Abstract

A novel nanocomposite of P3HT and Ag nanoparticles (Ag-P3HT) has been synthesized by laser ablation. The fluorescence wavelength of the nanocomposite can be tuned by varying the ablation duration. The steady-state emission maximum at 580 nm for pristine P3HT shows significant blueshift to wavelengths ranging from 520 to 550 nm for Ag-P3HT. NMR, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy confirm that chemical links are formed between P3HT and silver nanoparticles (NPs) in the nanocomposite. For the sample with an emission maximum at 530 nm, 1H NMR spectra indicate that 66% of the P3HT thiophene ring protons are replaced by Ag NPs. Time-resolved spectroscopy demonstrates that charge transfer efficiency increases for Ag-P3HT and this is attributed to the enhanced intimate interfacial contact between the chemically-bonded metal NPs and polymer chains. The synthetic route outlined provides a one-pot and green strategy for producing metal-organic polymeric materials, with controlled luminescence wavelengths and efficient photoinduced charge transfer that meet the requirement for developing high-performance organic light-emitting and photovoltaic devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. W. Gokel, W. M. Leevy, and M. E. Weber, “Crown ethers: sensors for ions and molecular scaffolds for materials and biological models,” Chem. Rev. 104(5), 2723–2750 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. P. Ponce, R. P. Steer, and M. F. Paige, “Photophysics and halide quenching of a cationic metalloporphyrin in water,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(6), 1079–1085 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Cui, Y. Yue, G. Qian, and B. Chen, “Luminescent functional metal-organic frameworks,” Chem. Rev. 112(2), 1126–1162 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. Erb, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Stuhn, P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Correlation between structural and optical properties of composite polymer/fullerene films for organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(7), 1193–1196 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Segal-Peretz, O. Sorias, M. Moshonov, I. Deckman, M. Orenstein, and G. L. Frey, “Plasmonic nanoparticle incorporation into inverted hybrid organic–inorganic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 23(2), 144–150 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Zhao, X. Pang, R. Adhikary, J. W. Petrich, and Z. Lin, “Semiconductor anisotropic nanocomposites obtained by directly coupling conjugated polymers with quantum rods,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(17), 3958–3962 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. T. Xu, M. Yan, J. D. Hoefelmeyer, and Q. Qiao, “Exciton migration and charge transfer in chemically linked P3HT-TiO2nanorod composite,” RSC Advances 2(3), 854–862 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Lee and D. J. Jang, “Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-coated gold hybrid nanoparticles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(21), 5469–5476 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Fujisawa and M. Hanaya, “Extremely strong organic-metal oxide electronic coupling caused by nucleophilic addition reaction,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(25), 16285–16293 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Z. Lin, “Organic-inorganic nanohybrids through the direct tailoring of semiconductor nanocrystals with conjugated polymers,” Chemistry 14(21), 6294–6301 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. P. Sista, K. Ghosh, J. S. Martinez, and R. C. Rocha, “Metallo-biopolymers: conjugation strategies and applications,” Polym. Rev. (Phila. Pa.) 54(4), 627–676 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. W. Lo, P. K. Lee, and S. Y. Lau, “Synthesis, characterization, and properties of luminescent organoiridium(III) polypyridine complexes appended with an alkyl chain and their interactions with lipid bilayers, surfactants, and living cells,” Organometallics 27(13), 2998–3006 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Li, D. M. Wang, Z. Y. Wang, Z. W. Wang, M. Chen, and X. D. Liu, “Laser-induced fabrication of single crystal zinc hydroxyl dodecyl sulfate nano-sheets with excellent fluorescence emission,” RSC Advances 5(78), 63233–63239 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Y. Lin, Y. Y. Lee, L. Chang, J. J. Wu, and C. W. Chen, “The influence of interface modifier on the performance of nanostructured ZnO/polymer hybrid solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063308 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. A. H. Muhammed, F. Aldeek, G. Palui, L. Trapiella-Alfonso, and H. Mattoussi, “Growth of in situ functionalized luminescent silver nanoclusters by direct reduction and size focusing,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8950–8961 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. R. Kern and S. G. Boyes, “Raft polymerization kinetics and polymer characterization of P3HT rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 52(24), 3575–3585 (2014).
  18. F. Alam, N. Kumar, and V. Dutta, “Study of surfactant-free lead sulfide nanocrystals-P3HT hybrid polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 22, 44–50 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. A. Chen, X. Wu, and R. D. Rieke, “Region controlled synthesis of poly(3-alkylthiophenes) mediated by riekezinc: their characterization and solid-state properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117(1), 233–244 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  20. B. Ferreira, P. F. da Silva, J. S. Seixas de Melo, J. Pina, and A. Maçanita, “Excited-state dynamics and self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in solution and thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(8), 2347–2355 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Xiao, Q. Yue, B. Gao, Y. Sun, J. Kong, Y. Gao, Q. Li, and Y. Wang, “Performance of activated carbon/nanoscale zero valent iron for removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) at infinitesimal concentration in drinking water,” Chem. Eng. J. 253(1), 63–72 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. J. Lee, M. R. Karim, and S. L. Mu, “Synthesis and characterization of silver/thiophene nanocomposites by UV-irradiation method,” Mater. Lett. 61(13), 2675–2678 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Yu, X. M. Wen, Y. R. Toh, X. Q. Ma, and J. Tang, “Fluorescent metallic nanoclusters: electron dynamics, structure, and applications,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(2), 142–163 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. Lee and D. J. Jang, “Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-coated gold hybrid nanoparticles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(21), 5469–5476 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Maensiri, C. Masingboon, V. Promarak, and S. Seraphin, “Synthesis and optical properties of nanocrystalline V-doped ZnO powders,” Opt. Mater. 29(12), 1700–1705 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. Taliani and L. M. Blinov, “The electronic structure of solid αsexithiophene,” Adv. Mater. 8(4), 353–359 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Baghgar, J. A. Labastide, F. Bokel, R. C. Hayward, and M. D. Barnes, “Effect of polymer chain folding on the transition from H- to J-aggregate behavior in P3HT nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(4), 2229–2235 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. F. Zheng, W. L. Xu, H. D. Jin, M. Q. Zhu, W. H. Yuan, X. T. Hao, and K. P. Ghiggino, “Purified dispersions of graphene in a nonpolar solvent via solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(18), 3824–3827 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. P. J. Brown, D. S. Thomas, A. Kohler, J. S. Wilson, J. S. Kim, C. M. Ramsdale, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Effect of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Phys. Rev. B 67(6), 480–485 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  30. H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. W. L. Xu, B. Wu, F. Zheng, H. B. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, F. G. Bian, X.-T. Hao, and F. Zhu, “Homogeneous phase separation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 25, 266–274 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. Hufnagel, M. Fischer, T. Thurn-Albrecht, and M. Thelakkat, “Influence of fullerene grafting density on structure, dynamics, and charge transport in P3HT-b-PPC61BM block copolymers,” Macromolecules 49(5), 1637–1647 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. I. W. Hwang, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoinduced carrier generation in P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction materials,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4350–4354 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

