Brinker, K. Keefer, D. Schaefer, and C. Ashley, “Sol-gel transition in simple silicates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48, 47–64 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bucknall, D. G.

H. Dong, W. W. Carr, D. G. Bucknall, and J. F. Morris, “Temporally-resolved inkjet drop impaction on surfaces,” AIChE J. 53, 2606–2617 (2007).
[Crossref]

Butler, T.

B. MacCraith, C. McDonagh, G. O’Keeffe, A. McEvoy, T. Butler, and F. Sheridan, “Sol-gel coatings for optical chemical sensors and biosensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 29, 51–57 (1995).
[Crossref]

Calvert, P.

P. Calvert, “Inkjet printing for materials and devices,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3299–3305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Calverta, P.

P. Calverta, “Inkjet printing for materials and devices,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3299–3305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Carr, W. W.

H. Dong, W. W. Carr, D. G. Bucknall, and J. F. Morris, “Temporally-resolved inkjet drop impaction on surfaces,” AIChE J. 53, 2606–2617 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cerrina, F.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. Kim, and P. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67, 56–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, “Anti-reflection (AR) coatings made by sol–gel processes: a review,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 313–336 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, G.

M. Jung, J. Kim, J. Noh, N. Lim, C. Lim, G. Lee, J. Kim, H. Kang, K. Jung, A. D. Leonard, J. M. Tour, and G. Cho, “All-printed and roll-to-roll-printable 13.56-MHz-operated 1-bit RF tag on plastic foils,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 571–580 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chung, C.-J.

C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
[Crossref]

Craig, M.

I. Botten, M. Craig, R. McPhedran, J. Adams, and J. Andrewartha, “The dielectric lamellar diffraction grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 28, 413–428 (1981).

David, C.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. Kim, and P. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67, 56–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Derby, B.

J. Stringer and B. Derby, “Formation and stability of lines produced by inkjet printing,” Langmuir 26, 10365–10372 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhagat, P.

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 673–685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing - process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 673–685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, H.

H. Dong, W. W. Carr, D. G. Bucknall, and J. F. Morris, “Temporally-resolved inkjet drop impaction on surfaces,” AIChE J. 53, 2606–2617 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

Y. Han, C. Wei, and J. Dong, “Super-resolution electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3d printing of micro-structures using phase-change inks,” Manuf. Lett. 2, 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref]

Evans, M. S.

Farmiga, N. O.

Ferreira, P. M.

M. S. Onses, E. Sutanto, P. M. Ferreira, A. G. Alleyne, and J. A. Rogers, “Mechanisms, capabilities, and applications of high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Small 11, 4237–4266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreira, Placid M.

J.-U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang, K. Barton, K. Adair, D. kishore Mukhopadhyay, C. Y. Lee, M. S. Strano, A. G. Alleyne, J. G. Georgiadis, Placid M. Ferreira, and John A. Rogers, “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nat. Mater. 6, 782–789 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foster, P.

X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
[Crossref]

Franks, A.

E. Palmer, M. Hutley, A. Franks, J. Verrill, and B. Gale, “Diffraction gratings (manufacture),” Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).
[Crossref]

Friend, R.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frye, G.

C. Brinker, G. Frye, A. Hurd, and C. Ashley, “Fundamentals of sol-gel dip coating,” Thin Solid Films 201, 97–108 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gale, B.

E. Palmer, M. Hutley, A. Franks, J. Verrill, and B. Gale, “Diffraction gratings (manufacture),” Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).
[Crossref]

Georgiadis, J. G.

