Abstract

A study of vacuum-deposited organic–inorganic hybrid coatings for UV protection of polycarbonate is presented. UV-absorbing compounds, which are commonly used for polycarbonate, were embedded in a silica matrix by thermal co-evaporation under high vacuum. In addition to the optical properties of the coatings, the influence of the silica network on the organic UV absorber and the stability of the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) are discussed. A model is presented to show the interaction between the organic compound and the silica matrix. It could be shown with UV irradiation experiments that the hydroxyphenyltriazine compound exhibits higher UV stability in the hybrid coating than the hydroxybenzotriazoles.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. N. Nagai, H. Okumura, T. Imai, and I. Nishiyama, “Depth profile analysis of the photochemical degradation of polycarbonate by infrared spectroscopy,” Pol. Deg.Stab. 81(3), 491–496 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Pospíšil and S. Nespurek, “Photostabilization of coatings. Mechanisms and performance,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 25(9), 1261–1335 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Moustaghr, E. Tomasella, A. Rivaton, B. Mailhot, M. Jacquet, J. Gardette, and J. Cellier, “Sputtered zinc oxide coatings: structural study and application to the photoprotection of the polycarbonate,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180, 292–311 (2003).
  5. U. Schulz, K. Lau, and N. Kaiser, “Antireflection coating with UV-protective properties for polycarbonate,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), C83–C87 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. Katsamberis, K. Browall, C. Iacovangelo, M. Neumann, and H. Morgner, “„Highly durable coatings for automotive polycarbonate glazing,” Prog. Org. Coat. 34(1), 130–134 (1997).
  7. G. Rytz, R. Hilfiker, E. Schmidt, and A. Schmitter, “Introduction to a new class of high performance light stabilizers and the influence of light stabilizers structure on the polymer’s life time,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 247(1), 213–224 (1997).
  8. O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
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    [Crossref]
  13. J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
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    [Crossref]
  18. C. Schaller, D. Rogez, and A. Braig, “Hydroxyphenyl-s-triazines: advanced multipurpose UV-absorbers for coatings,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 5(1), 25–31 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Jäger, “Dye-metal oxide composite thin films for decorative applications,” Thin Solid Films 286(1-2), 154–158 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. Smit, “Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy of some energetic molecules in the solid state,” J. Energ. Mater. 9(1–2), 81–103 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Ghiggino, A. Scully, and I. Leaver, “Effect of solvent on excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in benzotriazole photostabilizers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90(21), 5089–5093 (1986).
  22. S. R. Grando, C. M. Pessoa, M. R. Gallas, T. M. Costa, F. S. Rodembusch, and E. V. Benvenutti, “Modulation of the ESIPT emission of benzothiazole type dye incorporated in silica-based hybrid materials,” Langmuir 25(22), 13219–13223 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T. M. Costa, V. Stefani, M. R. Gallas, N. M. Balzaretti, and J. A. da Jornada, “Fluorescence properties of benzoxazole type dyes entrapped in a silica matrix by the sol-gel method,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(12), 3377–3381 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Diepens and P. Gijsman, “Photostabilizing of bisphenol A polycarbonate by using UV-absorbers and self protective block copolymers based on resorcinol polyarylate blocks,” Pol. Deg. Stab. 94(10), 1808–1813 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

C. Präfke, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Ultraviolet/visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations of organic–inorganic hybrid layers for UV protection,” Thin Solid Films 532, 113–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Präfke, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Preparation and characterization of organic layers for UV protection of polycarbonate,” Thin Solid Films 520(12), 4180–4183 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. R. Grando, C. M. Pessoa, M. R. Gallas, T. M. Costa, F. S. Rodembusch, and E. V. Benvenutti, “Modulation of the ESIPT emission of benzothiazole type dye incorporated in silica-based hybrid materials,” Langmuir 25(22), 13219–13223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Diepens and P. Gijsman, “Photostabilizing of bisphenol A polycarbonate by using UV-absorbers and self protective block copolymers based on resorcinol polyarylate blocks,” Pol. Deg. Stab. 94(10), 1808–1813 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

U. Schulz, K. Lau, and N. Kaiser, “Antireflection coating with UV-protective properties for polycarbonate,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), C83–C87 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schaller, D. Rogez, and A. Braig, “Hydroxyphenyl-s-triazines: advanced multipurpose UV-absorbers for coatings,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 5(1), 25–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Diepens and P. Gijsman, “Photodegradation of bisphenol A polycarbonate,” Pol. Deg. Stab. 92(3), 397–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

N. Nagai, H. Okumura, T. Imai, and I. Nishiyama, “Depth profile analysis of the photochemical degradation of polycarbonate by infrared spectroscopy,” Pol. Deg.Stab. 81(3), 491–496 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Heber, C. Muehlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “Luminescence of UV thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Moustaghr, E. Tomasella, A. Rivaton, B. Mailhot, M. Jacquet, J. Gardette, and J. Cellier, “Sputtered zinc oxide coatings: structural study and application to the photoprotection of the polycarbonate,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180, 292–311 (2003).