M. Hufnagel, M. Fischer, T. Thurn-Albrecht, and M. Thelakkat, “Influence of fullerene grafting density on structure, dynamics, and charge transport in P3HT-b-PPC61BM block copolymers,” Macromolecules 49(5), 1637–1647 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

W. L. Xu, B. Wu, F. Zheng, H. B. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, F. G. Bian, X.-T. Hao, and F. Zhu, “Homogeneous phase separation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 25, 266–274 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Zheng, W. L. Xu, H. D. Jin, M. Q. Zhu, W. H. Yuan, X. T. Hao, and K. P. Ghiggino, “Purified dispersions of graphene in a nonpolar solvent via solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(18), 3824–3827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Alam, N. Kumar, and V. Dutta, “Study of surfactant-free lead sulfide nanocrystals-P3HT hybrid polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 22, 44–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yu, X. M. Wen, Y. R. Toh, X. Q. Ma, and J. Tang, “Fluorescent metallic nanoclusters: electron dynamics, structure, and applications,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(2), 142–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Segal-Peretz, O. Sorias, M. Moshonov, I. Deckman, M. Orenstein, and G. L. Frey, “Plasmonic nanoparticle incorporation into inverted hybrid organic–inorganic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 23(2), 144–150 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Fujisawa and M. Hanaya, “Extremely strong organic-metal oxide electronic coupling caused by nucleophilic addition reaction,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(25), 16285–16293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li, D. M. Wang, Z. Y. Wang, Z. W. Wang, M. Chen, and X. D. Liu, “Laser-induced fabrication of single crystal zinc hydroxyl dodecyl sulfate nano-sheets with excellent fluorescence emission,” RSC Advances 5(78), 63233–63239 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

M. R. Kern and S. G. Boyes, “Raft polymerization kinetics and polymer characterization of P3HT rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 52(24), 3575–3585 (2014).

P. Sista, K. Ghosh, J. S. Martinez, and R. C. Rocha, “Metallo-biopolymers: conjugation strategies and applications,” Polym. Rev. (Phila. Pa.) 54(4), 627–676 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lee and D. J. Jang, “Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-coated gold hybrid nanoparticles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(21), 5469–5476 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lee and D. J. Jang, “Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-coated gold hybrid nanoparticles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(21), 5469–5476 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Xiao, Q. Yue, B. Gao, Y. Sun, J. Kong, Y. Gao, Q. Li, and Y. Wang, “Performance of activated carbon/nanoscale zero valent iron for removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) at infinitesimal concentration in drinking water,” Chem. Eng. J. 253(1), 63–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Baghgar, J. A. Labastide, F. Bokel, R. C. Hayward, and M. D. Barnes, “Effect of polymer chain folding on the transition from H- to J-aggregate behavior in P3HT nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(4), 2229–2235 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. P. Ponce, R. P. Steer, and M. F. Paige, “Photophysics and halide quenching of a cationic metalloporphyrin in water,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(6), 1079–1085 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

Y. Cui, Y. Yue, G. Qian, and B. Chen, “Luminescent functional metal-organic frameworks,” Chem. Rev. 112(2), 1126–1162 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Xu, M. Yan, J. D. Hoefelmeyer, and Q. Qiao, “Exciton migration and charge transfer in chemically linked P3HT-TiO2nanorod composite,” RSC Advances 2(3), 854–862 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. H. Muhammed, F. Aldeek, G. Palui, L. Trapiella-Alfonso, and H. Mattoussi, “Growth of in situ functionalized luminescent silver nanoclusters by direct reduction and size focusing,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8950–8961 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ferreira, P. F. da Silva, J. S. Seixas de Melo, J. Pina, and A. Maçanita, “Excited-state dynamics and self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in solution and thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(8), 2347–2355 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

L. Zhao, X. Pang, R. Adhikary, J. W. Petrich, and Z. Lin, “Semiconductor anisotropic nanocomposites obtained by directly coupling conjugated polymers with quantum rods,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(17), 3958–3962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. Y. Lin, Y. Y. Lee, L. Chang, J. J. Wu, and C. W. Chen, “The influence of interface modifier on the performance of nanostructured ZnO/polymer hybrid solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063308 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

K. W. Lo, P. K. Lee, and S. Y. Lau, “Synthesis, characterization, and properties of luminescent organoiridium(III) polypyridine complexes appended with an alkyl chain and their interactions with lipid bilayers, surfactants, and living cells,” Organometallics 27(13), 2998–3006 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, “Organic-inorganic nanohybrids through the direct tailoring of semiconductor nanocrystals with conjugated polymers,” Chemistry 14(21), 6294–6301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. W. Hwang, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoinduced carrier generation in P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction materials,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4350–4354 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. J. Lee, M. R. Karim, and S. L. Mu, “Synthesis and characterization of silver/thiophene nanocomposites by UV-irradiation method,” Mater. Lett. 61(13), 2675–2678 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Maensiri, C. Masingboon, V. Promarak, and S. Seraphin, “Synthesis and optical properties of nanocrystalline V-doped ZnO powders,” Opt. Mater. 29(12), 1700–1705 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Erb, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Stuhn, P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Correlation between structural and optical properties of composite polymer/fullerene films for organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(7), 1193–1196 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. W. Gokel, W. M. Leevy, and M. E. Weber, “Crown ethers: sensors for ions and molecular scaffolds for materials and biological models,” Chem. Rev. 104(5), 2723–2750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. J. Brown, D. S. Thomas, A. Kohler, J. S. Wilson, J. S. Kim, C. M. Ramsdale, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Effect of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Phys. Rev. B 67(6), 480–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

C. Taliani and L. M. Blinov, “The electronic structure of solid αsexithiophene,” Adv. Mater. 8(4), 353–359 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. A. Chen, X. Wu, and R. D. Rieke, “Region controlled synthesis of poly(3-alkylthiophenes) mediated by riekezinc: their characterization and solid-state properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117(1), 233–244 (1995).
[Crossref]

Adhikary, R.

