Abstract

Size dependence of the saturable absorption (SA) property for black phosphorus (BP) was investigated. Three types of BP dispersions with different sizes were prepared using the liquid phase exfoliation method. By fitting the Z-scan data with the analytical solution of the propagation equation, the SA coefficients αNL and the imaginary part of the third order optical susceptibility Imχ(3) are compared at two specific wavelengths, one above the bandgap of the BP monolayer at 515 nm and another between the bandgaps of the monolayer and bulk at 1030 nm. A figure of merit (FOM, |Imχ(3)0|, α0 linear absorption) was employed to assess the SA performance of the three different dispersions. The FOM, about (2.1 ± 0.3) × 10−14 esu cm at 515 nm, hardly depends on the size and hence the layer number of the dispersed BP nanosheets, whereas that at 1030 nm decreases from (1.14 ± 0.20) × 10−14 to (0.50 ± 0.02) × 10−14 esu cm when the size of the nanosheets becomes smaller.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction in few-layer oxidized black phosphorus

Shunbin Lu, Yanqi Ge, Zhengbo Sun, Zongyu Huang, Rui Cao, Chujun Zhao, Shuangchun Wen, Dianyuan Fan, Jianqing Li, and Han Zhang
Photon. Res. 4(6) 286-292 (2016)

Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation

Yu Chen, Guobao Jiang, Shuqing Chen, Zhinan Guo, Xuefeng Yu, Chujun Zhao, Han Zhang, Qiaoliang Bao, Shuangchun Wen, Dingyuan Tang, and Dianyuan Fan
Opt. Express 23(10) 12823-12833 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. X. Zheng, R. Chen, G. Shi, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Characterization of nonlinear properties of black phosphorus nanoplatelets with femtosecond pulsed Z-scan measurements,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3480–3483 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Z. Qin, G. Xie, C. Zhao, S. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 56–59 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(11–12), 770–776 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by black phosphorus nanoplatelets-based saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 54(34), 10290–10294 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Xu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2016 (4)

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Xu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, C. Zhao, S. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 56–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (18)

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, R. Chen, G. Shi, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Characterization of nonlinear properties of black phosphorus nanoplatelets with femtosecond pulsed Z-scan measurements,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3480–3483 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by black phosphorus nanoplatelets-based saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 54(34), 10290–10294 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(11–12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abellan, G.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alvarez, J. V.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anija, M.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Backes, C.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, H.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berner, N. C.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bian, J.

Blanter, S. I.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boland, C.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buscema, M.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Castellanos-Gomez, A.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

Choi, W.

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(11–12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. K.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cucinotta, C. S.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, S.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doherty, E.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, N.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duesberg, G. S.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, D.

Fan, D. Y.

Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Y.

Favron, A.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, D.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fossard, F.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francoeur, S.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaufrès, E.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, Q.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gholamvand, Z.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groenendijk, D. J.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Xu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z. N.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Han, B.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanlon, D.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harvey, A.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hauke, F.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J.

Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, A.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, J.

Huang, G.

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Xu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Island, J. O.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, B.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, G.

Jiang, T.

Jiang, X. F.

Jussila, H.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamaraju, N.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Karvonen, L.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, M.

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lau, S. P.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(11–12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(11–12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. T.

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(11–12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leonelli, R.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lévesque, P. L.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, Y.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lipsanen, H.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, K.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

Loiseau, A.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lotya, M.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lou, F.

Lu, S.

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, S. B.

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Z. C.

Lynch, P.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

Macherzynski, W.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mao, N.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martel, R.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McEvoy, N.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, L. L.

Moynihan, G.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mu, H.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Narasimha-Acharya, K. L.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neal, A. T.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicolosi, V.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, J.

Ning, J.

O’Brien, M.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Neill, A.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Regan, D. D.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, X.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palacios, J. J.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paletko, P.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, C.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, K.

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(11–12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phaneuf-L’Heureux, A. L.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pokle, A.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prada, E.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qi, X.

Qian, L.

Qin, Z.

Ramasse, Q. M.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, C. N. R.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sanvito, S.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, J.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shi, G.

Sobon, G.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soklaski, R.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(11–12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sood, A. K.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sotor, J.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Steele, G. A.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Su, X.

Subrahmanyam, K. S.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

Tang, J.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, N. Y.-W.

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, S.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tománek, D.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, L.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, V.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

van der Zant, H. S. J.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vanstryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vasu, K. S.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vicarelli, L.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

Wang, H.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Xu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Wen, S. C.

Winters, S.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, Q.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Xu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

Xie, H.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, L.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W. C.

Xu, X.

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.-F.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Xu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Xu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Yang, K.

Yang, L.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, G.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, G. J.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, P. D.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yim, C.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, K.

Yu, H.

Yu, X.

Yu, X. F.

Yu, X.-F.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, P.

Zandbergen, H. W.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhan, J.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, H.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Xu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, R. Chen, G. Shi, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Characterization of nonlinear properties of black phosphorus nanoplatelets with femtosecond pulsed Z-scan measurements,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3480–3483 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, R.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, Z.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2D Mater (1)

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (3)

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Xu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ann. Phys. (Berlin) (1)

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(11–12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

N. Mao, J. Tang, L. Xie, J. Wu, B. Han, J. Lin, S. Deng, W. Ji, H. Xu, K. Liu, L. Tong, and J. Zhang, “Optical anisotropy of black phosphorus in the visible regime,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(1), 300–305 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. McEvoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. Favron, E. Gaufrès, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y.-W. Tang, P. L. Lévesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14(8), 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, R. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. Wang, X. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. Yang, Y. Fan, J. Bian, and J. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1598–1603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The images of large (a), medium (b) and small (c) BP/CHP dispersions in quartz cuvettes. (d-f) are TEM images of large, medium and small BP nanosheets (L-BP, M-BP and S-BP). (g, h) are linear absorption spectra of BP nanosheets, pure CHP and Raman spectra of S-BP, L-BP and bulk powder.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The saturable absorption of L-BP (a), M-BP (b), S-BP (c) at 515 nm and 1030 nm (d-f).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The saturable absorption coefficient α NL (a), imaginary part of χ (3) (b), figure of merit FOM (c) of L-BP, M-BP and S-BP at 515 nm and 1030 nm (d-f).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Q-switched laser incorporated with BP nanosheet dispersions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Saturable absorption of black phosphorus nanosheets (L-BP).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Optical spectrum, (b) autocorrelation trace, (c) oscilloscope trace and output power vs. pump power of the mode-locked laser based on black phosphorus.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) RF spectrum with a span of 500 MHz and a RBW of 100 kHz; (b) RF spectrum with a span of 15 MHz and a RBW of 100 Hz.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Saturable absorption parameters for L-BP, M-BP and S-BP at 515 nm and 1030 nm

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dI(z') dz' = α 0 I(z') α NL I 2 (z'),
T(z)= ln[1+ q 0 (z)] q 0 (z) ,
Im χ (3) = 10 7 cλ n 2 96 π 2 α NL ,

Metrics