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X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
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M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing - process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 673–685 (2010).
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C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
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M. Jung, J. Kim, J. Noh, N. Lim, C. Lim, G. Lee, J. Kim, H. Kang, K. Jung, A. D. Leonard, J. M. Tour, and G. Cho, “All-printed and roll-to-roll-printable 13.56-MHz-operated 1-bit RF tag on plastic foils,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 571–580 (2010).
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H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. Kim, and P. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67, 56–62 (2003).
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J.-U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang, K. Barton, K. Adair, D. kishore Mukhopadhyay, C. Y. Lee, M. S. Strano, A. G. Alleyne, J. G. Georgiadis, Placid M. Ferreira, and John A. Rogers, “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nat. Mater. 6, 782–789 (2007).
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X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
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D. Angmo, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, M. Jørgensen, R. R. Søndergaard, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-Roll inkjet printing and photonic sintering of electrodes for ITO free polymer solar cell modules and facile product integration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 172–175 (2013).
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J.-U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang, K. Barton, K. Adair, D. kishore Mukhopadhyay, C. Y. Lee, M. S. Strano, A. G. Alleyne, J. G. Georgiadis, Placid M. Ferreira, and John A. Rogers, “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nat. Mater. 6, 782–789 (2007).
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M. Jung, J. Kim, J. Noh, N. Lim, C. Lim, G. Lee, J. Kim, H. Kang, K. Jung, A. D. Leonard, J. M. Tour, and G. Cho, “All-printed and roll-to-roll-printable 13.56-MHz-operated 1-bit RF tag on plastic foils,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 571–580 (2010).
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M. Jung, J. Kim, J. Noh, N. Lim, C. Lim, G. Lee, J. Kim, H. Kang, K. Jung, A. D. Leonard, J. M. Tour, and G. Cho, “All-printed and roll-to-roll-printable 13.56-MHz-operated 1-bit RF tag on plastic foils,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 571–580 (2010).
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Li, P.

C. Lv, Z. Jia, Y. Liu, J. Mo, P. Li, and X. Lv, “Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094502 (2016).
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C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
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M. Jung, J. Kim, J. Noh, N. Lim, C. Lim, G. Lee, J. Kim, H. Kang, K. Jung, A. D. Leonard, J. M. Tour, and G. Cho, “All-printed and roll-to-roll-printable 13.56-MHz-operated 1-bit RF tag on plastic foils,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 571–580 (2010).
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M. Jung, J. Kim, J. Noh, N. Lim, C. Lim, G. Lee, J. Kim, H. Kang, K. Jung, A. D. Leonard, J. M. Tour, and G. Cho, “All-printed and roll-to-roll-printable 13.56-MHz-operated 1-bit RF tag on plastic foils,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 571–580 (2010).
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C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
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X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
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C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
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C. Lv, Z. Jia, Y. Liu, J. Mo, P. Li, and X. Lv, “Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094502 (2016).
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X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
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T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
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Lv, C.

C. Lv, Z. Jia, Y. Liu, J. Mo, P. Li, and X. Lv, “Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094502 (2016).
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C. Lv, Z. Jia, Y. Liu, J. Mo, P. Li, and X. Lv, “Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094502 (2016).
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D. Jang, D. Kim, and J. Moon, “Influence of fluid physical properties on ink-jet printability,” Langmuir 25, 2629–2635 (2009).
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T. Serra, J. Planell, and M. Navarro, “High-resolution PLA-based composite scaffolds via 3-d printing technology,” Acta Biomater. 9, 5521–5530 (2013).
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H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. Kim, and P. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67, 56–62 (2003).
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M. Jung, J. Kim, J. Noh, N. Lim, C. Lim, G. Lee, J. Kim, H. Kang, K. Jung, A. D. Leonard, J. M. Tour, and G. Cho, “All-printed and roll-to-roll-printable 13.56-MHz-operated 1-bit RF tag on plastic foils,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 571–580 (2010).
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B. MacCraith, C. McDonagh, G. O’Keeffe, A. McEvoy, T. Butler, and F. Sheridan, “Sol-gel coatings for optical chemical sensors and biosensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 29, 51–57 (1995).
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C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
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M. S. Onses, E. Sutanto, P. M. Ferreira, A. G. Alleyne, and J. A. Rogers, “Mechanisms, capabilities, and applications of high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Small 11, 4237–4266 (2015).
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C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
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X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
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J.-U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang, K. Barton, K. Adair, D. kishore Mukhopadhyay, C. Y. Lee, M. S. Strano, A. G. Alleyne, J. G. Georgiadis, Placid M. Ferreira, and John A. Rogers, “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nat. Mater. 6, 782–789 (2007).
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Planell, J.

T. Serra, J. Planell, and M. Navarro, “High-resolution PLA-based composite scaffolds via 3-d printing technology,” Acta Biomater. 9, 5521–5530 (2013).
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I. Hołowacz, H. Podbielska, J. Bauer, and A. Ulatowska-Jarża, “Viscosity, surface tension and refractive index of tetraethylorthosilicate-based sol-gel materials depending on ethanol content,” Opt. Appl. 35, 691–699 (2005).

