Abstract

We report on the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) microstructures in glass with isotropic spatial resolutions. To achieve high throughput fabrication, we expand the focal spot size with a low-numerical-aperture lens, which naturally results in a degraded axial resolution. We solve the problem with simultaneous spatial temporal focusing which leads to an isotropic laser-affected volume with a spatial resolution of ~100 μm.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(4), 041303 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(8), e16133 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 786–788 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Marcinkevi Ius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 187–189 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55–57 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. N. Vitek, D. E. Adams, A. Johnson, P. S. Tsai, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, D. Kleinfeld, and J. A. Squier, “Temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for low numerical aperture micromachining through optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18086–18094 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, “Direct-write UV-laser microfabrication of 3D structures in lithium-aluminosilicate glass,” Proc. SPIE 2991, 104–112 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, M. Masuda, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “Optical gratings embedded in photosensitive glass by photochemical reaction using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1809–1816 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(1), 1–10 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(8), e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(4), 041303 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2005 (1)

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(1), 1–10 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, M. Masuda, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “Optical gratings embedded in photosensitive glass by photochemical reaction using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1809–1816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 786–788 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, “Direct-write UV-laser microfabrication of 3D structures in lithium-aluminosilicate glass,” Proc. SPIE 2991, 104–112 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Adams, D. E.

Aoki, N.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[Crossref]

Backus, S.

Barrot, F.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bellouard, Y.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beresna, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bottinelli, S.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Breguet, J. M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Buividas, R.

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(8), e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Champion, A.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chappuis, O.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(4), 041303 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(1), 1–10 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, M. Masuda, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “Optical gratings embedded in photosensitive glass by photochemical reaction using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1809–1816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clavel, R.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Corbari, C.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Davis, K. M.

Durfee, C. G.

Gecevicius, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hansen, W. W.

W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, “Direct-write UV-laser microfabrication of 3D structures in lithium-aluminosilicate glass,” Proc. SPIE 2991, 104–112 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, S.

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(8), e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hayasaki, Y.

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(8), e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, F.

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helvajian, H.

W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, “Direct-write UV-laser microfabrication of 3D structures in lithium-aluminosilicate glass,” Proc. SPIE 2991, 104–112 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoenninger, C.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hopper, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hunt, A. J.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janson, S. W.

W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, “Direct-write UV-laser microfabrication of 3D structures in lithium-aluminosilicate glass,” Proc. SPIE 2991, 104–112 (1997).
[Crossref]

Joglekar, A. P.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, A.

Juodkazis, S.

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(8), e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Marcinkevi Ius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawachi, M.

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleinfeld, D.

Kral, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lenssen, B.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, E.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. H.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, J.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mabillard, Y.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Malinauskas, M.

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(8), e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marcinkevi Ius, A.

Masuda, M.

Matsuo, S.

A. Marcinkevi Ius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 786–788 (1999).
[Crossref]

Matteucci, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meyhöfer, E.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(1), 1–10 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, M. Masuda, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “Optical gratings embedded in photosensitive glass by photochemical reaction using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1809–1816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

A. Marcinkevi Ius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 786–788 (1999).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

Miwa, M.

Mizeikis, V.

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(8), e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mottay, E.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mourou, G.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, J.

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishii, J.

Qiao, L.

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaap, A.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shihoyama, K.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(4), 041303 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(1), 1–10 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, M. Masuda, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “Optical gratings embedded in photosensitive glass by photochemical reaction using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1809–1816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, H. B.

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 786–788 (1999).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, K.

Tsai, P. S.

Vitek, D. N.

Watanabe, M.

Xiong, H.

Xu, H.

Xu, Z.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Žukauskas, A.

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(8), e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 786–788 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Rev. (1)

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(4), 041303 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(1), 1–10 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. (1)

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevicius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J. M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(8), e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. W. Hansen, S. W. Janson, and H. Helvajian, “Direct-write UV-laser microfabrication of 3D structures in lithium-aluminosilicate glass,” Proc. SPIE 2991, 104–112 (1997).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. VF: variable neutral density filter. G1-2: gratings (1500 l/mm). L1, L2: lenses of different focal lengths which are described in the main text. OL: objective lens. The configuration of XYZ axes are indicated in the inset.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a-c, g-i) Top-view and (d-f, j-l) cross-sectional-view optical micrographs of several lines inscribed in Foturan glass along x axis (a-f) and z axis (g-i) at different laser powers. The laser powers are 80 mW in the first row (a, d, g, j), 70 mW in the second row (b, e, h, k) and 60 mW in the third row (c, f, i, l).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a-d) Top-view and (e-h) cross-sectional view optical micrographs of four lines written at different speeds with SSTF scheme. The speeds are 4 mm/s in (a, e), 5 mm/s in (b, f), 6 mm/s in (c, g), and 8 mm/s in (d, h).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a-d) Top-view and (e-h) cross-sectional view optical micrographs of three lines written at different speeds with conventional focusing scheme. A full-size beam was used in (a-c) and (e-f), whereas a beam of reduced diameter of 0.55 mm (1/e2) was used in (d) and (h). The average powers of femtosecond laser are 0.5 mW in (a, e), 0.75 mW in (b, f), 1mW in (c, g) and 3 mW (d, h).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Image of the China Pavilion written in Foturan glass captured by digital camera.

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