L. Zhao, X. Pang, R. Adhikary, J. W. Petrich, and Z. Lin, “Semiconductor anisotropic nanocomposites obtained by directly coupling conjugated polymers with quantum rods,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(17), 3958–3962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alam, F.

F. Alam, N. Kumar, and V. Dutta, “Study of surfactant-free lead sulfide nanocrystals-P3HT hybrid polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 22, 44–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aldeek, F.

M. A. H. Muhammed, F. Aldeek, G. Palui, L. Trapiella-Alfonso, and H. Mattoussi, “Growth of in situ functionalized luminescent silver nanoclusters by direct reduction and size focusing,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8950–8961 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alekseev, A.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Astuti, Y.

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baghgar, M.

M. Baghgar, J. A. Labastide, F. Bokel, R. C. Hayward, and M. D. Barnes, “Effect of polymer chain folding on the transition from H- to J-aggregate behavior in P3HT nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(4), 2229–2235 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barnes, M. D.

M. Baghgar, J. A. Labastide, F. Bokel, R. C. Hayward, and M. D. Barnes, “Effect of polymer chain folding on the transition from H- to J-aggregate behavior in P3HT nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(4), 2229–2235 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M.

S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bian, F. G.

W. L. Xu, B. Wu, F. Zheng, H. B. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, F. G. Bian, X.-T. Hao, and F. Zhu, “Homogeneous phase separation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 25, 266–274 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blinov, L. M.

C. Taliani and L. M. Blinov, “The electronic structure of solid αsexithiophene,” Adv. Mater. 8(4), 353–359 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bokel, F.

M. Baghgar, J. A. Labastide, F. Bokel, R. C. Hayward, and M. D. Barnes, “Effect of polymer chain folding on the transition from H- to J-aggregate behavior in P3HT nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(4), 2229–2235 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boyes, S. G.

M. R. Kern and S. G. Boyes, “Raft polymerization kinetics and polymer characterization of P3HT rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 52(24), 3575–3585 (2014).

Brabec, C. J.

T. Erb, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Stuhn, P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Correlation between structural and optical properties of composite polymer/fullerene films for organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(7), 1193–1196 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. D.

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, P. J.

P. J. Brown, D. S. Thomas, A. Kohler, J. S. Wilson, J. S. Kim, C. M. Ramsdale, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Effect of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Phys. Rev. B 67(6), 480–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, L.

Y. Y. Lin, Y. Y. Lee, L. Chang, J. J. Wu, and C. W. Chen, “The influence of interface modifier on the performance of nanostructured ZnO/polymer hybrid solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, L. Y.

S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

Y. Cui, Y. Yue, G. Qian, and B. Chen, “Luminescent functional metal-organic frameworks,” Chem. Rev. 112(2), 1126–1162 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. W.

Y. Y. Lin, Y. Y. Lee, L. Chang, J. J. Wu, and C. W. Chen, “The influence of interface modifier on the performance of nanostructured ZnO/polymer hybrid solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, F. C.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

S. Li, D. M. Wang, Z. Y. Wang, Z. W. Wang, M. Chen, and X. D. Liu, “Laser-induced fabrication of single crystal zinc hydroxyl dodecyl sulfate nano-sheets with excellent fluorescence emission,” RSC Advances 5(78), 63233–63239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. A.

T. A. Chen, X. Wu, and R. D. Rieke, “Region controlled synthesis of poly(3-alkylthiophenes) mediated by riekezinc: their characterization and solid-state properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117(1), 233–244 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chien, F. C.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, S.

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooke, G.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. Yue, G. Qian, and B. Chen, “Luminescent functional metal-organic frameworks,” Chem. Rev. 112(2), 1126–1162 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

da Silva, P. F.

B. Ferreira, P. F. da Silva, J. S. Seixas de Melo, J. Pina, and A. Maçanita, “Excited-state dynamics and self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in solution and thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(8), 2347–2355 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deckman, I.

T. Segal-Peretz, O. Sorias, M. Moshonov, I. Deckman, M. Orenstein, and G. L. Frey, “Plasmonic nanoparticle incorporation into inverted hybrid organic–inorganic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 23(2), 144–150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duffy, W.

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durrant, J. R.

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dutta, V.

F. Alam, N. Kumar, and V. Dutta, “Study of surfactant-free lead sulfide nanocrystals-P3HT hybrid polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 22, 44–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Erb, T.

T. Erb, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Stuhn, P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Correlation between structural and optical properties of composite polymer/fullerene films for organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(7), 1193–1196 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, B.

B. Ferreira, P. F. da Silva, J. S. Seixas de Melo, J. Pina, and A. Maçanita, “Excited-state dynamics and self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in solution and thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(8), 2347–2355 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, M.

M. Hufnagel, M. Fischer, T. Thurn-Albrecht, and M. Thelakkat, “Influence of fullerene grafting density on structure, dynamics, and charge transport in P3HT-b-PPC61BM block copolymers,” Macromolecules 49(5), 1637–1647 (2016).
[Crossref]

Frey, G. L.

T. Segal-Peretz, O. Sorias, M. Moshonov, I. Deckman, M. Orenstein, and G. L. Frey, “Plasmonic nanoparticle incorporation into inverted hybrid organic–inorganic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 23(2), 144–150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

P. J. Brown, D. S. Thomas, A. Kohler, J. S. Wilson, J. S. Kim, C. M. Ramsdale, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Effect of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Phys. Rev. B 67(6), 480–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fujisawa, J.

J. Fujisawa and M. Hanaya, “Extremely strong organic-metal oxide electronic coupling caused by nucleophilic addition reaction,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(25), 16285–16293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, B.

J. Xiao, Q. Yue, B. Gao, Y. Sun, J. Kong, Y. Gao, Q. Li, and Y. Wang, “Performance of activated carbon/nanoscale zero valent iron for removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) at infinitesimal concentration in drinking water,” Chem. Eng. J. 253(1), 63–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

J. Xiao, Q. Yue, B. Gao, Y. Sun, J. Kong, Y. Gao, Q. Li, and Y. Wang, “Performance of activated carbon/nanoscale zero valent iron for removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) at infinitesimal concentration in drinking water,” Chem. Eng. J. 253(1), 63–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ghiggino, K. P.

