Abstract

We report on fabrication of plasmonic interfaces consisting of Ag nanoparticles on flat and textured Al:ZnO for use at the front surface of thin film solar cells to enhance light trapping and photo-conversion efficiencies. We show that outstandingly high transmittance haze is achieved from single step HCl surface textured Al:ZnO and demonstrate Ag dewetting on textured and flat Al:ZnO surfaces upon annealing at moderate temperatures. Optical response of these plasmonic interfaces clearly display plasmonic resonances in the visible and near infrared, which is crucial for enhancement of photovoltaic conversion efficiency in thin film solar cells.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. C. Atrel, A. García-Etxarri, H. Alaeian, and J. A. Dionne, “Toward high-efficiency solar upconversion with plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2012).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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  12. E. Bunte, H. Zhu, J. Hüpkes, and J. Owen, “Novel texturing method for sputtered zinc oxide films prepared at high deposition rate from ceramic tube targets,” EPJ Photovo. 2, 20602 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Eminian, F.-J. Haug, O. Cubero, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells with silver nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 260–265 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. H. Nasser, Z. M. Saleh, E. Özkol, M. Günoven, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Fabrication of Ag nanoparticles embedded in Al:ZnO as potential light-trapping plasmonic interface for thin film solar cells,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1485–1492 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Z. Borra, S. K. Güllü, F. Es, O. Demircioğlu, M. Günöven, R. Turan, and A. Bek, “A feasibility study for controlling self-organized production of plasmonic enhancement interfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 318, 43–50 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. V. Sittinger, F. Ruske, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, B. Rech, J. Hüpkes, G. Schöpe, and H. Stiebig, “Al:ZnO films deposited by in-line reactive AC magnetron sputtering for a-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 16–25 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. M. Schmid, R. Klenk, M. Ch. Lux-Steiner, M. Topič, and J. Krč, “Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025204 (2011).

2014 (1)

M. Z. Borra, S. K. Güllü, F. Es, O. Demircioğlu, M. Günöven, R. Turan, and A. Bek, “A feasibility study for controlling self-organized production of plasmonic enhancement interfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 318, 43–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

H. Nasser, Z. M. Saleh, E. Özkol, M. Günoven, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Fabrication of Ag nanoparticles embedded in Al:ZnO as potential light-trapping plasmonic interface for thin film solar cells,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1485–1492 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Tanyeli, H. Nasser, F. Es, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Effect of surface type on structural and optical properties of Ag nanoparticles formed by dewetting,” Opt. Express 21(S5Suppl 5), A798–A807 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. C. Atrel, A. García-Etxarri, H. Alaeian, and J. A. Dionne, “Toward high-efficiency solar upconversion with plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (9)

Z. Ouyang, X. Zhao, S. Varlamov, Y. Tao, J. Wong, and S. Pillai, “Nanoparticle-enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(8), 917–926 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Eminian, F.-J. Haug, O. Cubero, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells with silver nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 260–265 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Lahoz, C. Pérez-Rodríguez, S. E. Hernández, I. R. Martín, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, “Upconversion mechanisms in rare-earth doped glasses to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. I. Owen, J. Hüpkes, H. Zhu, E. Bunte, and S. E. Pust, “Novel etch process to tune crater size on magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(1), 109–113 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. L. Lu, K. C. Huang, C. H. Yeh, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Investigation of textured Al-doped ZnO thin films using chemical wet-etching methods,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 127(1-2), 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Bunte, H. Zhu, J. Hüpkes, and J. Owen, “Novel texturing method for sputtered zinc oxide films prepared at high deposition rate from ceramic tube targets,” EPJ Photovo. 2, 20602 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schmid, R. Klenk, M. Ch. Lux-Steiner, M. Topič, and J. Krč, “Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025204 (2011).

