Abstract

We present a new method to fabricate wedged multilayer Laue lenses, in which the angle of diffracting layers smoothly varies in the lens to achieve optimum diffracting efficiency across the entire pupil of the lens. This was achieved by depositing a multilayer onto a flat substrate placed in the penumbra of a straight-edge mask. The distance between the mask and the substrate was calibrated and the multilayer Laue lens was cut in a position where the varying layer thickness and the varying layer tilt simultaneously satisfy the Fresnel zone plate condition and Bragg’s law for all layers in the stack. This method can be used to extend the achievable numerical aperture of multilayer Laue lenses to reach considerably smaller focal spot sizes than achievable with lenses composed of parallel layers.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard X-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D 47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

H. Yan, “X-ray dynamical diffraction from multilayer Laue lenses with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 165410 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(11), 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151109 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Mucha, T. Kato, S. Arai, H. Saka, K. Kuroda, and B. Wielage, “Focused ion beam preparation techniques dedicated for the fabrication of TEM lamellae of fibre-reinforced composites,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(1), 43–49 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, “Properties of electromagnetic fields in X-ray lithographic masks: Guided modes and beam propagation calculus,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(3), 667–680 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. M. Bionta, “Transmission gratings that diffract 8 keV X rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(10), 725 (1987).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

J. R. P. Angel, “Lobster eyes as X-ray telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ables, E.

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

Alameda, J. B.

Andrejczuk, A.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, “Lobster eyes as X-ray telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364 (1979).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Arai, S.

H. Mucha, T. Kato, S. Arai, H. Saka, K. Kuroda, and B. Wielage, “Focused ion beam preparation techniques dedicated for the fabrication of TEM lamellae of fibre-reinforced composites,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(1), 43–49 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajt, S.

J. Gaudin, C. Ozkan, J. Chalupský, S. Bajt, T. Burian, L. Vyšín, N. Coppola, S. D. Farahani, H. N. Chapman, G. Galasso, V. Hájková, M. Harmand, L. Juha, M. Jurek, R. A. Loch, S. Möller, M. Nagasono, M. Störmer, H. Sinn, K. Saksl, R. Sobierajski, J. Schulz, P. Sovak, S. Toleikis, K. Tiedtke, T. Tschentscher, and J. Krzywinski, “Investigating the interaction of X-ray free electron laser radiation with grating structure,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3033–3035 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. A. Spiller, J. B. Alameda, B. W. Woods, M. Frank, M. J. Bogan, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, S. P. Hau-Riege, J. Hajdu, and D. Shapiro, “Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1673–1683 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151109 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Barthelmess, M.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Barty, A.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. A. Spiller, J. B. Alameda, B. W. Woods, M. Frank, M. J. Bogan, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, S. P. Hau-Riege, J. Hajdu, and D. Shapiro, “Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1673–1683 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Bean, R. J.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Bergh, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bionta, R. M.

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

R. M. Bionta, “Transmission gratings that diffract 8 keV X rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(10), 725 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bogan, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bogan, M. J.

Bostedt, C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bouet, N.

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard X-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D 47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boutet, S.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. A. Spiller, J. B. Alameda, B. W. Woods, M. Frank, M. J. Bogan, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, S. P. Hau-Riege, J. Hajdu, and D. Shapiro, “Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1673–1683 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burian, T.

Burmeister, F.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Caleman, C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chalupský, J.

Chapman, H. N.

J. Gaudin, C. Ozkan, J. Chalupský, S. Bajt, T. Burian, L. Vyšín, N. Coppola, S. D. Farahani, H. N. Chapman, G. Galasso, V. Hájková, M. Harmand, L. Juha, M. Jurek, R. A. Loch, S. Möller, M. Nagasono, M. Störmer, H. Sinn, K. Saksl, R. Sobierajski, J. Schulz, P. Sovak, S. Toleikis, K. Tiedtke, T. Tschentscher, and J. Krzywinski, “Investigating the interaction of X-ray free electron laser radiation with grating structure,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3033–3035 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. A. Spiller, J. B. Alameda, B. W. Woods, M. Frank, M. J. Bogan, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, S. P. Hau-Riege, J. Hajdu, and D. Shapiro, “Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1673–1683 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151109 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. N. Chapman and A. V. Rode, “Geometric optics of arrays of reflective surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 33(13), 2419–2436 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, “Properties of electromagnetic fields in X-ray lithographic masks: Guided modes and beam propagation calculus,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(3), 667–680 (1993).
[Crossref]

Christensen, F. E.

Chu, Y. S.

Clamp, O.

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

Conley, R.

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard X-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D 47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard X-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151109 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(11), 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Coppola, N.

