Abstract

We have demonstrated that the bandgap of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2(CIGS) absorber layers was readily controlled by using a one-step sputtering process. CIGS thin-film sample libraries with different Ga/(In + Ga) ratios were synthesized on soda-lime glass at 550°C using a combinatorial magnetron sputtering system employing CuInSe2(CIS) and CuGaSe2(CGS) targets. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDS-XRF) confirmed that the CIGS films had different Ga/(In + Ga) ratios, which were varied by the sample configuration on the substrate and ranged from 0.2 to 0.9. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the CIGS films had a pure chalcopyrite phase without any secondary phase such as Cu-Se or ordered vacancy compound (OVC), respectively. Furthermore, we found that the optical bandgap energies of the CIGS films determined by transmittance measurements ranged from 1.07 eV to 1.53 eV as the Ga/(In + Ga) ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.9, demonstrating that the one-step sputtering process using CIS and CGS targets is another simple route to control the bandgap energy of the CIGS absorber layer.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. A. J. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Song, B. Li, W. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Structure, morphology and properties of thinned Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035022 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Zachmann, S. Heinker, A. Braun, A. V. Mudryi, V. F. Gremenok, A. V. Ivaniukovich, and M. V. Yakushev, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells on polyimide,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2209–2212 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Hultqvist, C. Platzer-Bjorkman, J. Pettersson, T. Törndahl, and M. Edoff, “CuGaSe2 solar cells using atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) and (Zn,Mg)O buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2305–2308 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F.-F. Liu, C.-J. Li, and Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. I. H. Choi, “Raman spectroscopy of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 for in-situ monitoring of the composition ration,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4390–4393 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. H. Rafat and S. E.-D. Habib, “The limiting efficiency of band gap graded solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 55(4), 341–361 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Drobiazg, L. Arzel, A. Donmez, P. Zabierowski, and N. Barreau, “Influence of indium/gallium gradients on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices deposited by the co-evaporation without recrystallization,” Thin Solid Films 582, 47–50 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Klinkert, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, D. Lincot, and J.-F. Guillemoles, “Differential in-depth characterization of co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cell applications,” Thin Solid Films 558, 47–53 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. S. Chen, J. C. Yang, Y. C. Chan, L. C. Yang, and W. Huang, “Another route to fabricate single-phase chalcogenides by post-selenization of Cu–In–Ga precursors sputter deposited from a single ternary target,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1351–1355 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. U. Park, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “A study on composition, structure and optical properties of copper-poor CIGS thin film deposited by sequential sputtering of CuGa/In and In/(CuGaþIn) precursors,” J. Cryst. Growth 359, 1–10 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. Zs. Baji, Z. Labadi, G. Molnar, B. Pécz, A. L. Tóth, J. Tóth, A. Csik, and I. Bársony, “Post-selenization of stacked precursor layers for CIGS,” Vacuum 92, 44–51 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. K. Song, S. G. Kim, and H. J. Joon, “Preparation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films by sputtering and selenization process,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 145–153 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Y. Su, W. H. Ho, H. C. Lin, C.-Y. Nieh, and S.-C. Liang, “The effects of the morphology on the CIGS thin films prepared by CuInGa single precursor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 261–263 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. J. Park and J. H. Kim, “Structural analysis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films fabricated by using sputtering and post-selenization,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(6), 1046–1049 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Nagoya, K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Role of incorporated sulfur into the surface of Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film absorber,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 247–253 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. H. Chen, W. C. Shih, C. Y. Chien, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Wu, and C.-H. Lai, “A promising sputtering route for one-step fabrication of chalcopyrite phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers without extra Se supply,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 25–29 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. A. Frantz, R. Y. Bekele, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, A. Bruce, S. V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and devices sputtered from a single target without additional selenization,” Thin Solid Films 519(22), 7763–7765 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z. Sun, and S. M. Huang, “Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 160–164 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. J. Zhou, D. Mei, X. G. Kong, X. H. Xu, L. D. Feng, X. Y. Dai, T. Gao, and J. Z. Li, “One-step synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers by magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Thin Solid Films 520(19), 6068–6074 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. H. Jung, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, D. Kim, and K. Yoon, “Effects of Ga contents on properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells fabricated by co-evaporation technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 990–996 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Steichen, J. Larsen, and P. J. Dale, “Preparation of CuGaSe2 absorber layers for thin film solar cells by annealing of efficiently electrodeposited Cu–Ga precursor layers from ionic liquids,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7254–7258 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Roy, P. Guha, S. N. Kundu, H. Hanzawa, S. Chaudhuri, and A. K. Pal, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films by Raman scattering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 73(1), 24–30 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Tanino, H. Deai, and H. Nakanishi, “Raman Spectra of CuGaxIn1-xSe2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(S3), 436–438 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. K. Lee, J. K. Sim, and C. R. Lee, “Se interlayer in CIGS absorption layer for solar cell devices,” J. Alloys Compd. 633, 31–36 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Kang, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “Band gap engineering of tandem structured CIGS compound absorption layer fabricated by sputtering and selenization,” J. Alloys Compd. 563, 207–215 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. G. H. Bauer, S. Tardon, and S. Vignoli, “Quasi-Fermi level splitting and identification of recombination losses from room temperature luminescence in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin films versus optical band gap,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 410–414 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  30. K. Ramanathan, G. Teeter, and R. Noufi, “Properties of high-efficiency CuInGaSe2 thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 499–502 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  31. F. B. Dejene and V. Alberts, “Structural and optical properties of homogeneous Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films prepared by thermal reaction of InSe/Cu/GaSe alloys with elemental Se vapour,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(1), 22–25 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  32. C. C. Chen, X. Qi, W. C. Chang, M.-G. Tsai, I.-G. Chen, C.-Y. Lin, P.-H. Wu, and K.-P. Chang, “The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of CIGS films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 772–778 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Saifullah, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Yun, “Effects of Cu content on the photovoltaic properties of wide bandgap CIGS thin-film solar cells prepared by single-stage process,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 16(11), 1517–1522 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  34. H. X. Zhang and R. J. Hong, “CIGS absorbing layers prepared by RF magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Ceram. Int. 42(13), 14543–14547 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. Saifullah, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Yun, “Effects of Cu content on the photovoltaic properties of wide bandgap CIGS thin-film solar cells prepared by single-stage process,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 16(11), 1517–1522 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. X. Zhang and R. J. Hong, “CIGS absorbing layers prepared by RF magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Ceram. Int. 42(13), 14543–14547 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