Rogers, J. A.

M. S. Onses, E. Sutanto, P. M. Ferreira, A. G. Alleyne, and J. A. Rogers, “Mechanisms, capabilities, and applications of high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Small 11, 4237–4266 (2015).
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J.-U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang, K. Barton, K. Adair, D. kishore Mukhopadhyay, C. Y. Lee, M. S. Strano, A. G. Alleyne, J. G. Georgiadis, Placid M. Ferreira, and John A. Rogers, “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nat. Mater. 6, 782–789 (2007).
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C. Brinker, K. Keefer, D. Schaefer, and C. Ashley, “Sol-gel transition in simple silicates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48, 47–64 (1982).
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Schleicher, P.

X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
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T. Serra, J. Planell, and M. Navarro, “High-resolution PLA-based composite scaffolds via 3-d printing technology,” Acta Biomater. 9, 5521–5530 (2013).
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B. MacCraith, C. McDonagh, G. O’Keeffe, A. McEvoy, T. Butler, and F. Sheridan, “Sol-gel coatings for optical chemical sensors and biosensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 29, 51–57 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shimoda, T.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, M.

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing - process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 673–685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 673–685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirringhaus, H.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solak, H. H.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. Kim, and P. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67, 56–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Søndergaard, R. R.

D. Angmo, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, M. Jørgensen, R. R. Søndergaard, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-Roll inkjet printing and photonic sintering of electrodes for ITO free polymer solar cell modules and facile product integration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 172–175 (2013).
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F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Sec. A67 (1963).

Strano, M. S.

J.-U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang, K. Barton, K. Adair, D. kishore Mukhopadhyay, C. Y. Lee, M. S. Strano, A. G. Alleyne, J. G. Georgiadis, Placid M. Ferreira, and John A. Rogers, “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nat. Mater. 6, 782–789 (2007).
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Sturm, J. C.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
[Crossref]

Subbaraman, H.

C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sutanto, E.

M. S. Onses, E. Sutanto, P. M. Ferreira, A. G. Alleyne, and J. A. Rogers, “Mechanisms, capabilities, and applications of high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Small 11, 4237–4266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ta, H. T.

Tour, J. M.

M. Jung, J. Kim, J. Noh, N. Lim, C. Lim, G. Lee, J. Kim, H. Kang, K. Jung, A. D. Leonard, J. M. Tour, and G. Cho, “All-printed and roll-to-roll-printable 13.56-MHz-operated 1-bit RF tag on plastic foils,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 571–580 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ulatowska-Jarza, A.

I. Hołowacz, H. Podbielska, J. Bauer, and A. Ulatowska-Jarża, “Viscosity, surface tension and refractive index of tetraethylorthosilicate-based sol-gel materials depending on ethanol content,” Opt. Appl. 35, 691–699 (2005).

Verrill, J.

E. Palmer, M. Hutley, A. Franks, J. Verrill, and B. Gale, “Diffraction gratings (manufacture),” Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).
[Crossref]

Vinogradov, A. V.

A. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Milichko, V. V. Vinogradov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Inkjet color printing by interference nanostructures,” ACS Nano 10, 3078–3086 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Milichko, V. V. Vinogradov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Sol-gel assisted inkjet hologram patterning,” Adv. Func. Mater. 25, 7375–7380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vinogradov, V. V.

A. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Milichko, V. V. Vinogradov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Inkjet color printing by interference nanostructures,” ACS Nano 10, 3078–3086 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Milichko, V. V. Vinogradov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Sol-gel assisted inkjet hologram patterning,” Adv. Func. Mater. 25, 7375–7380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, C.

Y. Han, C. Wei, and J. Dong, “Super-resolution electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3d printing of micro-structures using phase-change inks,” Manuf. Lett. 2, 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref]

Woo, E.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C. C.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, “Computer generated hologram,” Ph.D. thesis (2007).

Wu, W.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Y.

Yakovlev, A. V.

A. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Milichko, V. V. Vinogradov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Inkjet color printing by interference nanostructures,” ACS Nano 10, 3078–3086 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Milichko, V. V. Vinogradov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Sol-gel assisted inkjet hologram patterning,” Adv. Func. Mater. 25, 7375–7380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoldas, B. E.

B. E. Yoldas, “Design of sol-gel coating media for ink-jet printing,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 147–152 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, “Fabrication of novel biomaterials through molecular self-assembly,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1171–1178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

A. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Milichko, V. V. Vinogradov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Inkjet color printing by interference nanostructures,” ACS Nano 10, 3078–3086 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Biomater. (1)

T. Serra, J. Planell, and M. Navarro, “High-resolution PLA-based composite scaffolds via 3-d printing technology,” Acta Biomater. 9, 5521–5530 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Energy Mater. (1)

D. Angmo, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, M. Jørgensen, R. R. Søndergaard, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-Roll inkjet printing and photonic sintering of electrodes for ITO free polymer solar cell modules and facile product integration,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 172–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Func. Mater. (1)

A. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Milichko, V. V. Vinogradov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Sol-gel assisted inkjet hologram patterning,” Adv. Func. Mater. 25, 7375–7380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing - process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 673–685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, H. M. Haverinen, P. Dhagat, and G. E. Jabbour, “Inkjet printing process and its applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 673–685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Dong, W. W. Carr, D. G. Bucknall, and J. F. Morris, “Temporally-resolved inkjet drop impaction on surfaces,” AIChE J. 53, 2606–2617 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519–521 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (2)

P. Calverta, “Inkjet printing for materials and devices,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3299–3305 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Calvert, “Inkjet printing for materials and devices,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3299–3305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Electron. (1)

X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, A. Hosseini, C. Longe, K. Kubena, P. Schleicher, P. Foster, S. Brickey, and R. T. Chen, “Towards realizing high-throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems,” Electron. 3, 624–635 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

M. Jung, J. Kim, J. Noh, N. Lim, C. Lim, G. Lee, J. Kim, H. Kang, K. Jung, A. D. Leonard, J. M. Tour, and G. Cho, “All-printed and roll-to-roll-printable 13.56-MHz-operated 1-bit RF tag on plastic foils,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 571–580 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Lv, Z. Jia, Y. Liu, J. Mo, P. Li, and X. Lv, “Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094502 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

C. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, Q. Li, Z. Pan, J. G. Ok, T. Ling, C.-J. Chung, X. Zhang, X. Lin, R. T. Chen, and L. Jay Guo, “Printed photonic elements: nanoimprinting and beyond,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 5133–5153 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

I. Botten, M. Craig, R. McPhedran, J. Adams, and J. Andrewartha, “The dielectric lamellar diffraction grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 28, 413–428 (1981).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

C. Brinker, K. Keefer, D. Schaefer, and C. Ashley, “Sol-gel transition in simple silicates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48, 47–64 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

B. E. Yoldas, “Design of sol-gel coating media for ink-jet printing,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 147–152 (1998).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (2)

D. Jang, D. Kim, and J. Moon, “Influence of fluid physical properties on ink-jet printability,” Langmuir 25, 2629–2635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Stringer and B. Derby, “Formation and stability of lines produced by inkjet printing,” Langmuir 26, 10365–10372 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manuf. Lett. (1)

Y. Han, C. Wei, and J. Dong, “Super-resolution electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3d printing of micro-structures using phase-change inks,” Manuf. Lett. 2, 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. Kim, and P. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67, 56–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

S. Zhang, “Fabrication of novel biomaterials through molecular self-assembly,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1171–1178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J.-U. Park, M. Hardy, S. J. Kang, K. Barton, K. Adair, D. kishore Mukhopadhyay, C. Y. Lee, M. S. Strano, A. G. Alleyne, J. G. Georgiadis, Placid M. Ferreira, and John A. Rogers, “High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Nat. Mater. 6, 782–789 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Appl. (1)

I. Hołowacz, H. Podbielska, J. Bauer, and A. Ulatowska-Jarża, “Viscosity, surface tension and refractive index of tetraethylorthosilicate-based sol-gel materials depending on ethanol content,” Opt. Appl. 35, 691–699 (2005).