F. Zheng, W. L. Xu, H. D. Jin, M. Q. Zhu, W. H. Yuan, X. T. Hao, and K. P. Ghiggino, “Purified dispersions of graphene in a nonpolar solvent via solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(18), 3824–3827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghosh, K.

P. Sista, K. Ghosh, J. S. Martinez, and R. C. Rocha, “Metallo-biopolymers: conjugation strategies and applications,” Polym. Rev. (Phila. Pa.) 54(4), 627–676 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gobsch, G.

T. Erb, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Stuhn, P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Correlation between structural and optical properties of composite polymer/fullerene films for organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(7), 1193–1196 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gokel, G. W.

G. W. Gokel, W. M. Leevy, and M. E. Weber, “Crown ethers: sensors for ions and molecular scaffolds for materials and biological models,” Chem. Rev. 104(5), 2723–2750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gradecak, S.

S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanaya, M.

J. Fujisawa and M. Hanaya, “Extremely strong organic-metal oxide electronic coupling caused by nucleophilic addition reaction,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(25), 16285–16293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, X. T.

F. Zheng, W. L. Xu, H. D. Jin, M. Q. Zhu, W. H. Yuan, X. T. Hao, and K. P. Ghiggino, “Purified dispersions of graphene in a nonpolar solvent via solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(18), 3824–3827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, X.-T.

W. L. Xu, B. Wu, F. Zheng, H. B. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, F. G. Bian, X.-T. Hao, and F. Zhu, “Homogeneous phase separation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 25, 266–274 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hayward, R. C.

M. Baghgar, J. A. Labastide, F. Bokel, R. C. Hayward, and M. D. Barnes, “Effect of polymer chain folding on the transition from H- to J-aggregate behavior in P3HT nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(4), 2229–2235 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hedley, G. J.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heeger, A. J.

I. W. Hwang, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoinduced carrier generation in P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction materials,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4350–4354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heeney, M.

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoefelmeyer, J. D.

T. Xu, M. Yan, J. D. Hoefelmeyer, and Q. Qiao, “Exciton migration and charge transfer in chemically linked P3HT-TiO2nanorod composite,” RSC Advances 2(3), 854–862 (2012).
[Crossref]

Howells, C. T.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiao, Y. S.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. S.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, M. H.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hufnagel, M.

M. Hufnagel, M. Fischer, T. Thurn-Albrecht, and M. Thelakkat, “Influence of fullerene grafting density on structure, dynamics, and charge transport in P3HT-b-PPC61BM block copolymers,” Macromolecules 49(5), 1637–1647 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hwang, I. W.

I. W. Hwang, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoinduced carrier generation in P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction materials,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4350–4354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jang, D. J.

D. Lee and D. J. Jang, “Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-coated gold hybrid nanoparticles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(21), 5469–5476 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lee and D. J. Jang, “Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-coated gold hybrid nanoparticles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(21), 5469–5476 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jin, H. D.

F. Zheng, W. L. Xu, H. D. Jin, M. Q. Zhu, W. H. Yuan, X. T. Hao, and K. P. Ghiggino, “Purified dispersions of graphene in a nonpolar solvent via solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(18), 3824–3827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karim, M. R.

C. J. Lee, M. R. Karim, and S. L. Mu, “Synthesis and characterization of silver/thiophene nanocomposites by UV-irradiation method,” Mater. Lett. 61(13), 2675–2678 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kern, M. R.

M. R. Kern and S. G. Boyes, “Raft polymerization kinetics and polymer characterization of P3HT rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 52(24), 3575–3585 (2014).

Kim, J. S.

P. J. Brown, D. S. Thomas, A. Kohler, J. S. Wilson, J. S. Kim, C. M. Ramsdale, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Effect of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Phys. Rev. B 67(6), 480–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kohler, A.

P. J. Brown, D. S. Thomas, A. Kohler, J. S. Wilson, J. S. Kim, C. M. Ramsdale, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Effect of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Phys. Rev. B 67(6), 480–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kong, J.

J. Xiao, Q. Yue, B. Gao, Y. Sun, J. Kong, Y. Gao, Q. Li, and Y. Wang, “Performance of activated carbon/nanoscale zero valent iron for removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) at infinitesimal concentration in drinking water,” Chem. Eng. J. 253(1), 63–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumar, N.

F. Alam, N. Kumar, and V. Dutta, “Study of surfactant-free lead sulfide nanocrystals-P3HT hybrid polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 22, 44–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. H.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Labastide, J. A.

M. Baghgar, J. A. Labastide, F. Bokel, R. C. Hayward, and M. D. Barnes, “Effect of polymer chain folding on the transition from H- to J-aggregate behavior in P3HT nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(4), 2229–2235 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lau, S. Y.

K. W. Lo, P. K. Lee, and S. Y. Lau, “Synthesis, characterization, and properties of luminescent organoiridium(III) polypyridine complexes appended with an alkyl chain and their interactions with lipid bilayers, surfactants, and living cells,” Organometallics 27(13), 2998–3006 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. J.

C. J. Lee, M. R. Karim, and S. L. Mu, “Synthesis and characterization of silver/thiophene nanocomposites by UV-irradiation method,” Mater. Lett. 61(13), 2675–2678 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

D. Lee and D. J. Jang, “Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-coated gold hybrid nanoparticles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(21), 5469–5476 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lee and D. J. Jang, “Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-coated gold hybrid nanoparticles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(21), 5469–5476 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, P. K.

K. W. Lo, P. K. Lee, and S. Y. Lau, “Synthesis, characterization, and properties of luminescent organoiridium(III) polypyridine complexes appended with an alkyl chain and their interactions with lipid bilayers, surfactants, and living cells,” Organometallics 27(13), 2998–3006 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Lin, Y. Y. Lee, L. Chang, J. J. Wu, and C. W. Chen, “The influence of interface modifier on the performance of nanostructured ZnO/polymer hybrid solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leevy, W. M.

G. W. Gokel, W. M. Leevy, and M. E. Weber, “Crown ethers: sensors for ions and molecular scaffolds for materials and biological models,” Chem. Rev. 104(5), 2723–2750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

J. Xiao, Q. Yue, B. Gao, Y. Sun, J. Kong, Y. Gao, Q. Li, and Y. Wang, “Performance of activated carbon/nanoscale zero valent iron for removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) at infinitesimal concentration in drinking water,” Chem. Eng. J. 253(1), 63–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

S. Li, D. M. Wang, Z. Y. Wang, Z. W. Wang, M. Chen, and X. D. Liu, “Laser-induced fabrication of single crystal zinc hydroxyl dodecyl sulfate nano-sheets with excellent fluorescence emission,” RSC Advances 5(78), 63233–63239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lim, S. K.