C. C. Chen, X. Qi, W. C. Chang, M.-G. Tsai, I.-G. Chen, C.-Y. Lin, P.-H. Wu, and K.-P. Chang, “The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of CIGS films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 772–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. K. Lee, J. K. Sim, and C. R. Lee, “Se interlayer in CIGS absorption layer for solar cell devices,” J. Alloys Compd. 633, 31–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Drobiazg, L. Arzel, A. Donmez, P. Zabierowski, and N. Barreau, “Influence of indium/gallium gradients on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices deposited by the co-evaporation without recrystallization,” Thin Solid Films 582, 47–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

T. Klinkert, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, D. Lincot, and J.-F. Guillemoles, “Differential in-depth characterization of co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cell applications,” Thin Solid Films 558, 47–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Zs. Baji, Z. Labadi, G. Molnar, B. Pécz, A. L. Tóth, J. Tóth, A. Csik, and I. Bársony, “Post-selenization of stacked precursor layers for CIGS,” Vacuum 92, 44–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park and J. H. Kim, “Structural analysis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films fabricated by using sputtering and post-selenization,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(6), 1046–1049 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kang, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “Band gap engineering of tandem structured CIGS compound absorption layer fabricated by sputtering and selenization,” J. Alloys Compd. 563, 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

A. J. Zhou, D. Mei, X. G. Kong, X. H. Xu, L. D. Feng, X. Y. Dai, T. Gao, and J. Z. Li, “One-step synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers by magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Thin Solid Films 520(19), 6068–6074 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, W. C. Shih, C. Y. Chien, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Wu, and C.-H. Lai, “A promising sputtering route for one-step fabrication of chalcopyrite phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers without extra Se supply,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 25–29 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. U. Park, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “A study on composition, structure and optical properties of copper-poor CIGS thin film deposited by sequential sputtering of CuGa/In and In/(CuGaþIn) precursors,” J. Cryst. Growth 359, 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. J. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Song, B. Li, W. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Structure, morphology and properties of thinned Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035022 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. H. Choi, “Raman spectroscopy of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 for in-situ monitoring of the composition ration,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4390–4393 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Su, W. H. Ho, H. C. Lin, C.-Y. Nieh, and S.-C. Liang, “The effects of the morphology on the CIGS thin films prepared by CuInGa single precursor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 261–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, R. Y. Bekele, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, A. Bruce, S. V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and devices sputtered from a single target without additional selenization,” Thin Solid Films 519(22), 7763–7765 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z. Sun, and S. M. Huang, “Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Steichen, J. Larsen, and P. J. Dale, “Preparation of CuGaSe2 absorber layers for thin film solar cells by annealing of efficiently electrodeposited Cu–Ga precursor layers from ionic liquids,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7254–7258 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. H. Jung, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, D. Kim, and K. Yoon, “Effects of Ga contents on properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells fabricated by co-evaporation technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 990–996 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

G. S. Chen, J. C. Yang, Y. C. Chan, L. C. Yang, and W. Huang, “Another route to fabricate single-phase chalcogenides by post-selenization of Cu–In–Ga precursors sputter deposited from a single ternary target,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1351–1355 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zachmann, S. Heinker, A. Braun, A. V. Mudryi, V. F. Gremenok, A. V. Ivaniukovich, and M. V. Yakushev, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells on polyimide,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2209–2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Hultqvist, C. Platzer-Bjorkman, J. Pettersson, T. Törndahl, and M. Edoff, “CuGaSe2 solar cells using atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) and (Zn,Mg)O buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2305–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F.-F. Liu, C.-J. Li, and Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

G. H. Bauer, S. Tardon, and S. Vignoli, “Quasi-Fermi level splitting and identification of recombination losses from room temperature luminescence in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin films versus optical band gap,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 410–414 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Ramanathan, G. Teeter, and R. Noufi, “Properties of high-efficiency CuInGaSe2 thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 499–502 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. B. Dejene and V. Alberts, “Structural and optical properties of homogeneous Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films prepared by thermal reaction of InSe/Cu/GaSe alloys with elemental Se vapour,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(1), 22–25 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. K. Song, S. G. Kim, and H. J. Joon, “Preparation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films by sputtering and selenization process,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 145–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Roy, P. Guha, S. N. Kundu, H. Hanzawa, S. Chaudhuri, and A. K. Pal, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films by Raman scattering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 73(1), 24–30 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. Nagoya, K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Role of incorporated sulfur into the surface of Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film absorber,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 247–253 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

N. H. Rafat and S. E.-D. Habib, “The limiting efficiency of band gap graded solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 55(4), 341–361 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. Tanino, H. Deai, and H. Nakanishi, “Raman Spectra of CuGaxIn1-xSe2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(S3), 436–438 (1993).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. A. Frantz, R. Y. Bekele, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, A. Bruce, S. V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and devices sputtered from a single target without additional selenization,” Thin Solid Films 519(22), 7763–7765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S. J.