Craig, W. W.

Donguy, S.

Düsterer, S.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Edwards, O. D.

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

Farahani, S. D.

Frank, M.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. A. Spiller, J. B. Alameda, B. W. Woods, M. Frank, M. J. Bogan, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, S. P. Hau-Riege, J. Hajdu, and D. Shapiro, “Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1673–1683 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gabriele, P. C.

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

Galasso, G.

Gaudin, J.

Graafsma, H.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Haghiri-Gosnet, A. M.

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, “Properties of electromagnetic fields in X-ray lithographic masks: Guided modes and beam propagation calculus,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(3), 667–680 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hailey, C. J.

Hajdu, J.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. A. Spiller, J. B. Alameda, B. W. Woods, M. Frank, M. J. Bogan, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, S. P. Hau-Riege, J. Hajdu, and D. Shapiro, “Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1673–1683 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hájková, V.

Harmand, M.

Harrison, F. A.

Hau-Riege, S. P.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. A. Spiller, J. B. Alameda, B. W. Woods, M. Frank, M. J. Bogan, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, S. P. Hau-Riege, J. Hajdu, and D. Shapiro, “Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1673–1683 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hodgson, K.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hoener, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Holt, M.

Honkimaki, V.

Huldt, G.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jahedi, N.

Juha, L.

Jurek, M.

Kang, H. C.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard X-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151109 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(11), 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kato, T.

H. Mucha, T. Kato, S. Arai, H. Saka, K. Kuroda, and B. Wielage, “Focused ion beam preparation techniques dedicated for the fabrication of TEM lamellae of fibre-reinforced composites,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(1), 43–49 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kewish, C. M.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koglin, J.

Krzywinski, J.

Kuhlmann, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kupka, R. K.

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, “Properties of electromagnetic fields in X-ray lithographic masks: Guided modes and beam propagation calculus,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(3), 667–680 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, K.

H. Mucha, T. Kato, S. Arai, H. Saka, K. Kuroda, and B. Wielage, “Focused ion beam preparation techniques dedicated for the fabrication of TEM lamellae of fibre-reinforced composites,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(1), 43–49 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Launois, H.

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, “Properties of electromagnetic fields in X-ray lithographic masks: Guided modes and beam propagation calculus,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(3), 667–680 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lee, R. W.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leontowich, A. F. G.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Lima, E.

Liu, C.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard X-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(11), 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Loch, R. A.

London, R. A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

Macrander, A.

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Macrander, A. T.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard X-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151109 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(11), 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Maia, F.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marchesini, S.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. A. Spiller, J. B. Alameda, B. W. Woods, M. Frank, M. J. Bogan, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, S. P. Hau-Riege, J. Hajdu, and D. Shapiro, “Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1673–1683 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maser, J.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard X-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151109 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(11), 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meents, A.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Miller, K.

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

Möller, S.

Möller, T.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Morgan, A.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Mucha, H.

H. Mucha, T. Kato, S. Arai, H. Saka, K. Kuroda, and B. Wielage, “Focused ion beam preparation techniques dedicated for the fabrication of TEM lamellae of fibre-reinforced composites,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(1), 43–49 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagasono, M.

Oberthuer, D.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Ott, L. L.

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ozkan, C.

Pennicard, D.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Plönjes-Palm, E.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Prasciolu, M.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Qian, J.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rode, A. V.

Rose, V.

Rousseaux, F.

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, “Properties of electromagnetic fields in X-ray lithographic masks: Guided modes and beam propagation calculus,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(3), 667–680 (1993).
[Crossref]

Saka, H.

H. Mucha, T. Kato, S. Arai, H. Saka, K. Kuroda, and B. Wielage, “Focused ion beam preparation techniques dedicated for the fabrication of TEM lamellae of fibre-reinforced composites,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(1), 43–49 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saksl, K.

Schneider, J.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schulz, J.

Seibert, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, D.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. A. Spiller, J. B. Alameda, B. W. Woods, M. Frank, M. J. Bogan, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, S. P. Hau-Riege, J. Hajdu, and D. Shapiro, “Camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1673–1683 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shen, Q.

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shu, D.

Sinn, H.

Skulina, K. M.

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sobierajski, R.

Sovak, P.

Spiller, E.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spiller, E. A.

Stephenson, G. B.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard X-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151109 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(11), 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Störmer, M.

Szöke, A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tiedtke, K.

Tilley, R.

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

Timneanu, N.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Toleikis, S.

Treusch, R.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tschentscher, T.