S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Lin, Y. Y. Lee, L. Chang, J. J. Wu, and C. W. Chen, “The influence of interface modifier on the performance of nanostructured ZnO/polymer hybrid solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z.

L. Zhao, X. Pang, R. Adhikary, J. W. Petrich, and Z. Lin, “Semiconductor anisotropic nanocomposites obtained by directly coupling conjugated polymers with quantum rods,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(17), 3958–3962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, “Organic-inorganic nanohybrids through the direct tailoring of semiconductor nanocrystals with conjugated polymers,” Chemistry 14(21), 6294–6301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X. D.

S. Li, D. M. Wang, Z. Y. Wang, Z. W. Wang, M. Chen, and X. D. Liu, “Laser-induced fabrication of single crystal zinc hydroxyl dodecyl sulfate nano-sheets with excellent fluorescence emission,” RSC Advances 5(78), 63233–63239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lo, K. W.

K. W. Lo, P. K. Lee, and S. Y. Lau, “Synthesis, characterization, and properties of luminescent organoiridium(III) polypyridine complexes appended with an alkyl chain and their interactions with lipid bilayers, surfactants, and living cells,” Organometallics 27(13), 2998–3006 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, X. Q.

P. Yu, X. M. Wen, Y. R. Toh, X. Q. Ma, and J. Tang, “Fluorescent metallic nanoclusters: electron dynamics, structure, and applications,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(2), 142–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maçanita, A.

B. Ferreira, P. F. da Silva, J. S. Seixas de Melo, J. Pina, and A. Maçanita, “Excited-state dynamics and self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in solution and thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(8), 2347–2355 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maensiri, S.

S. Maensiri, C. Masingboon, V. Promarak, and S. Seraphin, “Synthesis and optical properties of nanocrystalline V-doped ZnO powders,” Opt. Mater. 29(12), 1700–1705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martinez, J. S.

P. Sista, K. Ghosh, J. S. Martinez, and R. C. Rocha, “Metallo-biopolymers: conjugation strategies and applications,” Polym. Rev. (Phila. Pa.) 54(4), 627–676 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martins, E. R.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masingboon, C.

S. Maensiri, C. Masingboon, V. Promarak, and S. Seraphin, “Synthesis and optical properties of nanocrystalline V-doped ZnO powders,” Opt. Mater. 29(12), 1700–1705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mattoussi, H.

M. A. H. Muhammed, F. Aldeek, G. Palui, L. Trapiella-Alfonso, and H. Mattoussi, “Growth of in situ functionalized luminescent silver nanoclusters by direct reduction and size focusing,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8950–8961 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCulloch, I.

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moses, D.

I. W. Hwang, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoinduced carrier generation in P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction materials,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4350–4354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moshonov, M.

T. Segal-Peretz, O. Sorias, M. Moshonov, I. Deckman, M. Orenstein, and G. L. Frey, “Plasmonic nanoparticle incorporation into inverted hybrid organic–inorganic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 23(2), 144–150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mu, S. L.

C. J. Lee, M. R. Karim, and S. L. Mu, “Synthesis and characterization of silver/thiophene nanocomposites by UV-irradiation method,” Mater. Lett. 61(13), 2675–2678 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muhammed, M. A. H.

M. A. H. Muhammed, F. Aldeek, G. Palui, L. Trapiella-Alfonso, and H. Mattoussi, “Growth of in situ functionalized luminescent silver nanoclusters by direct reduction and size focusing,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8950–8961 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J.

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohkita, H.

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orenstein, M.

T. Segal-Peretz, O. Sorias, M. Moshonov, I. Deckman, M. Orenstein, and G. L. Frey, “Plasmonic nanoparticle incorporation into inverted hybrid organic–inorganic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 23(2), 144–150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Paige, M. F.

C. P. Ponce, R. P. Steer, and M. F. Paige, “Photophysics and halide quenching of a cationic metalloporphyrin in water,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(6), 1079–1085 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palui, G.

M. A. H. Muhammed, F. Aldeek, G. Palui, L. Trapiella-Alfonso, and H. Mattoussi, “Growth of in situ functionalized luminescent silver nanoclusters by direct reduction and size focusing,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8950–8961 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, X.

L. Zhao, X. Pang, R. Adhikary, J. W. Petrich, and Z. Lin, “Semiconductor anisotropic nanocomposites obtained by directly coupling conjugated polymers with quantum rods,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(17), 3958–3962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrich, J. W.

L. Zhao, X. Pang, R. Adhikary, J. W. Petrich, and Z. Lin, “Semiconductor anisotropic nanocomposites obtained by directly coupling conjugated polymers with quantum rods,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(17), 3958–3962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pina, J.

B. Ferreira, P. F. da Silva, J. S. Seixas de Melo, J. Pina, and A. Maçanita, “Excited-state dynamics and self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in solution and thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(8), 2347–2355 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ponce, C. P.

C. P. Ponce, R. P. Steer, and M. F. Paige, “Photophysics and halide quenching of a cationic metalloporphyrin in water,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(6), 1079–1085 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Promarak, V.

S. Maensiri, C. Masingboon, V. Promarak, and S. Seraphin, “Synthesis and optical properties of nanocrystalline V-doped ZnO powders,” Opt. Mater. 29(12), 1700–1705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qian, G.

Y. Cui, Y. Yue, G. Qian, and B. Chen, “Luminescent functional metal-organic frameworks,” Chem. Rev. 112(2), 1126–1162 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, Q.

T. Xu, M. Yan, J. D. Hoefelmeyer, and Q. Qiao, “Exciton migration and charge transfer in chemically linked P3HT-TiO2nanorod composite,” RSC Advances 2(3), 854–862 (2012).
[Crossref]

Raleva, S.

T. Erb, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Stuhn, P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Correlation between structural and optical properties of composite polymer/fullerene films for organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(7), 1193–1196 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ramsdale, C. M.

P. J. Brown, D. S. Thomas, A. Kohler, J. S. Wilson, J. S. Kim, C. M. Ramsdale, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Effect of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Phys. Rev. B 67(6), 480–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ren, S.

S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rieke, R. D.

T. A. Chen, X. Wu, and R. D. Rieke, “Region controlled synthesis of poly(3-alkylthiophenes) mediated by riekezinc: their characterization and solid-state properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117(1), 233–244 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rocha, R. C.