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jung, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, D. Kim, and K. Yoon, “Effects of Ga contents on properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells fabricated by co-evaporation technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 990–996 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S. K.

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alberts, V.

F. B. Dejene and V. Alberts, “Structural and optical properties of homogeneous Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films prepared by thermal reaction of InSe/Cu/GaSe alloys with elemental Se vapour,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(1), 22–25 (2005).
[Crossref]

Arzel, L.

T. Drobiazg, L. Arzel, A. Donmez, P. Zabierowski, and N. Barreau, “Influence of indium/gallium gradients on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices deposited by the co-evaporation without recrystallization,” Thin Solid Films 582, 47–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baji, Zs.

Zs. Baji, Z. Labadi, G. Molnar, B. Pécz, A. L. Tóth, J. Tóth, A. Csik, and I. Bársony, “Post-selenization of stacked precursor layers for CIGS,” Vacuum 92, 44–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barreau, N.

T. Drobiazg, L. Arzel, A. Donmez, P. Zabierowski, and N. Barreau, “Influence of indium/gallium gradients on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices deposited by the co-evaporation without recrystallization,” Thin Solid Films 582, 47–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bársony, I.

Zs. Baji, Z. Labadi, G. Molnar, B. Pécz, A. L. Tóth, J. Tóth, A. Csik, and I. Bársony, “Post-selenization of stacked precursor layers for CIGS,” Vacuum 92, 44–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauer, G. H.

G. H. Bauer, S. Tardon, and S. Vignoli, “Quasi-Fermi level splitting and identification of recombination losses from room temperature luminescence in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin films versus optical band gap,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 410–414 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bekele, R. Y.

J. A. Frantz, R. Y. Bekele, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, A. Bruce, S. V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and devices sputtered from a single target without additional selenization,” Thin Solid Films 519(22), 7763–7765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Braun, A.

H. Zachmann, S. Heinker, A. Braun, A. V. Mudryi, V. F. Gremenok, A. V. Ivaniukovich, and M. V. Yakushev, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells on polyimide,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2209–2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bruce, A.

J. A. Frantz, R. Y. Bekele, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, A. Bruce, S. V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and devices sputtered from a single target without additional selenization,” Thin Solid Films 519(22), 7763–7765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chan, Y. C.

G. S. Chen, J. C. Yang, Y. C. Chan, L. C. Yang, and W. Huang, “Another route to fabricate single-phase chalcogenides by post-selenization of Cu–In–Ga precursors sputter deposited from a single ternary target,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1351–1355 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, K.-P.

C. C. Chen, X. Qi, W. C. Chang, M.-G. Tsai, I.-G. Chen, C.-Y. Lin, P.-H. Wu, and K.-P. Chang, “The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of CIGS films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 772–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. C.

C. C. Chen, X. Qi, W. C. Chang, M.-G. Tsai, I.-G. Chen, C.-Y. Lin, P.-H. Wu, and K.-P. Chang, “The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of CIGS films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 772–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chaudhuri, S.

S. Roy, P. Guha, S. N. Kundu, H. Hanzawa, S. Chaudhuri, and A. K. Pal, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films by Raman scattering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 73(1), 24–30 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chen, X. Qi, W. C. Chang, M.-G. Tsai, I.-G. Chen, C.-Y. Lin, P.-H. Wu, and K.-P. Chang, “The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of CIGS films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 772–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, W. C. Shih, C. Y. Chien, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Wu, and C.-H. Lai, “A promising sputtering route for one-step fabrication of chalcopyrite phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers without extra Se supply,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 25–29 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. S.

G. S. Chen, J. C. Yang, Y. C. Chan, L. C. Yang, and W. Huang, “Another route to fabricate single-phase chalcogenides by post-selenization of Cu–In–Ga precursors sputter deposited from a single ternary target,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1351–1355 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, I.-G.

C. C. Chen, X. Qi, W. C. Chang, M.-G. Tsai, I.-G. Chen, C.-Y. Lin, P.-H. Wu, and K.-P. Chang, “The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of CIGS films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 772–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheong, H.

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chien, C. Y.

C. H. Chen, W. C. Shih, C. Y. Chien, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Wu, and C.-H. Lai, “A promising sputtering route for one-step fabrication of chalcopyrite phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers without extra Se supply,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 25–29 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, A.

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, I. H.

I. H. Choi, “Raman spectroscopy of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 for in-situ monitoring of the composition ration,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4390–4393 (2011).
[Crossref]

Csik, A.

Zs. Baji, Z. Labadi, G. Molnar, B. Pécz, A. L. Tóth, J. Tóth, A. Csik, and I. Bársony, “Post-selenization of stacked precursor layers for CIGS,” Vacuum 92, 44–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cyrus, M.

J. A. Frantz, R. Y. Bekele, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, A. Bruce, S. V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and devices sputtered from a single target without additional selenization,” Thin Solid Films 519(22), 7763–7765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, X. Y.

A. J. Zhou, D. Mei, X. G. Kong, X. H. Xu, L. D. Feng, X. Y. Dai, T. Gao, and J. Z. Li, “One-step synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers by magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Thin Solid Films 520(19), 6068–6074 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dale, P. J.

M. Steichen, J. Larsen, and P. J. Dale, “Preparation of CuGaSe2 absorber layers for thin film solar cells by annealing of efficiently electrodeposited Cu–Ga precursor layers from ionic liquids,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7254–7258 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deai, H.

H. Tanino, H. Deai, and H. Nakanishi, “Raman Spectra of CuGaxIn1-xSe2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(S3), 436–438 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dejene, F. B.