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, W.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, W. Reetz, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “Recent development on surface-textured ZnO:Al films prepared by sputtering for thin-film solar cell application,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5836–5841 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in colloidal silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2506–2512 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

V. Sittinger, F. Ruske, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, B. Rech, J. Hüpkes, G. Schöpe, and H. Stiebig, “Al:ZnO films deposited by in-line reactive AC magnetron sputtering for a-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 16–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Kupich, D. Grunsky, P. Kumar, and B. Schröder, “Preparation of microcrystalline single junction and amorphous–microcrystalline tandem silicon solar cells entirely by hot-wire CVD,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(1), 141–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[Crossref]

Alaeian, H.

A. C. Atrel, A. García-Etxarri, H. Alaeian, and J. A. Dionne, “Toward high-efficiency solar upconversion with plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atrel, A. C.

A. C. Atrel, A. García-Etxarri, H. Alaeian, and J. A. Dionne, “Toward high-efficiency solar upconversion with plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

Ballif, C.

C. Eminian, F.-J. Haug, O. Cubero, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells with silver nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 260–265 (2011).
[Crossref]

Basch, A.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, W.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in colloidal silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2506–2512 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, F.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, W.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beck, F. J.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bek, A.

M. Z. Borra, S. K. Güllü, F. Es, O. Demircioğlu, M. Günöven, R. Turan, and A. Bek, “A feasibility study for controlling self-organized production of plasmonic enhancement interfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 318, 43–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Nasser, Z. M. Saleh, E. Özkol, M. Günoven, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Fabrication of Ag nanoparticles embedded in Al:ZnO as potential light-trapping plasmonic interface for thin film solar cells,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1485–1492 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Tanyeli, H. Nasser, F. Es, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Effect of surface type on structural and optical properties of Ag nanoparticles formed by dewetting,” Opt. Express 21(S5Suppl 5), A798–A807 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beneking, C.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Berginski, M.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, W. Reetz, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “Recent development on surface-textured ZnO:Al films prepared by sputtering for thin-film solar cell application,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5836–5841 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, J.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biswas, R.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bochem, H.-P.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Borra, M. Z.

M. Z. Borra, S. K. Güllü, F. Es, O. Demircioğlu, M. Günöven, R. Turan, and A. Bek, “A feasibility study for controlling self-organized production of plasmonic enhancement interfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 318, 43–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bunte, E.

J. I. Owen, J. Hüpkes, H. Zhu, E. Bunte, and S. E. Pust, “Novel etch process to tune crater size on magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(1), 109–113 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Bunte, H. Zhu, J. Hüpkes, and J. Owen, “Novel texturing method for sputtered zinc oxide films prepared at high deposition rate from ceramic tube targets,” EPJ Photovo. 2, 20602 (2011).
[Crossref]

Campbell, P.

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[Crossref]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, W.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakravarty, N.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cody, G. D.

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[Crossref]

Cubero, O.

C. Eminian, F.-J. Haug, O. Cubero, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells with silver nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 260–265 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dalal, V.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Demircioglu, O.

M. Z. Borra, S. K. Güllü, F. Es, O. Demircioğlu, M. Günöven, R. Turan, and A. Bek, “A feasibility study for controlling self-organized production of plasmonic enhancement interfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 318, 43–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dionne, J. A.

A. C. Atrel, A. García-Etxarri, H. Alaeian, and J. A. Dionne, “Toward high-efficiency solar upconversion with plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dittmar, G.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ellingson, R. J.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in colloidal silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2506–2512 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eminian, C.

C. Eminian, F.-J. Haug, O. Cubero, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells with silver nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 260–265 (2011).
[Crossref]

Es, F.

M. Z. Borra, S. K. Güllü, F. Es, O. Demircioğlu, M. Günöven, R. Turan, and A. Bek, “A feasibility study for controlling self-organized production of plasmonic enhancement interfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 318, 43–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Tanyeli, H. Nasser, F. Es, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Effect of surface type on structural and optical properties of Ag nanoparticles formed by dewetting,” Opt. Express 21(S5Suppl 5), A798–A807 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferry, V. E.