P. Sista, K. Ghosh, J. S. Martinez, and R. C. Rocha, “Metallo-biopolymers: conjugation strategies and applications,” Polym. Rev. (Phila. Pa.) 54(4), 627–676 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ruseckas, A.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samuel, I. D.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schilinsky, P.

T. Erb, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Stuhn, P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Correlation between structural and optical properties of composite polymer/fullerene films for organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(7), 1193–1196 (2005).
[Crossref]

Segal-Peretz, T.

T. Segal-Peretz, O. Sorias, M. Moshonov, I. Deckman, M. Orenstein, and G. L. Frey, “Plasmonic nanoparticle incorporation into inverted hybrid organic–inorganic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 23(2), 144–150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Seixas de Melo, J. S.

B. Ferreira, P. F. da Silva, J. S. Seixas de Melo, J. Pina, and A. Maçanita, “Excited-state dynamics and self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in solution and thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(8), 2347–2355 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seraphin, S.

S. Maensiri, C. Masingboon, V. Promarak, and S. Seraphin, “Synthesis and optical properties of nanocrystalline V-doped ZnO powders,” Opt. Mater. 29(12), 1700–1705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Serrano, L. A.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirringhaus, H.

P. J. Brown, D. S. Thomas, A. Kohler, J. S. Wilson, J. S. Kim, C. M. Ramsdale, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Effect of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Phys. Rev. B 67(6), 480–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sista, P.

P. Sista, K. Ghosh, J. S. Martinez, and R. C. Rocha, “Metallo-biopolymers: conjugation strategies and applications,” Polym. Rev. (Phila. Pa.) 54(4), 627–676 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, M.

S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorias, O.

T. Segal-Peretz, O. Sorias, M. Moshonov, I. Deckman, M. Orenstein, and G. L. Frey, “Plasmonic nanoparticle incorporation into inverted hybrid organic–inorganic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 23(2), 144–150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Steer, R. P.

C. P. Ponce, R. P. Steer, and M. F. Paige, “Photophysics and halide quenching of a cationic metalloporphyrin in water,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(6), 1079–1085 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stuhn, B.

T. Erb, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Stuhn, P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Correlation between structural and optical properties of composite polymer/fullerene films for organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(7), 1193–1196 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

J. Xiao, Q. Yue, B. Gao, Y. Sun, J. Kong, Y. Gao, Q. Li, and Y. Wang, “Performance of activated carbon/nanoscale zero valent iron for removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) at infinitesimal concentration in drinking water,” Chem. Eng. J. 253(1), 63–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

Taliani, C.

C. Taliani and L. M. Blinov, “The electronic structure of solid αsexithiophene,” Adv. Mater. 8(4), 353–359 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

P. Yu, X. M. Wen, Y. R. Toh, X. Q. Ma, and J. Tang, “Fluorescent metallic nanoclusters: electron dynamics, structure, and applications,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(2), 142–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thelakkat, M.

M. Hufnagel, M. Fischer, T. Thurn-Albrecht, and M. Thelakkat, “Influence of fullerene grafting density on structure, dynamics, and charge transport in P3HT-b-PPC61BM block copolymers,” Macromolecules 49(5), 1637–1647 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thomas, D. S.

P. J. Brown, D. S. Thomas, A. Kohler, J. S. Wilson, J. S. Kim, C. M. Ramsdale, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Effect of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Phys. Rev. B 67(6), 480–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thurn-Albrecht, T.

M. Hufnagel, M. Fischer, T. Thurn-Albrecht, and M. Thelakkat, “Influence of fullerene grafting density on structure, dynamics, and charge transport in P3HT-b-PPC61BM block copolymers,” Macromolecules 49(5), 1637–1647 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tierney, S.

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toh, Y. R.

P. Yu, X. M. Wen, Y. R. Toh, X. Q. Ma, and J. Tang, “Fluorescent metallic nanoclusters: electron dynamics, structure, and applications,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(2), 142–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Trapiella-Alfonso, L.

M. A. H. Muhammed, F. Aldeek, G. Palui, L. Trapiella-Alfonso, and H. Mattoussi, “Growth of in situ functionalized luminescent silver nanoclusters by direct reduction and size focusing,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8950–8961 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waldauf, C.

T. Erb, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Stuhn, P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Correlation between structural and optical properties of composite polymer/fullerene films for organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(7), 1193–1196 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. M.

S. Li, D. M. Wang, Z. Y. Wang, Z. W. Wang, M. Chen, and X. D. Liu, “Laser-induced fabrication of single crystal zinc hydroxyl dodecyl sulfate nano-sheets with excellent fluorescence emission,” RSC Advances 5(78), 63233–63239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. B.

W. L. Xu, B. Wu, F. Zheng, H. B. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, F. G. Bian, X.-T. Hao, and F. Zhu, “Homogeneous phase separation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 25, 266–274 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. Xiao, Q. Yue, B. Gao, Y. Sun, J. Kong, Y. Gao, Q. Li, and Y. Wang, “Performance of activated carbon/nanoscale zero valent iron for removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) at infinitesimal concentration in drinking water,” Chem. Eng. J. 253(1), 63–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. Z.

W. L. Xu, B. Wu, F. Zheng, H. B. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, F. G. Bian, X.-T. Hao, and F. Zhu, “Homogeneous phase separation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 25, 266–274 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. W.

S. Li, D. M. Wang, Z. Y. Wang, Z. W. Wang, M. Chen, and X. D. Liu, “Laser-induced fabrication of single crystal zinc hydroxyl dodecyl sulfate nano-sheets with excellent fluorescence emission,” RSC Advances 5(78), 63233–63239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. Y.

S. Li, D. M. Wang, Z. Y. Wang, Z. W. Wang, M. Chen, and X. D. Liu, “Laser-induced fabrication of single crystal zinc hydroxyl dodecyl sulfate nano-sheets with excellent fluorescence emission,” RSC Advances 5(78), 63233–63239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ward, A. J.

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, M. E.

G. W. Gokel, W. M. Leevy, and M. E. Weber, “Crown ethers: sensors for ions and molecular scaffolds for materials and biological models,” Chem. Rev. 104(5), 2723–2750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, X. M.

P. Yu, X. M. Wen, Y. R. Toh, X. Q. Ma, and J. Tang, “Fluorescent metallic nanoclusters: electron dynamics, structure, and applications,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(2), 142–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wilson, J. S.