P. Innocenzi, “Infrared spectroscopy of sol-gel derived silica-based films: a spectra-microstructure overview,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2), 309–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. M. Costa, V. Stefani, M. R. Gallas, N. M. Balzaretti, and J. A. da Jornada, “Fluorescence properties of benzoxazole type dyes entrapped in a silica matrix by the sol-gel method,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(12), 3377–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Pospíšil and S. Nespurek, “Photostabilization of coatings. Mechanisms and performance,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 25(9), 1261–1335 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

D. Katsamberis, K. Browall, C. Iacovangelo, M. Neumann, and H. Morgner, “„Highly durable coatings for automotive polycarbonate glazing,” Prog. Org. Coat. 34(1), 130–134 (1997).

G. Rytz, R. Hilfiker, E. Schmidt, and A. Schmitter, “Introduction to a new class of high performance light stabilizers and the influence of light stabilizers structure on the polymer’s life time,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 247(1), 213–224 (1997).

1996 (1)

S. Jäger, “Dye-metal oxide composite thin films for decorative applications,” Thin Solid Films 286(1-2), 154–158 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Ying and J. Benziger, “Structure tailoring of alkoxide silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147, 222–231 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

K. Smit, “Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy of some energetic molecules in the solid state,” J. Energ. Mater. 9(1–2), 81–103 (1991).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

K. Ghiggino, A. Scully, and I. Leaver, “Effect of solvent on excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in benzotriazole photostabilizers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90(21), 5089–5093 (1986).

Alvisi, M.

Balzaretti, N. M.

T. M. Costa, V. Stefani, M. R. Gallas, N. M. Balzaretti, and J. A. da Jornada, “Fluorescence properties of benzoxazole type dyes entrapped in a silica matrix by the sol-gel method,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(12), 3377–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Benvenutti, E. V.

S. R. Grando, C. M. Pessoa, M. R. Gallas, T. M. Costa, F. S. Rodembusch, and E. V. Benvenutti, “Modulation of the ESIPT emission of benzothiazole type dye incorporated in silica-based hybrid materials,” Langmuir 25(22), 13219–13223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benziger, J.

J. Ying and J. Benziger, “Structure tailoring of alkoxide silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147, 222–231 (1992).
[Crossref]

Braig, A.

C. Schaller, D. Rogez, and A. Braig, “Hydroxyphenyl-s-triazines: advanced multipurpose UV-absorbers for coatings,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 5(1), 25–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Browall, K.

D. Katsamberis, K. Browall, C. Iacovangelo, M. Neumann, and H. Morgner, “„Highly durable coatings for automotive polycarbonate glazing,” Prog. Org. Coat. 34(1), 130–134 (1997).

Busch, W.

G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cellier, J.

A. Moustaghr, E. Tomasella, A. Rivaton, B. Mailhot, M. Jacquet, J. Gardette, and J. Cellier, “Sputtered zinc oxide coatings: structural study and application to the photoprotection of the polycarbonate,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180, 292–311 (2003).

Costa, T. M.

S. R. Grando, C. M. Pessoa, M. R. Gallas, T. M. Costa, F. S. Rodembusch, and E. V. Benvenutti, “Modulation of the ESIPT emission of benzothiazole type dye incorporated in silica-based hybrid materials,” Langmuir 25(22), 13219–13223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Costa, V. Stefani, M. R. Gallas, N. M. Balzaretti, and J. A. da Jornada, “Fluorescence properties of benzoxazole type dyes entrapped in a silica matrix by the sol-gel method,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(12), 3377–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

da Jornada, J. A.

T. M. Costa, V. Stefani, M. R. Gallas, N. M. Balzaretti, and J. A. da Jornada, “Fluorescence properties of benzoxazole type dyes entrapped in a silica matrix by the sol-gel method,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(12), 3377–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Danz, N.

J. Heber, C. Muehlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “Luminescence of UV thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref]

De Nunzio, G.