García-Etxarri, A.

A. C. Atrel, A. García-Etxarri, H. Alaeian, and J. A. Dionne, “Toward high-efficiency solar upconversion with plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Geyer, R.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[Crossref]

Grunsky, D.

M. Kupich, D. Grunsky, P. Kumar, and B. Schröder, “Preparation of microcrystalline single junction and amorphous–microcrystalline tandem silicon solar cells entirely by hot-wire CVD,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(1), 141–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

Güler, U.

Güllü, S. K.

M. Z. Borra, S. K. Güllü, F. Es, O. Demircioğlu, M. Günöven, R. Turan, and A. Bek, “A feasibility study for controlling self-organized production of plasmonic enhancement interfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 318, 43–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

Günoven, M.

H. Nasser, Z. M. Saleh, E. Özkol, M. Günoven, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Fabrication of Ag nanoparticles embedded in Al:ZnO as potential light-trapping plasmonic interface for thin film solar cells,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1485–1492 (2013).
[Crossref]

Günöven, M.

M. Z. Borra, S. K. Güllü, F. Es, O. Demircioğlu, M. Günöven, R. Turan, and A. Bek, “A feasibility study for controlling self-organized production of plasmonic enhancement interfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 318, 43–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haug, F.-J.

C. Eminian, F.-J. Haug, O. Cubero, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells with silver nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 260–265 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hernández, S. E.

F. Lahoz, C. Pérez-Rodríguez, S. E. Hernández, I. R. Martín, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, “Upconversion mechanisms in rare-earth doped glasses to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[Crossref]

Houben, L.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Houng, M. P.

W. L. Lu, K. C. Huang, C. H. Yeh, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Investigation of textured Al-doped ZnO thin films using chemical wet-etching methods,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 127(1-2), 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. C.

W. L. Lu, K. C. Huang, C. H. Yeh, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Investigation of textured Al-doped ZnO thin films using chemical wet-etching methods,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 127(1-2), 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hung, C. I.

W. L. Lu, K. C. Huang, C. H. Yeh, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Investigation of textured Al-doped ZnO thin films using chemical wet-etching methods,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 127(1-2), 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hüpkes, J.

E. Bunte, H. Zhu, J. Hüpkes, and J. Owen, “Novel texturing method for sputtered zinc oxide films prepared at high deposition rate from ceramic tube targets,” EPJ Photovo. 2, 20602 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. I. Owen, J. Hüpkes, H. Zhu, E. Bunte, and S. E. Pust, “Novel etch process to tune crater size on magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(1), 109–113 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, W. Reetz, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “Recent development on surface-textured ZnO:Al films prepared by sputtering for thin-film solar cell application,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5836–5841 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Sittinger, F. Ruske, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, B. Rech, J. Hüpkes, G. Schöpe, and H. Stiebig, “Al:ZnO films deposited by in-line reactive AC magnetron sputtering for a-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 16–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Klenk, R.

M. Schmid, R. Klenk, M. Ch. Lux-Steiner, M. Topič, and J. Krč, “Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025204 (2011).

Kluth, O.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Knutsen, K. P.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in colloidal silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2506–2512 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krc, J.

M. Schmid, R. Klenk, M. Ch. Lux-Steiner, M. Topič, and J. Krč, “Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025204 (2011).

Kumar, P.

M. Kupich, D. Grunsky, P. Kumar, and B. Schröder, “Preparation of microcrystalline single junction and amorphous–microcrystalline tandem silicon solar cells entirely by hot-wire CVD,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(1), 141–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kupich, M.

M. Kupich, D. Grunsky, P. Kumar, and B. Schröder, “Preparation of microcrystalline single junction and amorphous–microcrystalline tandem silicon solar cells entirely by hot-wire CVD,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(1), 141–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lahoz, F.