P. J. Brown, D. S. Thomas, A. Kohler, J. S. Wilson, J. S. Kim, C. M. Ramsdale, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Effect of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Phys. Rev. B 67(6), 480–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

W. L. Xu, B. Wu, F. Zheng, H. B. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, F. G. Bian, X.-T. Hao, and F. Zhu, “Homogeneous phase separation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 25, 266–274 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. J.

Y. Y. Lin, Y. Y. Lee, L. Chang, J. J. Wu, and C. W. Chen, “The influence of interface modifier on the performance of nanostructured ZnO/polymer hybrid solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. L.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

T. A. Chen, X. Wu, and R. D. Rieke, “Region controlled synthesis of poly(3-alkylthiophenes) mediated by riekezinc: their characterization and solid-state properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117(1), 233–244 (1995).
[Crossref]

Xiao, J.

J. Xiao, Q. Yue, B. Gao, Y. Sun, J. Kong, Y. Gao, Q. Li, and Y. Wang, “Performance of activated carbon/nanoscale zero valent iron for removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) at infinitesimal concentration in drinking water,” Chem. Eng. J. 253(1), 63–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, M. Yan, J. D. Hoefelmeyer, and Q. Qiao, “Exciton migration and charge transfer in chemically linked P3HT-TiO2nanorod composite,” RSC Advances 2(3), 854–862 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, W. L.

W. L. Xu, B. Wu, F. Zheng, H. B. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, F. G. Bian, X.-T. Hao, and F. Zhu, “Homogeneous phase separation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 25, 266–274 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Zheng, W. L. Xu, H. D. Jin, M. Q. Zhu, W. H. Yuan, X. T. Hao, and K. P. Ghiggino, “Purified dispersions of graphene in a nonpolar solvent via solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(18), 3824–3827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, M.

T. Xu, M. Yan, J. D. Hoefelmeyer, and Q. Qiao, “Exciton migration and charge transfer in chemically linked P3HT-TiO2nanorod composite,” RSC Advances 2(3), 854–862 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

P. Yu, X. M. Wen, Y. R. Toh, X. Q. Ma, and J. Tang, “Fluorescent metallic nanoclusters: electron dynamics, structure, and applications,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(2), 142–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, W. H.

F. Zheng, W. L. Xu, H. D. Jin, M. Q. Zhu, W. H. Yuan, X. T. Hao, and K. P. Ghiggino, “Purified dispersions of graphene in a nonpolar solvent via solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(18), 3824–3827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, Q.

J. Xiao, Q. Yue, B. Gao, Y. Sun, J. Kong, Y. Gao, Q. Li, and Y. Wang, “Performance of activated carbon/nanoscale zero valent iron for removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) at infinitesimal concentration in drinking water,” Chem. Eng. J. 253(1), 63–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. Yue, G. Qian, and B. Chen, “Luminescent functional metal-organic frameworks,” Chem. Rev. 112(2), 1126–1162 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.

L. Zhao, X. Pang, R. Adhikary, J. W. Petrich, and Z. Lin, “Semiconductor anisotropic nanocomposites obtained by directly coupling conjugated polymers with quantum rods,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(17), 3958–3962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, N.

S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, F.

W. L. Xu, B. Wu, F. Zheng, H. B. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, F. G. Bian, X.-T. Hao, and F. Zhu, “Homogeneous phase separation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 25, 266–274 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Zheng, W. L. Xu, H. D. Jin, M. Q. Zhu, W. H. Yuan, X. T. Hao, and K. P. Ghiggino, “Purified dispersions of graphene in a nonpolar solvent via solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(18), 3824–3827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhokhavets, U.

T. Erb, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Stuhn, P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Correlation between structural and optical properties of composite polymer/fullerene films for organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(7), 1193–1196 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, F.

W. L. Xu, B. Wu, F. Zheng, H. B. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, F. G. Bian, X.-T. Hao, and F. Zhu, “Homogeneous phase separation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 25, 266–274 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M. Q.

F. Zheng, W. L. Xu, H. D. Jin, M. Q. Zhu, W. H. Yuan, X. T. Hao, and K. P. Ghiggino, “Purified dispersions of graphene in a nonpolar solvent via solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(18), 3824–3827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

M. A. H. Muhammed, F. Aldeek, G. Palui, L. Trapiella-Alfonso, and H. Mattoussi, “Growth of in situ functionalized luminescent silver nanoclusters by direct reduction and size focusing,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8950–8961 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

T. Erb, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Stuhn, P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Correlation between structural and optical properties of composite polymer/fullerene films for organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(7), 1193–1196 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. Taliani and L. M. Blinov, “The electronic structure of solid αsexithiophene,” Adv. Mater. 8(4), 353–359 (1996).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

L. Zhao, X. Pang, R. Adhikary, J. W. Petrich, and Z. Lin, “Semiconductor anisotropic nanocomposites obtained by directly coupling conjugated polymers with quantum rods,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(17), 3958–3962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Y. Lin, Y. Y. Lee, L. Chang, J. J. Wu, and C. W. Chen, “The influence of interface modifier on the performance of nanostructured ZnO/polymer hybrid solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

F. Zheng, W. L. Xu, H. D. Jin, M. Q. Zhu, W. H. Yuan, X. T. Hao, and K. P. Ghiggino, “Purified dispersions of graphene in a nonpolar solvent via solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(18), 3824–3827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Eng. J. (1)

J. Xiao, Q. Yue, B. Gao, Y. Sun, J. Kong, Y. Gao, Q. Li, and Y. Wang, “Performance of activated carbon/nanoscale zero valent iron for removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) at infinitesimal concentration in drinking water,” Chem. Eng. J. 253(1), 63–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (2)

G. W. Gokel, W. M. Leevy, and M. E. Weber, “Crown ethers: sensors for ions and molecular scaffolds for materials and biological models,” Chem. Rev. 104(5), 2723–2750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, Y. Yue, G. Qian, and B. Chen, “Luminescent functional metal-organic frameworks,” Chem. Rev. 112(2), 1126–1162 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chemistry (1)

Z. Lin, “Organic-inorganic nanohybrids through the direct tailoring of semiconductor nanocrystals with conjugated polymers,” Chemistry 14(21), 6294–6301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

T. A. Chen, X. Wu, and R. D. Rieke, “Region controlled synthesis of poly(3-alkylthiophenes) mediated by riekezinc: their characterization and solid-state properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117(1), 233–244 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. Ohkita, S. Cook, Y. Astuti, W. Duffy, S. Tierney, W. Zhang, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. D. Bradley, and J. R. Durrant, “Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(10), 3030–3042 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

B. Ferreira, P. F. da Silva, J. S. Seixas de Melo, J. Pina, and A. Maçanita, “Excited-state dynamics and self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in solution and thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(8), 2347–2355 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

I. W. Hwang, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoinduced carrier generation in P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction materials,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4350–4354 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Baghgar, J. A. Labastide, F. Bokel, R. C. Hayward, and M. D. Barnes, “Effect of polymer chain folding on the transition from H- to J-aggregate behavior in P3HT nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(4), 2229–2235 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. (1)

M. R. Kern and S. G. Boyes, “Raft polymerization kinetics and polymer characterization of P3HT rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 52(24), 3575–3585 (2014).