Di Giulio, M.

Diepens, M.

M. Diepens and P. Gijsman, “Photostabilizing of bisphenol A polycarbonate by using UV-absorbers and self protective block copolymers based on resorcinol polyarylate blocks,” Pol. Deg. Stab. 94(10), 1808–1813 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Diepens and P. Gijsman, “Photodegradation of bisphenol A polycarbonate,” Pol. Deg. Stab. 92(3), 397–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ferrara, M. C.

Franke, J.

G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Friedrich, K.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gallas, M. R.

S. R. Grando, C. M. Pessoa, M. R. Gallas, T. M. Costa, F. S. Rodembusch, and E. V. Benvenutti, “Modulation of the ESIPT emission of benzothiazole type dye incorporated in silica-based hybrid materials,” Langmuir 25(22), 13219–13223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Costa, V. Stefani, M. R. Gallas, N. M. Balzaretti, and J. A. da Jornada, “Fluorescence properties of benzoxazole type dyes entrapped in a silica matrix by the sol-gel method,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(12), 3377–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gardette, J.

A. Moustaghr, E. Tomasella, A. Rivaton, B. Mailhot, M. Jacquet, J. Gardette, and J. Cellier, “Sputtered zinc oxide coatings: structural study and application to the photoprotection of the polycarbonate,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180, 292–311 (2003).

Ghiggino, K.

K. Ghiggino, A. Scully, and I. Leaver, “Effect of solvent on excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in benzotriazole photostabilizers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90(21), 5089–5093 (1986).

Gijsman, P.

M. Diepens and P. Gijsman, “Photostabilizing of bisphenol A polycarbonate by using UV-absorbers and self protective block copolymers based on resorcinol polyarylate blocks,” Pol. Deg. Stab. 94(10), 1808–1813 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Diepens and P. Gijsman, “Photodegradation of bisphenol A polycarbonate,” Pol. Deg. Stab. 92(3), 397–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Goeller, B.

G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Goeller, G.

J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
[Crossref]

Grando, S. R.

S. R. Grando, C. M. Pessoa, M. R. Gallas, T. M. Costa, F. S. Rodembusch, and E. V. Benvenutti, “Modulation of the ESIPT emission of benzothiazole type dye incorporated in silica-based hybrid materials,” Langmuir 25(22), 13219–13223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heber, J.

J. Heber, C. Muehlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “Luminescence of UV thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref]

Henkel, S.

G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hilfiker, R.

G. Rytz, R. Hilfiker, E. Schmidt, and A. Schmitter, “Introduction to a new class of high performance light stabilizers and the influence of light stabilizers structure on the polymer’s life time,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 247(1), 213–224 (1997).

Hoier, H.

G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
[Crossref]

Iacovangelo, C.

D. Katsamberis, K. Browall, C. Iacovangelo, M. Neumann, and H. Morgner, “„Highly durable coatings for automotive polycarbonate glazing,” Prog. Org. Coat. 34(1), 130–134 (1997).

Imai, T.

N. Nagai, H. Okumura, T. Imai, and I. Nishiyama, “Depth profile analysis of the photochemical degradation of polycarbonate by infrared spectroscopy,” Pol. Deg.Stab. 81(3), 491–496 (2003).
[Crossref]

Innocenzi, P.

P. Innocenzi, “Infrared spectroscopy of sol-gel derived silica-based films: a spectra-microstructure overview,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2), 309–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jacquet, M.

A. Moustaghr, E. Tomasella, A. Rivaton, B. Mailhot, M. Jacquet, J. Gardette, and J. Cellier, “Sputtered zinc oxide coatings: structural study and application to the photoprotection of the polycarbonate,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180, 292–311 (2003).

Jäger, S.

S. Jäger, “Dye-metal oxide composite thin films for decorative applications,” Thin Solid Films 286(1-2), 154–158 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, N.

C. Präfke, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Ultraviolet/visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations of organic–inorganic hybrid layers for UV protection,” Thin Solid Films 532, 113–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Präfke, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Preparation and characterization of organic layers for UV protection of polycarbonate,” Thin Solid Films 520(12), 4180–4183 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Schulz, K. Lau, and N. Kaiser, “Antireflection coating with UV-protective properties for polycarbonate,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), C83–C87 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Heber, C. Muehlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “Luminescence of UV thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref]

Katsamberis, D.

D. Katsamberis, K. Browall, C. Iacovangelo, M. Neumann, and H. Morgner, “„Highly durable coatings for automotive polycarbonate glazing,” Prog. Org. Coat. 34(1), 130–134 (1997).