F. Lahoz, C. Pérez-Rodríguez, S. E. Hernández, I. R. Martín, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, “Upconversion mechanisms in rare-earth doped glasses to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lavín, V.

F. Lahoz, C. Pérez-Rodríguez, S. E. Hernández, I. R. Martín, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, “Upconversion mechanisms in rare-earth doped glasses to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lechner, P.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, W.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lewis, B.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, H. B. T.

Löffl, A.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lu, W. L.

W. L. Lu, K. C. Huang, C. H. Yeh, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Investigation of textured Al-doped ZnO thin films using chemical wet-etching methods,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 127(1-2), 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luther, J. M.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in colloidal silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2506–2512 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.

M. Schmid, R. Klenk, M. Ch. Lux-Steiner, M. Topič, and J. Krč, “Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025204 (2011).

Martín, I. R.

F. Lahoz, C. Pérez-Rodríguez, S. E. Hernández, I. R. Martín, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, “Upconversion mechanisms in rare-earth doped glasses to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[Crossref]

McKinley, A.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, W.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Metzger, W. K.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in colloidal silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2506–2512 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mokkapati, S.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, W.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Müller, J.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nasser, H.

H. Nasser, Z. M. Saleh, E. Özkol, M. Günoven, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Fabrication of Ag nanoparticles embedded in Al:ZnO as potential light-trapping plasmonic interface for thin film solar cells,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1485–1492 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Tanyeli, H. Nasser, F. Es, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Effect of surface type on structural and optical properties of Ag nanoparticles formed by dewetting,” Opt. Express 21(S5Suppl 5), A798–A807 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niquille, X.

C. Eminian, F.-J. Haug, O. Cubero, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells with silver nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 260–265 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nozik, A. J.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in colloidal silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2506–2512 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ouyang, Z.

Z. Ouyang, X. Zhao, S. Varlamov, Y. Tao, J. Wong, and S. Pillai, “Nanoparticle-enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(8), 917–926 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Owen, J.

E. Bunte, H. Zhu, J. Hüpkes, and J. Owen, “Novel texturing method for sputtered zinc oxide films prepared at high deposition rate from ceramic tube targets,” EPJ Photovo. 2, 20602 (2011).
[Crossref]

Owen, J. I.

J. I. Owen, J. Hüpkes, H. Zhu, E. Bunte, and S. E. Pust, “Novel etch process to tune crater size on magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(1), 109–113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Özkol, E.

H. Nasser, Z. M. Saleh, E. Özkol, M. Günoven, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Fabrication of Ag nanoparticles embedded in Al:ZnO as potential light-trapping plasmonic interface for thin film solar cells,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1485–1492 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Rodríguez, C.

F. Lahoz, C. Pérez-Rodríguez, S. E. Hernández, I. R. Martín, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, “Upconversion mechanisms in rare-earth doped glasses to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pillai, S.

Z. Ouyang, X. Zhao, S. Varlamov, Y. Tao, J. Wong, and S. Pillai, “Nanoparticle-enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(8), 917–926 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pust, S. E.

J. I. Owen, J. Hüpkes, H. Zhu, E. Bunte, and S. E. Pust, “Novel etch process to tune crater size on magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(1), 109–113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rech, B.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, W. Reetz, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “Recent development on surface-textured ZnO:Al films prepared by sputtering for thin-film solar cell application,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5836–5841 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Sittinger, F. Ruske, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, B. Rech, J. Hüpkes, G. Schöpe, and H. Stiebig, “Al:ZnO films deposited by in-line reactive AC magnetron sputtering for a-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 16–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Reetz, W.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, W. Reetz, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “Recent development on surface-textured ZnO:Al films prepared by sputtering for thin-film solar cell application,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5836–5841 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.

F. Lahoz, C. Pérez-Rodríguez, S. E. Hernández, I. R. Martín, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, “Upconversion mechanisms in rare-earth doped glasses to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1671–1677 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ruske, F.