Opt. Express (1)

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

E. Palmer, M. Hutley, A. Franks, J. Verrill, and B. Gale, “Diffraction gratings (manufacture),” Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. MacCraith, C. McDonagh, G. O’Keeffe, A. McEvoy, T. Butler, and F. Sheridan, “Sol-gel coatings for optical chemical sensors and biosensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 29, 51–57 (1995).
[Crossref]

Small (1)

M. S. Onses, E. Sutanto, P. M. Ferreira, A. G. Alleyne, and J. A. Rogers, “Mechanisms, capabilities, and applications of high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Small 11, 4237–4266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Chen, “Anti-reflection (AR) coatings made by sol–gel processes: a review,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 313–336 (2001).
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C. Brinker, G. Frye, A. Hurd, and C. Ashley, “Fundamentals of sol-gel dip coating,” Thin Solid Films 201, 97–108 (1991).
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J. Wu, “Computer generated hologram,” Ph.D. thesis (2007).

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Sec. A67 (1963).

L. C. Klein, Sol-gel optics: processing and applications, vol. 259 (Springer Science & Business Media, 2013).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Inkjet printer single drops of TiO2 on indium tin oxide coated (ITO) glass. Surface tension of the ink 24 nNm/m and viscosity 8 cP. a) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image of a single titania drop; b) Optical image of the same drop; c) High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) image of the drop border; d) HRSEM image of the drop border coffee-ring effect; e) HRSEM drop cross-section on glass substrate with about 300 nm thickness. f) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) topography of particles in the center portion of a drop.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical scheme of diffraction measurements. The scheme consists of a light source (laser pointer), the printed grating and the screen on which the image is projected, which is subsequently captured by DSLR camera. (a). b - Modeled data (Gaussian) of green laser (532 nm). The model was used to calculate, given the size of the laser point.; c — model of diffraction grating with 60 μm period and 50% duty ratio; d — Calculated optical model of image on screen at presented conditions; e — Photograph of a laser Gaussian, captured by DSLR; f — a microscopy photograph of inkjet printed lines with 50% duty ratio ≈ 60 μm goal period; g - Diffraction pattern from inkjet printed diffraction grating on a black screen, captured by DSLR

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Captured from real image data (Fig. 2(g)) of lines intensity and calculation of diffraction maxima and distanced of maximums.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) A schematic representation of a binary grating; n1 and n2 are the refractive indices of the media that share the periodic boundary with a material having a refractive index n3; d is the grating depth and A is the grating period, a/A shows the duty cycle of the material with the refractive index n3. b) A photograph of inkjet printed titania lines on an ITO glass with maximum duty cycle 85. c) CAD design in pixels (black squares) for 85 duty cycle d) Stability of mean grating period for different printed lines.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical properties of high refractive lines. a) Optical transparency (the right angle of incidence) of titania layer inkjet printed on a glass substrate; b) a photograph of a glass slide with a diffraction grating evidencing its high transparency; c) reflection spectra of titania thin film on glass with 30° tilt; d) refractive indexes (R) [35] of titania thin film on a glass substrate calculated using R = [ n 1 n 3 n 2 2 n 1 n 3 + n 2 2 ] 2, where n2 is the refractive index of the film at the same wavelengths, and n1 and n3 are the refractive indices for air and fused silica, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Inkjet printing of a computer generated hologram from digital information to holography reconstruction. Source image (circle) was recalculated (Blue line) in the holographic pattern with 600 dpi resolution (g) and printed on an ITO coated glass (d) substrate and hologram has reconstructed by red laser (650 nm) at a distance of 8 m from the substrate (Circle reconstruction at the bottom of the picture). Left, center and right - points of laser illumination on slide in green area of picture (g) printed on slide and corresponding image on projection screen. Ink characterization - a) photograph of used ink with 30 wt.% of sol in ethanol; b) Dynamic light scattering of titania nanoparticle size distribution with mean 11.9 nm particle size and ζ-potencial of +32 mV; c) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microphotograph of nanocrystalline titania particles. Printed results - d) SEM microphotograph of inkjet printed pattern on ITO glass; e) Zoom-in part of SEM microphotograph showing the structure of a printed hologram; f) Photograph of transparent glass slide with printed transparent holographic pattern; g) Coded holographic image with part (green) printed on a glass slide.

Equations (1)

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d = 2 λ m L D m ,

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