Abstract

ZnO nanorods grown via hydrothermal method on the aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin film were used to fabricate high-brightness p-side-up thin-film AlGaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AZO thin film was not only used as current spreading layers but also as a seed layer of ZnO nanorods. The AZO thin film was prepared using atomic layer deposition. The ZnO nanorods improved light extraction, thus increasing the light output power of the LEDs. The output powers of LEDs with optimum ZnO nanorod structures were increased by 32% at an injection current of 700 mA, as compared with that of an LED with AZO thin film. The emission wavelength shifts of LEDs with an AZO thin film and optimum ZnO nanorod structure were 18 and 11 nm, respectively, when the injection current was increased from 20 to 1000 mA. The ZnO nanorods not only provide more light extraction but also keep the thermal stability of the LED device without any degradation. The results are promising for the developed high brightness AlGaInP LED applications with low fabrication cost through ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal method to enhance the light extraction efficiency.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

M. Ma, F. W. Mont, X. Yan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, and C. Sone, “Effects of the refractive index of the encapsulant on the light-extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S5), A1135–A1140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Lee, M. S. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Light-extraction enhancement of large-area GaN-based LEDs with electrochemically grown ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1204–1206 (2011).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

R. Hauschild and H. Kalt, “Guided modes in ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123107 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1876–1878 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nobis and M. Grundmann, “Low-order optical whispering-gallery modes in hexagonal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063806 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

R. Olshansky, “Propagation in glass optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51(2), 341–367 (1979).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

1967 (1)

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[Crossref]

Borghs, G.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Carter-Coman, C.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. L.

Chen, E. I.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. I.

Chen, Y. M.

Cho, J.

Choquette, K. D.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1876–1878 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chui, H. C.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Collins, D.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Danner, A. J.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1876–1878 (2006).
[Crossref]

Döhler, G. H.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dutta, B.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gloge, D.

Grillot, P.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grundmann, M.

T. Nobis and M. Grundmann, “Low-order optical whispering-gallery modes in hexagonal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063806 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hao, X.

Hauschild, R.

R. Hauschild and H. Kalt, “Guided modes in ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123107 (2006).
[Crossref]

He, J. H.

Heremans, P.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Höfler, G. E.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Horng, R. H.

Hsu, T. C.

Huang, J. W.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. H.

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hueschen, M.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kalt, H.

R. Hauschild and H. Kalt, “Guided modes in ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kiesel, P.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, G. B.

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M. S.

H. K. Lee, M. S. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Light-extraction enhancement of large-area GaN-based LEDs with electrochemically grown ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1204–1206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1876–1878 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kish, F. A.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Knobloch, A.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kocot, C. P.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kuijk, M.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kung, C. Y.

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lai, N. K.

Lee, C. E.

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. K.

H. K. Lee, M. S. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Light-extraction enhancement of large-area GaN-based LEDs with electrochemically grown ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1204–1206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. Y.

Leisher, P. O.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1876–1878 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. C.

Liu, A. S.

Liu, X.

Loh, B.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ma, M.

Meinlschmidt, S.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mont, F. W.

Nobis, T.

T. Nobis and M. Grundmann, “Low-order optical whispering-gallery modes in hexagonal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063806 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ochiai-Holcomb, M.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Olshansky, R.

R. Olshansky, “Propagation in glass optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51(2), 341–367 (1979).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y. R.

Posselt, J.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ravadgar, P.

Sasser, G.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schoberth, S.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

Sone, C.

Stockman, S. A.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Streubel, K.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1876–1878 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tan, I. H.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tan, T. S.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tseng, M. C.

Varshni, Y. P.

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. P.

Weng, C. F.

Windisch, R.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wirth, R.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1876–1878 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, B. R.

Wu, T. M.

Wu, Y.

Wuu, D. S.

Xu, X.

Yan, X.

Yang, T. H.

Yin, Z.

Yu, J. S.

H. K. Lee, M. S. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Light-extraction enhancement of large-area GaN-based LEDs with electrochemically grown ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1204–1206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Hauschild and H. Kalt, “Guided modes in ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123107 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated inverted pyramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

H. K. Lee, M. S. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Light-extraction enhancement of large-area GaN-based LEDs with electrochemically grown ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1204–1206 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1876–1878 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin film surface textured light emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Nobis and M. Grundmann, “Low-order optical whispering-gallery modes in hexagonal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063806 (2005).
[Crossref]

Physica (1)

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

R. Olshansky, “Propagation in glass optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51(2), 341–367 (1979).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2006), chap. 5.

A. W. Snyder, and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983), part I.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of p-side up thin film AlGaInP-based LED with ZnO nanorods after twice wafer-transferring technique and symbol description of ZnO nanorod (D: diameter, L: length).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM Images of ZnO nanorods with concentration of 80 mM under different reaction temperature (a) 85°C, (b) 75°C and (c) 65°C.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM images of ZnO nanorods with concentration of 40 mM under different reaction temperature (a) 85°C, (b) 75°C and (c) 65°C.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Forward I-V characteristics for Ref-LED, and NR-LED-I to NR-LED-VI.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Output power characteristics, (b) external quantum efficiencies (EQE) for Ref-LED, and NR-LED-I to NR-LED-VI.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) schematic of the waveguide ZnO nanorod as a step index waveguide optical fiber, (b) the schematic of single-mode step index waveguide, (c) the schematic of multi-mode step index waveguide.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Emission wavelengths of Ref-LED, and NR-LED-I to NR-LED-VI with different injection current.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Far-field radiation patterns of Ref-LED, and NR-LED-I to NR-LED-VI at the injection current of 350 mA.

Equations (2)

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V=π d λ ( n zno 2 n epoxy 2 )
M V 2 /2

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