F. B. Dejene and V. Alberts, “Structural and optical properties of homogeneous Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films prepared by thermal reaction of InSe/Cu/GaSe alloys with elemental Se vapour,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(1), 22–25 (2005).
[Crossref]

Donmez, A.

T. Drobiazg, L. Arzel, A. Donmez, P. Zabierowski, and N. Barreau, “Influence of indium/gallium gradients on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices deposited by the co-evaporation without recrystallization,” Thin Solid Films 582, 47–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Donsanti, F.

T. Klinkert, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, D. Lincot, and J.-F. Guillemoles, “Differential in-depth characterization of co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cell applications,” Thin Solid Films 558, 47–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Drobiazg, T.

T. Drobiazg, L. Arzel, A. Donmez, P. Zabierowski, and N. Barreau, “Influence of indium/gallium gradients on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices deposited by the co-evaporation without recrystallization,” Thin Solid Films 582, 47–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Edoff, M.

A. Hultqvist, C. Platzer-Bjorkman, J. Pettersson, T. Törndahl, and M. Edoff, “CuGaSe2 solar cells using atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) and (Zn,Mg)O buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2305–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, L. D.

A. J. Zhou, D. Mei, X. G. Kong, X. H. Xu, L. D. Feng, X. Y. Dai, T. Gao, and J. Z. Li, “One-step synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers by magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Thin Solid Films 520(19), 6068–6074 (2012).
[Crossref]

Frantz, J. A.

J. A. Frantz, R. Y. Bekele, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, A. Bruce, S. V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and devices sputtered from a single target without additional selenization,” Thin Solid Films 519(22), 7763–7765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frolov, S. V.

J. A. Frantz, R. Y. Bekele, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, A. Bruce, S. V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and devices sputtered from a single target without additional selenization,” Thin Solid Films 519(22), 7763–7765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, T.

A. J. Zhou, D. Mei, X. G. Kong, X. H. Xu, L. D. Feng, X. Y. Dai, T. Gao, and J. Z. Li, “One-step synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers by magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Thin Solid Films 520(19), 6068–6074 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gremenok, V. F.

H. Zachmann, S. Heinker, A. Braun, A. V. Mudryi, V. F. Gremenok, A. V. Ivaniukovich, and M. V. Yakushev, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells on polyimide,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2209–2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guha, P.

S. Roy, P. Guha, S. N. Kundu, H. Hanzawa, S. Chaudhuri, and A. K. Pal, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films by Raman scattering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 73(1), 24–30 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guillemoles, J.-F.

T. Klinkert, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, D. Lincot, and J.-F. Guillemoles, “Differential in-depth characterization of co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cell applications,” Thin Solid Films 558, 47–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gwak, J.

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jung, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, D. Kim, and K. Yoon, “Effects of Ga contents on properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells fabricated by co-evaporation technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 990–996 (2010).
[Crossref]

Habib, S. E.-D.

N. H. Rafat and S. E.-D. Habib, “The limiting efficiency of band gap graded solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 55(4), 341–361 (1998).
[Crossref]

Han, A. J.

A. J. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Song, B. Li, W. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Structure, morphology and properties of thinned Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hanzawa, H.

S. Roy, P. Guha, S. N. Kundu, H. Hanzawa, S. Chaudhuri, and A. K. Pal, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films by Raman scattering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 73(1), 24–30 (2002).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F.-F. Liu, C.-J. Li, and Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heinker, S.

H. Zachmann, S. Heinker, A. Braun, A. V. Mudryi, V. F. Gremenok, A. V. Ivaniukovich, and M. V. Yakushev, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells on polyimide,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2209–2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ho, W. H.

C. Y. Su, W. H. Ho, H. C. Lin, C.-Y. Nieh, and S.-C. Liang, “The effects of the morphology on the CIGS thin films prepared by CuInGa single precursor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 261–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, R. J.

H. X. Zhang and R. J. Hong, “CIGS absorbing layers prepared by RF magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Ceram. Int. 42(13), 14543–14547 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C.-H.

C. H. Chen, W. C. Shih, C. Y. Chien, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Wu, and C.-H. Lai, “A promising sputtering route for one-step fabrication of chalcopyrite phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers without extra Se supply,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 25–29 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. M.

J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z. Sun, and S. M. Huang, “Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

G. S. Chen, J. C. Yang, Y. C. Chan, L. C. Yang, and W. Huang, “Another route to fabricate single-phase chalcogenides by post-selenization of Cu–In–Ga precursors sputter deposited from a single ternary target,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1351–1355 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hultqvist, A.

A. Hultqvist, C. Platzer-Bjorkman, J. Pettersson, T. Törndahl, and M. Edoff, “CuGaSe2 solar cells using atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) and (Zn,Mg)O buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2305–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivaniukovich, A. V.

H. Zachmann, S. Heinker, A. Braun, A. V. Mudryi, V. F. Gremenok, A. V. Ivaniukovich, and M. V. Yakushev, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells on polyimide,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2209–2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W. L.

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F.-F. Liu, C.-J. Li, and Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Joon, H. J.

H. K. Song, S. G. Kim, and H. J. Joon, “Preparation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films by sputtering and selenization process,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 145–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jubault, M.

T. Klinkert, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, D. Lincot, and J.-F. Guillemoles, “Differential in-depth characterization of co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cell applications,” Thin Solid Films 558, 47–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jung, S. H.

S. H. Jung, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, D. Kim, and K. Yoon, “Effects of Ga contents on properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells fabricated by co-evaporation technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 990–996 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.

S. Kang, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “Band gap engineering of tandem structured CIGS compound absorption layer fabricated by sputtering and selenization,” J. Alloys Compd. 563, 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kase, T.