V. Sittinger, F. Ruske, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, B. Rech, J. Hüpkes, G. Schöpe, and H. Stiebig, “Al:ZnO films deposited by in-line reactive AC magnetron sputtering for a-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 16–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ruske, M.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Saleh, Z. M.

H. Nasser, Z. M. Saleh, E. Özkol, M. Günoven, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Fabrication of Ag nanoparticles embedded in Al:ZnO as potential light-trapping plasmonic interface for thin film solar cells,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1485–1492 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schade, H.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

M. Schmid, R. Klenk, M. Ch. Lux-Steiner, M. Topič, and J. Krč, “Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025204 (2011).

Schock, H. W.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schöpe, G.

V. Sittinger, F. Ruske, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, B. Rech, J. Hüpkes, G. Schöpe, and H. Stiebig, “Al:ZnO films deposited by in-line reactive AC magnetron sputtering for a-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 16–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schröder, B.

M. Kupich, D. Grunsky, P. Kumar, and B. Schröder, “Preparation of microcrystalline single junction and amorphous–microcrystalline tandem silicon solar cells entirely by hot-wire CVD,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(1), 141–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schropp, R. E. I.

Sittinger, V.

V. Sittinger, F. Ruske, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, B. Rech, J. Hüpkes, G. Schöpe, and H. Stiebig, “Al:ZnO films deposited by in-line reactive AC magnetron sputtering for a-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 16–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Song, Q.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in colloidal silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2506–2512 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiebig, H.

V. Sittinger, F. Ruske, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, B. Rech, J. Hüpkes, G. Schöpe, and H. Stiebig, “Al:ZnO films deposited by in-line reactive AC magnetron sputtering for a-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 16–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Szyszka, B.

V. Sittinger, F. Ruske, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, B. Rech, J. Hüpkes, G. Schöpe, and H. Stiebig, “Al:ZnO films deposited by in-line reactive AC magnetron sputtering for a-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 16–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, and H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 158–162 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tanyeli, I.

Tao, Y.

Z. Ouyang, X. Zhao, S. Varlamov, Y. Tao, J. Wong, and S. Pillai, “Nanoparticle-enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(8), 917–926 (2011).
[Crossref]

Topic, M.

M. Schmid, R. Klenk, M. Ch. Lux-Steiner, M. Topič, and J. Krč, “Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025204 (2011).

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117 (2002).
[Crossref]

Turan, R.

M. Z. Borra, S. K. Güllü, F. Es, O. Demircioğlu, M. Günöven, R. Turan, and A. Bek, “A feasibility study for controlling self-organized production of plasmonic enhancement interfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 318, 43–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Nasser, Z. M. Saleh, E. Özkol, M. Günoven, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Fabrication of Ag nanoparticles embedded in Al:ZnO as potential light-trapping plasmonic interface for thin film solar cells,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1485–1492 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Tanyeli, H. Nasser, F. Es, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Effect of surface type on structural and optical properties of Ag nanoparticles formed by dewetting,” Opt. Express 21(S5Suppl 5), A798–A807 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Güler and R. Turan, “Effect of particle properties and light polarization on the plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17322–17338 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varlamov, S.

Z. Ouyang, X. Zhao, S. Varlamov, Y. Tao, J. Wong, and S. Pillai, “Nanoparticle-enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(8), 917–926 (2011).
[Crossref]

Verhagen, E.

Verschuuren, M. A.

Wagner, H.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Walters, R. J.

Wang, W.-C.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, W.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Werner, W.

V. Sittinger, F. Ruske, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, B. Rech, J. Hüpkes, G. Schöpe, and H. Stiebig, “Al:ZnO films deposited by in-line reactive AC magnetron sputtering for a-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 16–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wieder, S.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 247–253 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wong, J.