Kieninger, M.

G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kramer, H.

G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lau, K.

Leaver, I.

K. Ghiggino, A. Scully, and I. Leaver, “Effect of solvent on excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in benzotriazole photostabilizers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90(21), 5089–5093 (1986).

Lemmert-Schmitt, E.

J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mailhot, B.

A. Moustaghr, E. Tomasella, A. Rivaton, B. Mailhot, M. Jacquet, J. Gardette, and J. Cellier, “Sputtered zinc oxide coatings: structural study and application to the photoprotection of the polycarbonate,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180, 292–311 (2003).

Morgner, H.

D. Katsamberis, K. Browall, C. Iacovangelo, M. Neumann, and H. Morgner, “„Highly durable coatings for automotive polycarbonate glazing,” Prog. Org. Coat. 34(1), 130–134 (1997).

Moustaghr, A.

A. Moustaghr, E. Tomasella, A. Rivaton, B. Mailhot, M. Jacquet, J. Gardette, and J. Cellier, “Sputtered zinc oxide coatings: structural study and application to the photoprotection of the polycarbonate,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180, 292–311 (2003).

Muehlig, C.

J. Heber, C. Muehlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “Luminescence of UV thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nagai, N.

N. Nagai, H. Okumura, T. Imai, and I. Nishiyama, “Depth profile analysis of the photochemical degradation of polycarbonate by infrared spectroscopy,” Pol. Deg.Stab. 81(3), 491–496 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nespurek, S.

J. Pospíšil and S. Nespurek, “Photostabilization of coatings. Mechanisms and performance,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 25(9), 1261–1335 (2000).
[Crossref]

Neumann, M.

D. Katsamberis, K. Browall, C. Iacovangelo, M. Neumann, and H. Morgner, “„Highly durable coatings for automotive polycarbonate glazing,” Prog. Org. Coat. 34(1), 130–134 (1997).

Nishiyama, I.

N. Nagai, H. Okumura, T. Imai, and I. Nishiyama, “Depth profile analysis of the photochemical degradation of polycarbonate by infrared spectroscopy,” Pol. Deg.Stab. 81(3), 491–496 (2003).
[Crossref]

Okumura, H.

N. Nagai, H. Okumura, T. Imai, and I. Nishiyama, “Depth profile analysis of the photochemical degradation of polycarbonate by infrared spectroscopy,” Pol. Deg.Stab. 81(3), 491–496 (2003).
[Crossref]

Perrone, M. R.

Pessoa, C. M.

S. R. Grando, C. M. Pessoa, M. R. Gallas, T. M. Costa, F. S. Rodembusch, and E. V. Benvenutti, “Modulation of the ESIPT emission of benzothiazole type dye incorporated in silica-based hybrid materials,” Langmuir 25(22), 13219–13223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pospíšil, J.

J. Pospíšil and S. Nespurek, “Photostabilization of coatings. Mechanisms and performance,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 25(9), 1261–1335 (2000).
[Crossref]

Präfke, C.

C. Präfke, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Ultraviolet/visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations of organic–inorganic hybrid layers for UV protection,” Thin Solid Films 532, 113–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Präfke, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Preparation and characterization of organic layers for UV protection of polycarbonate,” Thin Solid Films 520(12), 4180–4183 (2012).
[Crossref]

Protopapa, L.

Rieker, J.

J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rivaton, A.

A. Moustaghr, E. Tomasella, A. Rivaton, B. Mailhot, M. Jacquet, J. Gardette, and J. Cellier, “Sputtered zinc oxide coatings: structural study and application to the photoprotection of the polycarbonate,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180, 292–311 (2003).

Rodembusch, F. S.

S. R. Grando, C. M. Pessoa, M. R. Gallas, T. M. Costa, F. S. Rodembusch, and E. V. Benvenutti, “Modulation of the ESIPT emission of benzothiazole type dye incorporated in silica-based hybrid materials,” Langmuir 25(22), 13219–13223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roessler, M.

J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rogez, D.

C. Schaller, D. Rogez, and A. Braig, “Hydroxyphenyl-s-triazines: advanced multipurpose UV-absorbers for coatings,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 5(1), 25–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rytz, G.

G. Rytz, R. Hilfiker, E. Schmidt, and A. Schmitter, “Introduction to a new class of high performance light stabilizers and the influence of light stabilizers structure on the polymer’s life time,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 247(1), 213–224 (1997).