K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

S. H. Jung, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, D. Kim, and K. Yoon, “Effects of Ga contents on properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells fabricated by co-evaporation technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 990–996 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

S. J. Park and J. H. Kim, “Structural analysis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films fabricated by using sputtering and post-selenization,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(6), 1046–1049 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. G.

H. K. Song, S. G. Kim, and H. J. Joon, “Preparation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films by sputtering and selenization process,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 145–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

Klinkert, T.

T. Klinkert, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, D. Lincot, and J.-F. Guillemoles, “Differential in-depth characterization of co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cell applications,” Thin Solid Films 558, 47–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kong, X. G.

A. J. Zhou, D. Mei, X. G. Kong, X. H. Xu, L. D. Feng, X. Y. Dai, T. Gao, and J. Z. Li, “One-step synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers by magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Thin Solid Films 520(19), 6068–6074 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kundu, S. N.

S. Roy, P. Guha, S. N. Kundu, H. Hanzawa, S. Chaudhuri, and A. K. Pal, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films by Raman scattering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 73(1), 24–30 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kushiya, K.

Y. Nagoya, K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Role of incorporated sulfur into the surface of Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film absorber,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 247–253 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Labadi, Z.

Zs. Baji, Z. Labadi, G. Molnar, B. Pécz, A. L. Tóth, J. Tóth, A. Csik, and I. Bársony, “Post-selenization of stacked precursor layers for CIGS,” Vacuum 92, 44–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lai, C.-H.

C. H. Chen, W. C. Shih, C. Y. Chien, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Wu, and C.-H. Lai, “A promising sputtering route for one-step fabrication of chalcopyrite phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers without extra Se supply,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 25–29 (2012).
[Crossref]

Larsen, J.

M. Steichen, J. Larsen, and P. J. Dale, “Preparation of CuGaSe2 absorber layers for thin film solar cells by annealing of efficiently electrodeposited Cu–Ga precursor layers from ionic liquids,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7254–7258 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. R.

S. K. Lee, J. K. Sim, and C. R. Lee, “Se interlayer in CIGS absorption layer for solar cell devices,” J. Alloys Compd. 633, 31–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kang, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “Band gap engineering of tandem structured CIGS compound absorption layer fabricated by sputtering and selenization,” J. Alloys Compd. 563, 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. U. Park, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “A study on composition, structure and optical properties of copper-poor CIGS thin film deposited by sequential sputtering of CuGa/In and In/(CuGaþIn) precursors,” J. Cryst. Growth 359, 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.-D.

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. K.

S. K. Lee, J. K. Sim, and C. R. Lee, “Se interlayer in CIGS absorption layer for solar cell devices,” J. Alloys Compd. 633, 31–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

A. J. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Song, B. Li, W. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Structure, morphology and properties of thinned Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, C.-J.

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F.-F. Liu, C.-J. Li, and Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, J. Z.

A. J. Zhou, D. Mei, X. G. Kong, X. H. Xu, L. D. Feng, X. Y. Dai, T. Gao, and J. Z. Li, “One-step synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers by magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Thin Solid Films 520(19), 6068–6074 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. Q.

J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z. Sun, and S. M. Huang, “Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liang, S.-C.

C. Y. Su, W. H. Ho, H. C. Lin, C.-Y. Nieh, and S.-C. Liang, “The effects of the morphology on the CIGS thin films prepared by CuInGa single precursor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 261–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-Y.

C. C. Chen, X. Qi, W. C. Chang, M.-G. Tsai, I.-G. Chen, C.-Y. Lin, P.-H. Wu, and K.-P. Chang, “The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of CIGS films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 772–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. C.

C. Y. Su, W. H. Ho, H. C. Lin, C.-Y. Nieh, and S.-C. Liang, “The effects of the morphology on the CIGS thin films prepared by CuInGa single precursor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 261–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lincot, D.

T. Klinkert, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, D. Lincot, and J.-F. Guillemoles, “Differential in-depth characterization of co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cell applications,” Thin Solid Films 558, 47–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.-F.

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F.-F. Liu, C.-J. Li, and Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q. Q.

J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z. Sun, and S. M. Huang, “Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

A. J. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Song, B. Li, W. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Structure, morphology and properties of thinned Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mei, D.

A. J. Zhou, D. Mei, X. G. Kong, X. H. Xu, L. D. Feng, X. Y. Dai, T. Gao, and J. Z. Li, “One-step synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers by magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Thin Solid Films 520(19), 6068–6074 (2012).
[Crossref]

Molnar, G.

Zs. Baji, Z. Labadi, G. Molnar, B. Pécz, A. L. Tóth, J. Tóth, A. Csik, and I. Bársony, “Post-selenization of stacked precursor layers for CIGS,” Vacuum 92, 44–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moon, D. G.

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moon, J. H.

M. Saifullah, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Yun, “Effects of Cu content on the photovoltaic properties of wide bandgap CIGS thin-film solar cells prepared by single-stage process,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 16(11), 1517–1522 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mudryi, A. V.

H. Zachmann, S. Heinker, A. Braun, A. V. Mudryi, V. F. Gremenok, A. V. Ivaniukovich, and M. V. Yakushev, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells on polyimide,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2209–2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nagoya, Y.

Y. Nagoya, K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Role of incorporated sulfur into the surface of Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film absorber,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 247–253 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nakanishi, H.

H. Tanino, H. Deai, and H. Nakanishi, “Raman Spectra of CuGaxIn1-xSe2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(S3), 436–438 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nam, D.

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, V. Q.

J. A. Frantz, R. Y. Bekele, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, A. Bruce, S. V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and devices sputtered from a single target without additional selenization,” Thin Solid Films 519(22), 7763–7765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nieh, C.-Y.