J. Gaudin, C. Ozkan, J. Chalupský, S. Bajt, T. Burian, L. Vyšín, N. Coppola, S. D. Farahani, H. N. Chapman, G. Galasso, V. Hájková, M. Harmand, L. Juha, M. Jurek, R. A. Loch, S. Möller, M. Nagasono, M. Störmer, H. Sinn, K. Saksl, R. Sobierajski, J. Schulz, P. Sovak, S. Toleikis, K. Tiedtke, T. Tschentscher, and J. Krzywinski, “Investigating the interaction of X-ray free electron laser radiation with grating structure,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3033–3035 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

van der Spoel, D.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Viada, T.

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vogt, S.

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vyšín, L.

Wielage, B.

H. Mucha, T. Kato, S. Arai, H. Saka, K. Kuroda, and B. Wielage, “Focused ion beam preparation techniques dedicated for the fabrication of TEM lamellae of fibre-reinforced composites,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(1), 43–49 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windt, D. L.

Woods, B.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Woods, B. W.

Yan, H.

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard X-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D 47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard X-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, “X-ray dynamical diffraction from multilayer Laue lenses with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 165410 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, H. F.

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

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A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

Ziegler, E.

Zurbuchen, M. A.

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(11), 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. C. Kang, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, S. Bajt, and H. N. Chapman, “High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151109 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. M. Bionta, “Transmission gratings that diffract 8 keV X rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(10), 725 (1987).
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Astrophys. J. (1)

J. R. P. Angel, “Lobster eyes as X-ray telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364 (1979).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(11), 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) (1)

H. Mucha, T. Kato, S. Arai, H. Saka, K. Kuroda, and B. Wielage, “Focused ion beam preparation techniques dedicated for the fabrication of TEM lamellae of fibre-reinforced composites,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 54(1), 43–49 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D (1)

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard X-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D 47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, “Properties of electromagnetic fields in X-ray lithographic masks: Guided modes and beam propagation calculus,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(3), 667–680 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, R. A. London, E. Plönjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffraction imaging with a soft X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. M. Bionta, E. Ables, O. Clamp, O. D. Edwards, P. C. Gabriele, K. Miller, L. L. Ott, K. M. Skulina, R. Tilley, and T. Viada, “Tabletop X-ray microscope using 8 keV zone plates,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 576 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, “X-ray dynamical diffraction from multilayer Laue lenses with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 165410 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, and G. B. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

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A. G. Michette, Optical Systems for Soft X rays (Plenum Press, 1986).

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A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” (submitted).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Focusing of rays (thick lines) by a wedged multilayer Laue lens. The layer thicknesses follow the zone plate law such that an incident ray reflecting from one layer accumulates an extra path of one wavelength, λ, on arriving at the focus, than the ray reflected from the previous bi-layer. Additionally, Bragg’s law is satisfied by ensuring the layers are tilted by the Bragg angle θB for that layer spacing. In the paraxial approximation, this requires that the layers are normal to a cylindrical surface of radius of curvature 2f, where f is the focal length.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The required 1/(2f) curvature of the multilayer super-surface is achieved by accumulation of the layers with a gradient in the deposition rate across the substrate, achieved in the penumbra of an edge mask. The mask to substrate distance is adjusted to obtain the correct curvature, which results in a penumbra slightly wider than 2f.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The diffraction efficiency of a wedged MLL (a) and a parallel-layer MLL (b) calculated by the beam propagation method, as a function of the height along the lens pupil and the depth of the lens in z. The lens parameters are as discussed in the text, and the parallel-layer MLL was tilted by 8.0 mrad.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Substrate with the fixed mask on the substrate mount (a) and substrate after the coating (b), showing the thickness profile. The thickness of the coating increases from the left to the right (b). The substrate mount is 5 cm diameter and the rectangular substrate measures 15 mm × 20 mm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A cross section TEM image of a W/SiC multilayer with about 6 nm period thickness. Both materials appear amorphous and form smooth layers. A thin alloy layer can be seen at both interfaces between SiC and W.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Power spectra densities calculated from the measured surface profiles of the bare Si substrate and the top surface of a 19.8 µm thick multilayer (in the unshaded area of the mask).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Thickness profile of the multilayer as a function of position along the substrate z, as measured with a profilometer, for a 1.9 mm mask-to-substrate distance (solid line) and 2.4 mm mask-to-substrate distance (dashed line). The correct gradient in deposition rate for a 1.2-mm focal length lens is indicated with the vertical dash-dot line.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Scanning electron micrograph of the fabricated wedged multilayer Laue lens, still attached to the Si wafer, as seen from the front. The dark thick layer on the top is carbon deposited during the slicing to protect the multilayer structure. The light grey region is the multilayer structure, and the dark region below that is the Si substrate.

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