Schaller, C.

C. Schaller, D. Rogez, and A. Braig, “Hydroxyphenyl-s-triazines: advanced multipurpose UV-absorbers for coatings,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 5(1), 25–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schettler, H.

G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, E.

G. Rytz, R. Hilfiker, E. Schmidt, and A. Schmitter, “Introduction to a new class of high performance light stabilizers and the influence of light stabilizers structure on the polymer’s life time,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 247(1), 213–224 (1997).

Schmitter, A.

G. Rytz, R. Hilfiker, E. Schmidt, and A. Schmitter, “Introduction to a new class of high performance light stabilizers and the influence of light stabilizers structure on the polymer’s life time,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 247(1), 213–224 (1997).

Schulz, U.

C. Präfke, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Ultraviolet/visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations of organic–inorganic hybrid layers for UV protection,” Thin Solid Films 532, 113–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Präfke, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Preparation and characterization of organic layers for UV protection of polycarbonate,” Thin Solid Films 520(12), 4180–4183 (2012).
[Crossref]

U. Schulz, K. Lau, and N. Kaiser, “Antireflection coating with UV-protective properties for polycarbonate,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), C83–C87 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scully, A.

K. Ghiggino, A. Scully, and I. Leaver, “Effect of solvent on excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in benzotriazole photostabilizers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90(21), 5089–5093 (1986).

Smit, K.

K. Smit, “Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy of some energetic molecules in the solid state,” J. Energ. Mater. 9(1–2), 81–103 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stefani, V.

T. M. Costa, V. Stefani, M. R. Gallas, N. M. Balzaretti, and J. A. da Jornada, “Fluorescence properties of benzoxazole type dyes entrapped in a silica matrix by the sol-gel method,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(12), 3377–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stenzel, O.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stezowski, J.

J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
[Crossref]

Stueber, G.

G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
[Crossref]

Thielsch, R.

J. Heber, C. Muehlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “Luminescence of UV thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tomasella, E.

A. Moustaghr, E. Tomasella, A. Rivaton, B. Mailhot, M. Jacquet, J. Gardette, and J. Cellier, “Sputtered zinc oxide coatings: structural study and application to the photoprotection of the polycarbonate,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180, 292–311 (2003).

Triebel, W.

J. Heber, C. Muehlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “Luminescence of UV thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

C. Präfke, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Ultraviolet/visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations of organic–inorganic hybrid layers for UV protection,” Thin Solid Films 532, 113–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vasanelli, L.

Wilbrandt, S.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ying, J.

J. Ying and J. Benziger, “Structure tailoring of alkoxide silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147, 222–231 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Coat. Technol. Res. (1)

C. Schaller, D. Rogez, and A. Braig, “Hydroxyphenyl-s-triazines: advanced multipurpose UV-absorbers for coatings,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 5(1), 25–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Energ. Mater. (1)

K. Smit, “Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy of some energetic molecules in the solid state,” J. Energ. Mater. 9(1–2), 81–103 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

T. M. Costa, V. Stefani, M. R. Gallas, N. M. Balzaretti, and J. A. da Jornada, “Fluorescence properties of benzoxazole type dyes entrapped in a silica matrix by the sol-gel method,” J. Mater. Chem. 11(12), 3377–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

K. Ghiggino, A. Scully, and I. Leaver, “Effect of solvent on excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in benzotriazole photostabilizers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90(21), 5089–5093 (1986).

P. Innocenzi, “Infrared spectroscopy of sol-gel derived silica-based films: a spectra-microstructure overview,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2), 309–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Ying and J. Benziger, “Structure tailoring of alkoxide silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147, 222–231 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

J. Rieker, E. Lemmert-Schmitt, G. Goeller, M. Roessler, G. Stueber, H. Schettler, H. Kramer, J. Stezowski, and H. Hoier, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole class: Influence of substituents on structure and spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(25), 10225–10234 (1992).
[Crossref]

G. Stueber, M. Kieninger, H. Schettler, W. Busch, B. Goeller, J. Franke, H. Kramer, H. Hoier, and S. Henkel, “Ultraviolet stabilizers of the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine class: Structural and spectroscopic characterization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(25), 10097–10109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

S. R. Grando, C. M. Pessoa, M. R. Gallas, T. M. Costa, F. S. Rodembusch, and E. V. Benvenutti, “Modulation of the ESIPT emission of benzothiazole type dye incorporated in silica-based hybrid materials,” Langmuir 25(22), 13219–13223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macromol. Mater. Eng. (1)

G. Rytz, R. Hilfiker, E. Schmidt, and A. Schmitter, “Introduction to a new class of high performance light stabilizers and the influence of light stabilizers structure on the polymer’s life time,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 247(1), 213–224 (1997).