C. Y. Su, W. H. Ho, H. C. Lin, C.-Y. Nieh, and S.-C. Liang, “The effects of the morphology on the CIGS thin films prepared by CuInGa single precursor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 261–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

Noufi, R.

K. Ramanathan, G. Teeter, and R. Noufi, “Properties of high-efficiency CuInGaSe2 thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 499–502 (2005).
[Crossref]

Okumura, D.

K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pak, H.

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pal, A. K.

S. Roy, P. Guha, S. N. Kundu, H. Hanzawa, S. Chaudhuri, and A. K. Pal, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films by Raman scattering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 73(1), 24–30 (2002).
[Crossref]

Park, M. G.

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

S. J. Park and J. H. Kim, “Structural analysis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films fabricated by using sputtering and post-selenization,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(6), 1046–1049 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, S. U.

S. U. Park, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “A study on composition, structure and optical properties of copper-poor CIGS thin film deposited by sequential sputtering of CuGa/In and In/(CuGaþIn) precursors,” J. Cryst. Growth 359, 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pécz, B.

Zs. Baji, Z. Labadi, G. Molnar, B. Pécz, A. L. Tóth, J. Tóth, A. Csik, and I. Bársony, “Post-selenization of stacked precursor layers for CIGS,” Vacuum 92, 44–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pettersson, J.

A. Hultqvist, C. Platzer-Bjorkman, J. Pettersson, T. Törndahl, and M. Edoff, “CuGaSe2 solar cells using atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) and (Zn,Mg)O buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2305–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Platzer-Bjorkman, C.

A. Hultqvist, C. Platzer-Bjorkman, J. Pettersson, T. Törndahl, and M. Edoff, “CuGaSe2 solar cells using atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) and (Zn,Mg)O buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2305–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qi, X.

C. C. Chen, X. Qi, W. C. Chang, M.-G. Tsai, I.-G. Chen, C.-Y. Lin, P.-H. Wu, and K.-P. Chang, “The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of CIGS films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 772–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rafat, N. H.

N. H. Rafat and S. E.-D. Habib, “The limiting efficiency of band gap graded solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 55(4), 341–361 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ramanathan, K.

K. Ramanathan, G. Teeter, and R. Noufi, “Properties of high-efficiency CuInGaSe2 thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 499–502 (2005).
[Crossref]

Roy, S.

S. Roy, P. Guha, S. N. Kundu, H. Hanzawa, S. Chaudhuri, and A. K. Pal, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films by Raman scattering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 73(1), 24–30 (2002).
[Crossref]

Saifullah, M.

M. Saifullah, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Yun, “Effects of Cu content on the photovoltaic properties of wide bandgap CIGS thin-film solar cells prepared by single-stage process,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 16(11), 1517–1522 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sanghera, J. S.

J. A. Frantz, R. Y. Bekele, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, A. Bruce, S. V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and devices sputtered from a single target without additional selenization,” Thin Solid Films 519(22), 7763–7765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sato, M.

K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

S. Kang, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “Band gap engineering of tandem structured CIGS compound absorption layer fabricated by sputtering and selenization,” J. Alloys Compd. 563, 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. U. Park, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “A study on composition, structure and optical properties of copper-poor CIGS thin film deposited by sequential sputtering of CuGa/In and In/(CuGaþIn) precursors,” J. Cryst. Growth 359, 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shi, J. H.

J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z. Sun, and S. M. Huang, “Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shih, W. C.

C. H. Chen, W. C. Shih, C. Y. Chien, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Wu, and C.-H. Lai, “A promising sputtering route for one-step fabrication of chalcopyrite phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers without extra Se supply,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 25–29 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shin, K.

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sim, J. K.

S. K. Lee, J. K. Sim, and C. R. Lee, “Se interlayer in CIGS absorption layer for solar cell devices,” J. Alloys Compd. 633, 31–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, H. K.

H. K. Song, S. G. Kim, and H. J. Joon, “Preparation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films by sputtering and selenization process,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 145–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

Song, W.

A. J. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Song, B. Li, W. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Structure, morphology and properties of thinned Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Steichen, M.

M. Steichen, J. Larsen, and P. J. Dale, “Preparation of CuGaSe2 absorber layers for thin film solar cells by annealing of efficiently electrodeposited Cu–Ga precursor layers from ionic liquids,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7254–7258 (2011).
[Crossref]

Su, C. Y.

C. Y. Su, W. H. Ho, H. C. Lin, C.-Y. Nieh, and S.-C. Liang, “The effects of the morphology on the CIGS thin films prepared by CuInGa single precursor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 261–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, I.

K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

A. J. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Song, B. Li, W. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Structure, morphology and properties of thinned Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035022 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F.-F. Liu, C.-J. Li, and Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z. Sun, and S. M. Huang, “Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tachiyuki, M.

Y. Nagoya, K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Role of incorporated sulfur into the surface of Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film absorber,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 247–253 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
[Crossref]

Takeshita, H.

K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tanino, H.

H. Tanino, H. Deai, and H. Nakanishi, “Raman Spectra of CuGaxIn1-xSe2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(S3), 436–438 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tardon, S.

G. H. Bauer, S. Tardon, and S. Vignoli, “Quasi-Fermi level splitting and identification of recombination losses from room temperature luminescence in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin films versus optical band gap,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 410–414 (2005).
[Crossref]

Teeter, G.

K. Ramanathan, G. Teeter, and R. Noufi, “Properties of high-efficiency CuInGaSe2 thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 499–502 (2005).
[Crossref]

Törndahl, T.