Macromolecules (1)

M. Hufnagel, M. Fischer, T. Thurn-Albrecht, and M. Thelakkat, “Influence of fullerene grafting density on structure, dynamics, and charge transport in P3HT-b-PPC61BM block copolymers,” Macromolecules 49(5), 1637–1647 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

C. J. Lee, M. R. Karim, and S. L. Mu, “Synthesis and characterization of silver/thiophene nanocomposites by UV-irradiation method,” Mater. Lett. 61(13), 2675–2678 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Ren, L. Y. Chang, S. K. Lim, J. Zhao, M. Smith, N. Zhao, V. Bulović, M. Bawendi, and S. Gradecak, “Inorganic-organic hybrid solar cell: bridging quantum dots to conjugated polymer nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3998–4002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

G. J. Hedley, A. J. Ward, A. Alekseev, C. T. Howells, E. R. Martins, L. A. Serrano, G. Cooke, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. Samuel, “Determining the optimum morphology in high-performance polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2867 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Maensiri, C. Masingboon, V. Promarak, and S. Seraphin, “Synthesis and optical properties of nanocrystalline V-doped ZnO powders,” Opt. Mater. 29(12), 1700–1705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Org. Electron. (3)

W. L. Xu, B. Wu, F. Zheng, H. B. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, F. G. Bian, X.-T. Hao, and F. Zhu, “Homogeneous phase separation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 25, 266–274 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Segal-Peretz, O. Sorias, M. Moshonov, I. Deckman, M. Orenstein, and G. L. Frey, “Plasmonic nanoparticle incorporation into inverted hybrid organic–inorganic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 23(2), 144–150 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Alam, N. Kumar, and V. Dutta, “Study of surfactant-free lead sulfide nanocrystals-P3HT hybrid polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 22, 44–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Organometallics (1)

K. W. Lo, P. K. Lee, and S. Y. Lau, “Synthesis, characterization, and properties of luminescent organoiridium(III) polypyridine complexes appended with an alkyl chain and their interactions with lipid bilayers, surfactants, and living cells,” Organometallics 27(13), 2998–3006 (2008).
[Crossref]

Part. Part. Syst. Charact. (1)

P. Yu, X. M. Wen, Y. R. Toh, X. Q. Ma, and J. Tang, “Fluorescent metallic nanoclusters: electron dynamics, structure, and applications,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(2), 142–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. (1)

C. P. Ponce, R. P. Steer, and M. F. Paige, “Photophysics and halide quenching of a cationic metalloporphyrin in water,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(6), 1079–1085 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Fujisawa and M. Hanaya, “Extremely strong organic-metal oxide electronic coupling caused by nucleophilic addition reaction,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(25), 16285–16293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. J. Brown, D. S. Thomas, A. Kohler, J. S. Wilson, J. S. Kim, C. M. Ramsdale, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Effect of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Phys. Rev. B 67(6), 480–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Polym. Rev. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

P. Sista, K. Ghosh, J. S. Martinez, and R. C. Rocha, “Metallo-biopolymers: conjugation strategies and applications,” Polym. Rev. (Phila. Pa.) 54(4), 627–676 (2014).
[Crossref]

Polymer (Guildf.) (2)

D. Lee and D. J. Jang, “Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-coated gold hybrid nanoparticles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(21), 5469–5476 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lee and D. J. Jang, “Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-coated gold hybrid nanoparticles,” Polymer (Guildf.) 55(21), 5469–5476 (2014).
[Crossref]

RSC Advances (2)

S. Li, D. M. Wang, Z. Y. Wang, Z. W. Wang, M. Chen, and X. D. Liu, “Laser-induced fabrication of single crystal zinc hydroxyl dodecyl sulfate nano-sheets with excellent fluorescence emission,” RSC Advances 5(78), 63233–63239 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, M. Yan, J. D. Hoefelmeyer, and Q. Qiao, “Exciton migration and charge transfer in chemically linked P3HT-TiO2nanorod composite,” RSC Advances 2(3), 854–862 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top: Illustration of experimental setup for fabrication of the Ag-P3HT nanocomposite by pulsed laser ablation. Ag target was immersed in a chloroform solution of P3HT. The photos show the fluorescence of chloroform solutions of P3HT (left) and Ag-P3HT (right) under UV illumination. Bottom: Wavelength tuning of PL for as-prepared Ag-P3HT a, emission maximum at 580 nm for P3HT; b-e, emission maxima at c.a. 550, 540, 530 and 520 nm respectively for Ag-P3HT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) TEM image of pristine P3HT. TEM images of Ag-P3HT at low (b) and high magnification (c). (d) HRTEM image of Ag-P3HT.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) spectra of pristine P3HT (first row) and Ag-P3HT which was fabricated by laser ablation for 40 (second row) and 50 (third row) min. The top inset is the molecular structure of P3HT. The bottom inset is a schematic representation of the grafting position of P3HT to Ag NPs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) FTIR spectra of pristine P3HT and Ag-P3HT. (b) An expanded view of the FTIR data in the region 1400-1600 cm−1. (c) XPS spectra for 3d5/2 and 3d3/2 Ag bands in Ag-P3HT.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Steady-state absorption (a) and PL (b) spectra of the solution of pristine P3HT, laser-ablated P3HT, chemically-linked Ag-P3HT nanocomposite, and physically mixed Ag NP/P3HT.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized time-resolved fluorescence decay profiles (TCSPC) of pristine P3HT and Ag-P3HT in chloroform solution. The grey area denotes the instrument response function (IRF).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fit parameters for the fluorescence decays shown in Fig. 6. (All the samples were dissolved in chloroform and excited at 400 nm.)a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ freecharge 1 τ AgP3HT τ P3HT
dN(t) dt =( k FL ( t )+ k diss (t))N(t)

Metrics