Pol. Deg. Stab. (2)

M. Diepens and P. Gijsman, “Photodegradation of bisphenol A polycarbonate,” Pol. Deg. Stab. 92(3), 397–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Diepens and P. Gijsman, “Photostabilizing of bisphenol A polycarbonate by using UV-absorbers and self protective block copolymers based on resorcinol polyarylate blocks,” Pol. Deg. Stab. 94(10), 1808–1813 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pol. Deg.Stab. (1)

N. Nagai, H. Okumura, T. Imai, and I. Nishiyama, “Depth profile analysis of the photochemical degradation of polycarbonate by infrared spectroscopy,” Pol. Deg.Stab. 81(3), 491–496 (2003).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Heber, C. Muehlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “Luminescence of UV thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref]

Prog. Org. Coat. (1)

D. Katsamberis, K. Browall, C. Iacovangelo, M. Neumann, and H. Morgner, “„Highly durable coatings for automotive polycarbonate glazing,” Prog. Org. Coat. 34(1), 130–134 (1997).

Prog. Polym. Sci. (1)

J. Pospíšil and S. Nespurek, “Photostabilization of coatings. Mechanisms and performance,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 25(9), 1261–1335 (2000).
[Crossref]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

A. Moustaghr, E. Tomasella, A. Rivaton, B. Mailhot, M. Jacquet, J. Gardette, and J. Cellier, “Sputtered zinc oxide coatings: structural study and application to the photoprotection of the polycarbonate,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180, 292–311 (2003).

Thin Solid Films (3)

C. Präfke, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Preparation and characterization of organic layers for UV protection of polycarbonate,” Thin Solid Films 520(12), 4180–4183 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Präfke, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Ultraviolet/visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations of organic–inorganic hybrid layers for UV protection,” Thin Solid Films 532, 113–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Jäger, “Dye-metal oxide composite thin films for decorative applications,” Thin Solid Films 286(1-2), 154–158 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vak. Forsch. Prax. (1)

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1994)

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Protic UV absorbers 2,2’-methylenebis(6-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol) (Tin360) and 2-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-5-hexyloxy-phenol (Tin1577).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic drawing of the ESIPT process [7], e.g. 2-(2’-hydroxy-phenyl)-1,3,5-triazines.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 ATR spectra of Tin360 and Tin1577 as pure material before evaporation and as condensed material after vacuum evaporation. For a better comparability the spectra are displaced to avoid an overlap.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM images of the pure organic layers from Tin360 (left, top view) and Tin1577 (right, top view and cross section).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM images of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings from Tin1577 in silica.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Density of the hybrid coating versus the organic content. The organic content was calculated from an EDX element analysis.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 FTIR-spectra of Tin1577-silica-layers with varying organic content: Si-O-Si and its shoulder at 1070 cm−1 (left) and the wavenumber region 4000-2500 cm−1 with hydroxyl species (right).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Refractive indices and extinction coefficients for Tin1577-silica hybrid coatings with different organic content.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Absorption spectra of Tin1577 and Tin1577-silica hybrid coating (left) and Tin 360 and Tin360-silica hybrid coating (right). The organic content in the compared layers is constant.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Schematic drawing of the (a) planar BZT-configuration with intact IMHB and the (b) non-planar BZT-configuration with open IMHB bond and an intermolecular hydrogen bond to the polar matrix.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Chronological change of hydroxyl bands in the spectral region of 4000-2500 cm−1 (top) and absorption edge (bottom) for Tin360-silica (left) and Tin1577-silica (right) after deposition.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Dependence of the fluorescence intensity from the organic content in Tin360-silica (left) and Tin1577-silica (right) hybrid coatings.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Schematic drawing of the silica network with integrated Tin360 species (left) and Tin1577 (right). The Tin360 shows the non-planar configuration with open IMHB in the matrix. The IMHB of the Tin1557 is intact.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Absorption spectra of Tin1577-silica (left) and Tin360-silica (right) before and after 1200 h of artificial UV irradiation.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Chronological change of the FTIR absorption spectra for Tin1577 (left) and Tin360-silica (right) during the artificial UV irradiation. The scaled up characteristic organic absorption band of the organic UV absorber after baseline correction.

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