A. Hultqvist, C. Platzer-Bjorkman, J. Pettersson, T. Törndahl, and M. Edoff, “CuGaSe2 solar cells using atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) and (Zn,Mg)O buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2305–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tóth, A. L.

Zs. Baji, Z. Labadi, G. Molnar, B. Pécz, A. L. Tóth, J. Tóth, A. Csik, and I. Bársony, “Post-selenization of stacked precursor layers for CIGS,” Vacuum 92, 44–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tóth, J.

Zs. Baji, Z. Labadi, G. Molnar, B. Pécz, A. L. Tóth, J. Tóth, A. Csik, and I. Bársony, “Post-selenization of stacked precursor layers for CIGS,” Vacuum 92, 44–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M.-G.

C. C. Chen, X. Qi, W. C. Chang, M.-G. Tsai, I.-G. Chen, C.-Y. Lin, P.-H. Wu, and K.-P. Chang, “The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of CIGS films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 772–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vignoli, S.

G. H. Bauer, S. Tardon, and S. Vignoli, “Quasi-Fermi level splitting and identification of recombination losses from room temperature luminescence in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin films versus optical band gap,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 410–414 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.-H.

C. C. Chen, X. Qi, W. C. Chang, M.-G. Tsai, I.-G. Chen, C.-Y. Lin, P.-H. Wu, and K.-P. Chang, “The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of CIGS films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 772–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.-H.

C. H. Chen, W. C. Shih, C. Y. Chien, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Wu, and C.-H. Lai, “A promising sputtering route for one-step fabrication of chalcopyrite phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers without extra Se supply,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 25–29 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. H.

A. J. Zhou, D. Mei, X. G. Kong, X. H. Xu, L. D. Feng, X. Y. Dai, T. Gao, and J. Z. Li, “One-step synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers by magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Thin Solid Films 520(19), 6068–6074 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yakushev, M. V.

H. Zachmann, S. Heinker, A. Braun, A. V. Mudryi, V. F. Gremenok, A. V. Ivaniukovich, and M. V. Yakushev, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells on polyimide,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2209–2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamase, O.

Y. Nagoya, K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Role of incorporated sulfur into the surface of Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film absorber,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 247–253 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. C.

G. S. Chen, J. C. Yang, Y. C. Chan, L. C. Yang, and W. Huang, “Another route to fabricate single-phase chalcogenides by post-selenization of Cu–In–Ga precursors sputter deposited from a single ternary target,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1351–1355 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, L. C.

G. S. Chen, J. C. Yang, Y. C. Chan, L. C. Yang, and W. Huang, “Another route to fabricate single-phase chalcogenides by post-selenization of Cu–In–Ga precursors sputter deposited from a single ternary target,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1351–1355 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yoon, K.

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jung, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, D. Kim, and K. Yoon, “Effects of Ga contents on properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells fabricated by co-evaporation technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 990–996 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yun, J. H.

M. Saifullah, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Yun, “Effects of Cu content on the photovoltaic properties of wide bandgap CIGS thin-film solar cells prepared by single-stage process,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 16(11), 1517–1522 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jung, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, D. Kim, and K. Yoon, “Effects of Ga contents on properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells fabricated by co-evaporation technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 990–996 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zabierowski, P.

T. Drobiazg, L. Arzel, A. Donmez, P. Zabierowski, and N. Barreau, “Influence of indium/gallium gradients on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices deposited by the co-evaporation without recrystallization,” Thin Solid Films 582, 47–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zachmann, H.

H. Zachmann, S. Heinker, A. Braun, A. V. Mudryi, V. F. Gremenok, A. V. Ivaniukovich, and M. V. Yakushev, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells on polyimide,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2209–2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D. W.

J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z. Sun, and S. M. Huang, “Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. X.

H. X. Zhang and R. J. Hong, “CIGS absorbing layers prepared by RF magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Ceram. Int. 42(13), 14543–14547 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F.-F. Liu, C.-J. Li, and Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

A. J. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Song, B. Li, W. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Structure, morphology and properties of thinned Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, A. J.

A. J. Zhou, D. Mei, X. G. Kong, X. H. Xu, L. D. Feng, X. Y. Dai, T. Gao, and J. Z. Li, “One-step synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers by magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Thin Solid Films 520(19), 6068–6074 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. C. Chen, X. Qi, W. C. Chang, M.-G. Tsai, I.-G. Chen, C.-Y. Lin, P.-H. Wu, and K.-P. Chang, “The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of CIGS films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 772–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ceram. Int. (1)

H. X. Zhang and R. J. Hong, “CIGS absorbing layers prepared by RF magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Ceram. Int. 42(13), 14543–14547 (2016).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. Saifullah, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Yun, “Effects of Cu content on the photovoltaic properties of wide bandgap CIGS thin-film solar cells prepared by single-stage process,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 16(11), 1517–1522 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jung, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, D. Kim, and K. Yoon, “Effects of Ga contents on properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells fabricated by co-evaporation technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 990–996 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park and J. H. Kim, “Structural analysis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films fabricated by using sputtering and post-selenization,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(6), 1046–1049 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (3)

M. G. Park, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, J. Gwak, A. Cho, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, D. Nam, H. Cheong, and K. Yoon, “Characteristics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films deposited by a direct solution coating process,” J. Alloys Compd. 513, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. K. Lee, J. K. Sim, and C. R. Lee, “Se interlayer in CIGS absorption layer for solar cell devices,” J. Alloys Compd. 633, 31–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kang, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “Band gap engineering of tandem structured CIGS compound absorption layer fabricated by sputtering and selenization,” J. Alloys Compd. 563, 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