Z. Ouyang, X. Zhao, S. Varlamov, Y. Tao, J. Wong, and S. Pillai, “Nanoparticle-enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(8), 917–926 (2011).
[Crossref]

Würfel, P.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117 (2002).
[Crossref]

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W. L. Lu, K. C. Huang, C. H. Yeh, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Investigation of textured Al-doped ZnO thin films using chemical wet-etching methods,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 127(1-2), 358–363 (2011).
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M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in colloidal silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2506–2512 (2007).
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Z. Ouyang, X. Zhao, S. Varlamov, Y. Tao, J. Wong, and S. Pillai, “Nanoparticle-enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(8), 917–926 (2011).
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E. Bunte, H. Zhu, J. Hüpkes, and J. Owen, “Novel texturing method for sputtered zinc oxide films prepared at high deposition rate from ceramic tube targets,” EPJ Photovo. 2, 20602 (2011).
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J. I. Owen, J. Hüpkes, H. Zhu, E. Bunte, and S. E. Pust, “Novel etch process to tune crater size on magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(1), 109–113 (2011).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Z. Borra, S. K. Güllü, F. Es, O. Demircioğlu, M. Günöven, R. Turan, and A. Bek, “A feasibility study for controlling self-organized production of plasmonic enhancement interfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 318, 43–50 (2014).
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E. Bunte, H. Zhu, J. Hüpkes, and J. Owen, “Novel texturing method for sputtered zinc oxide films prepared at high deposition rate from ceramic tube targets,” EPJ Photovo. 2, 20602 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[Crossref]

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W. L. Lu, K. C. Huang, C. H. Yeh, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Investigation of textured Al-doped ZnO thin films using chemical wet-etching methods,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 127(1-2), 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, W.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 461–467 (2011).
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M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in colloidal silicon nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2506–2512 (2007).
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Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

J. I. Owen, J. Hüpkes, H. Zhu, E. Bunte, and S. E. Pust, “Novel etch process to tune crater size on magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(1), 109–113 (2011).
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Plasmonics (1)

H. Nasser, Z. M. Saleh, E. Özkol, M. Günoven, A. Bek, and R. Turan, “Fabrication of Ag nanoparticles embedded in Al:ZnO as potential light-trapping plasmonic interface for thin film solar cells,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1485–1492 (2013).
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V. Sittinger, F. Ruske, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, B. Rech, J. Hüpkes, G. Schöpe, and H. Stiebig, “Al:ZnO films deposited by in-line reactive AC magnetron sputtering for a-Si:H thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 16–25 (2006).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the reflection and the transmittance measurements setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of flat Al:ZnO (left) and textured Al:ZnO (right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a), (c) SEM images; (b), (d) AFM topography of flat and textured Al:ZnO, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Total transmittance, (b) diffuse transmittance, and (c) haze of bare flat (black) and textured Al:ZnO (red).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM, total reflection and total transmittance behavior of AgNP fabricated on flat Al:ZnO at annealing temperature of (a) 200°C and (b) 300°C. Total reflection and total transmittance (in red) of bare flat Al:ZnO is plotted to guide the reader.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a), (c) SEM; (b) total reflection; (d) total transmittance of AgNPs fabricated at 200°C on textured Al:ZnO. Total reflection and total transmittance (in red) of bare textured Al:ZnO is plotted to guide the reader.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a), (c) SEM; (b) total reflection; (d) total transmittance of AgNPs fabricated at 300°C on textured Al:ZnO. Total reflection and total transmittance (in red) of bare textured Al:ZnO is plotted to guide the reader.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Diffuse transmittance of bare flat Al:ZnO and AgNPs fabricated on flat Al:ZnO at 200°C and 300°C; (b) Diffuse transmittance of bare textured Al:ZnO and AgNP fabricated on textured Al:ZnO at 200°C and 300°C; (c) haze of flat and textured Al:ZnO and of AgNPs fabricated on flat and textured Al:ZnO at 200°C and 300°C.

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