S. U. Park, R. Sharma, and C. R. Lee, “A study on composition, structure and optical properties of copper-poor CIGS thin film deposited by sequential sputtering of CuGa/In and In/(CuGaþIn) precursors,” J. Cryst. Growth 359, 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

F. B. Dejene and V. Alberts, “Structural and optical properties of homogeneous Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films prepared by thermal reaction of InSe/Cu/GaSe alloys with elemental Se vapour,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(1), 22–25 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Tanino, H. Deai, and H. Nakanishi, “Raman Spectra of CuGaxIn1-xSe2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(S3), 436–438 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Roy, P. Guha, S. N. Kundu, H. Hanzawa, S. Chaudhuri, and A. K. Pal, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films by Raman scattering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 73(1), 24–30 (2002).
[Crossref]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z. Sun, and S. M. Huang, “Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. J. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Song, B. Li, W. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Structure, morphology and properties of thinned Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035022 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (9)

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F.-F. Liu, C.-J. Li, and Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. G. Moon, S. J. Ahn, J. H. Yun, A. Cho, J. Gwak, S. K. Ahn, K. Shin, K. Yoon, H.-D. Lee, H. Pak, and S. Kwon, “Ex-situ and in-situ analyses on reation mechanism of CuInSe2(CIS) formed by selenization of sputter deposited CuIn precursor with Se vaper,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2786–2794 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. H. Rafat and S. E.-D. Habib, “The limiting efficiency of band gap graded solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 55(4), 341–361 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. K. Song, S. G. Kim, and H. J. Joon, “Preparation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films by sputtering and selenization process,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 145–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Su, W. H. Ho, H. C. Lin, C.-Y. Nieh, and S.-C. Liang, “The effects of the morphology on the CIGS thin films prepared by CuInGa single precursor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 261–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, T. Kase, I. Sugiyama, Y. Nagoya, D. Okumura, M. Sato, O. Yamase, and H. Takeshita, “Fabrication of graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film mini-modules with a Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 277–283 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. Nagoya, K. Kushiya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Role of incorporated sulfur into the surface of Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film absorber,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 247–253 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, W. C. Shih, C. Y. Chien, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Wu, and C.-H. Lai, “A promising sputtering route for one-step fabrication of chalcopyrite phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers without extra Se supply,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 25–29 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. S. Chen, J. C. Yang, Y. C. Chan, L. C. Yang, and W. Huang, “Another route to fabricate single-phase chalcogenides by post-selenization of Cu–In–Ga precursors sputter deposited from a single ternary target,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1351–1355 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (10)

A. J. Zhou, D. Mei, X. G. Kong, X. H. Xu, L. D. Feng, X. Y. Dai, T. Gao, and J. Z. Li, “One-step synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers by magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target,” Thin Solid Films 520(19), 6068–6074 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Steichen, J. Larsen, and P. J. Dale, “Preparation of CuGaSe2 absorber layers for thin film solar cells by annealing of efficiently electrodeposited Cu–Ga precursor layers from ionic liquids,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7254–7258 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. H. Bauer, S. Tardon, and S. Vignoli, “Quasi-Fermi level splitting and identification of recombination losses from room temperature luminescence in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin films versus optical band gap,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 410–414 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Ramanathan, G. Teeter, and R. Noufi, “Properties of high-efficiency CuInGaSe2 thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 480–481, 499–502 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, R. Y. Bekele, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, A. Bruce, S. V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and devices sputtered from a single target without additional selenization,” Thin Solid Films 519(22), 7763–7765 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Drobiazg, L. Arzel, A. Donmez, P. Zabierowski, and N. Barreau, “Influence of indium/gallium gradients on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices deposited by the co-evaporation without recrystallization,” Thin Solid Films 582, 47–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Klinkert, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, D. Lincot, and J.-F. Guillemoles, “Differential in-depth characterization of co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cell applications,” Thin Solid Films 558, 47–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. H. Choi, “Raman spectroscopy of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 for in-situ monitoring of the composition ration,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4390–4393 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zachmann, S. Heinker, A. Braun, A. V. Mudryi, V. F. Gremenok, A. V. Ivaniukovich, and M. V. Yakushev, “Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells on polyimide,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2209–2212 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Hultqvist, C. Platzer-Bjorkman, J. Pettersson, T. Törndahl, and M. Edoff, “CuGaSe2 solar cells using atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) and (Zn,Mg)O buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2305–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vacuum (1)

Zs. Baji, Z. Labadi, G. Molnar, B. Pécz, A. L. Tóth, J. Tóth, A. Csik, and I. Bársony, “Post-selenization of stacked precursor layers for CIGS,” Vacuum 92, 44–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of a combinatorial magnetron sputtering system for growing CIGS thin films using CIS and CGS targets.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a). Cross-section and surface SEM images of CIGS thin films with different Ga/(In + Ga) ratios of (A) 0.9, (B) 0.8, (C) 0.7, (D) 0.5, and (E) 0.2, respectively, (b) surface images of CIS and CGS ternary thin films.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 XRD patterns (a) and crystallite size (b) of CIGS thin films as a function of Ga/(In + Ga) ratio.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Raman spectra of CIGS thin films (a) and those A1 scattering peaks and FWHM values (b) as a function of Ga/(In + Ga) ratio.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Plots of (hv)2 versus hv for co-sputtered CIGS thin films as a function of Ga content and (b) variation in the bandgaps with different Ga contents (black square : co-sputtered CIGS thin films, red circle : Ref. [31]).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Chemical compositions of CIGS films determined by EDS-XRF.

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Table 2 Raman shift values of CIGS thin films as a function of Ga/(In + Ga) ratio.

Equations (2)

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α= 1 d ln[ (1R) 4 +4 T 2 R 2 2T + (1R) 2 2T ]
αhv=A (hvEg) 1/2

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