Abstract

We investigate the effect of γ-irradiation on the rate of post-growth thermal diffusion of iron into ZnSe and ZnS. Samples had thin films of iron deposited on one facet and were annealed at 950°C for 14 days in the presence of γ-radiation and diffusion lengths were compared to those of traditional post-growth thermal diffusion in the absence of γ-irradiation. Samples of Fe:ZnSe and Fe:ZnS annealed under 44R/s γ-irradiation showed increases in diffusion rate of 14% and 50%, respectively.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ Doped Mid-IR Laser Materials,” (invited review) Laser and Photonics Review 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in Mid-IR Lasers Based on Cr and Fe Doped II-VI Chalcogenides,” IEEE J. of Selected Topics in QE 21(1), 1601719 (2015).
  3. K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).
  4. N. N. Il’ichev, P. V. Shapkin, A. S. Nasibov, and S. E. Mosaleva, “Cobalt Diffusion during Doping of ZnSe Single Crystals,” Inorg. Mater. 43(10), 1050–1053 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, L. I. Postnova, V. I. Konstantinov, V. P. Mikhailov, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Preparation and properties of bulk ZnSe: Cr single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 198-199, 980–983 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. U. Hömmerich, I. K. Jones, E. E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Comparison of the optical properties of diffusion-doped polycrystalline Cr:ZnSe and Cr:CdTe windows,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 450–453 (2006).
  8. H. Wolf, J. Kronenberg, F. Wagner, Th. Wichert, and ISOLDE Collaboration, “Pre-requisites for the formation of unusual diffusion profiles in II–VI semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1405–1408 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. B. Mirov and V. V. Fedorov, “Mid-IR microchip laser: ZnS:Cr2+ laser and saturation absorption material,” US Patent No 6,960,486.
  10. R. Sizmann, “The effect of radiation upon diffusion in metals,” J. Nucl. Mater. 69–70, 386–412 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. R. Allen and G. S. Was, Radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. In K. E. Sickafus, E. A. Kotomin, and B. P Uberuage, editors, Radiation Effects in Solids, chapter 6. Springer, 2007.
  12. N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, A. Martinez, and S. B. Mirov, “Energy scaling of room temperature Fe2+:ZnSe gain-switched 4.3 μm laser,” Proc. SPIE 7912, 79121C (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. Myoung, “Development and Characterization of Thermal Diffusion Doped Fe2+:ZnSe/ZnS Polycrystalline Gain Media for Room Temperature Mid-IR Lasing,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 2011.
  14. U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, and M. Somer, “Synthesis and characterization of diffusion-doped Cr2+:ZnSe and Fe2+:ZnSe,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 231–240 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Konak, M. Tekavec, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Electrical, spectroscopic, and laser characterization of γ-irradiated transition metal doped II–VI semiconductors,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(6), 777–786 (2013).
  16. J.-O. Ndap, K. Chattopadhyay, O. O. Adetunji, D. E. Zelmon, and A. Burger, “Thermal diffusion of Cr2+ in bulk ZnSe,” J. Cryst. Growth 240(1-2), 176–184 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in Mid-IR Lasers Based on Cr and Fe Doped II-VI Chalcogenides,” IEEE J. of Selected Topics in QE 21(1), 1601719 (2015).

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, A. Martinez, and S. B. Mirov, “Energy scaling of room temperature Fe2+:ZnSe gain-switched 4.3 μm laser,” Proc. SPIE 7912, 79121C (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ Doped Mid-IR Laser Materials,” (invited review) Laser and Photonics Review 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Wolf, J. Kronenberg, F. Wagner, Th. Wichert, and ISOLDE Collaboration, “Pre-requisites for the formation of unusual diffusion profiles in II–VI semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1405–1408 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. N. Il’ichev, P. V. Shapkin, A. S. Nasibov, and S. E. Mosaleva, “Cobalt Diffusion during Doping of ZnSe Single Crystals,” Inorg. Mater. 43(10), 1050–1053 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, and M. Somer, “Synthesis and characterization of diffusion-doped Cr2+:ZnSe and Fe2+:ZnSe,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 231–240 (2006).
[Crossref]

U. Hömmerich, I. K. Jones, E. E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Comparison of the optical properties of diffusion-doped polycrystalline Cr:ZnSe and Cr:CdTe windows,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 450–453 (2006).

2002 (1)

J.-O. Ndap, K. Chattopadhyay, O. O. Adetunji, D. E. Zelmon, and A. Burger, “Thermal diffusion of Cr2+ in bulk ZnSe,” J. Cryst. Growth 240(1-2), 176–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).

1999 (1)

V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, L. I. Postnova, V. I. Konstantinov, V. P. Mikhailov, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Preparation and properties of bulk ZnSe: Cr single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 198-199, 980–983 (1999).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

R. Sizmann, “The effect of radiation upon diffusion in metals,” J. Nucl. Mater. 69–70, 386–412 (1978).
[Crossref]

Adetunji, O. O.

J.-O. Ndap, K. Chattopadhyay, O. O. Adetunji, D. E. Zelmon, and A. Burger, “Thermal diffusion of Cr2+ in bulk ZnSe,” J. Cryst. Growth 240(1-2), 176–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Akimov, V. A.

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Avanesov, A.

K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).

Badikov, V.

K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).

Burger, A.

J.-O. Ndap, K. Chattopadhyay, O. O. Adetunji, D. E. Zelmon, and A. Burger, “Thermal diffusion of Cr2+ in bulk ZnSe,” J. Cryst. Growth 240(1-2), 176–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chattopadhyay, K.

J.-O. Ndap, K. Chattopadhyay, O. O. Adetunji, D. E. Zelmon, and A. Burger, “Thermal diffusion of Cr2+ in bulk ZnSe,” J. Cryst. Growth 240(1-2), 176–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Demirbas, U.

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, and M. Somer, “Synthesis and characterization of diffusion-doped Cr2+:ZnSe and Fe2+:ZnSe,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 231–240 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fedorov, V.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in Mid-IR Lasers Based on Cr and Fe Doped II-VI Chalcogenides,” IEEE J. of Selected Topics in QE 21(1), 1601719 (2015).

Fedorov, V. V.

T. Konak, M. Tekavec, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Electrical, spectroscopic, and laser characterization of γ-irradiated transition metal doped II–VI semiconductors,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(6), 777–786 (2013).

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, A. Martinez, and S. B. Mirov, “Energy scaling of room temperature Fe2+:ZnSe gain-switched 4.3 μm laser,” Proc. SPIE 7912, 79121C (2011).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ Doped Mid-IR Laser Materials,” (invited review) Laser and Photonics Review 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).

Frolov, M. P.

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghraham, K.

K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).

Hömmerich, U.

U. Hömmerich, I. K. Jones, E. E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Comparison of the optical properties of diffusion-doped polycrystalline Cr:ZnSe and Cr:CdTe windows,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 450–453 (2006).

Ignatev, B.

K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).

Il’ichev, N. N.

N. N. Il’ichev, P. V. Shapkin, A. S. Nasibov, and S. E. Mosaleva, “Cobalt Diffusion during Doping of ZnSe Single Crystals,” Inorg. Mater. 43(10), 1050–1053 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jones, I. K.

U. Hömmerich, I. K. Jones, E. E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Comparison of the optical properties of diffusion-doped polycrystalline Cr:ZnSe and Cr:CdTe windows,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 450–453 (2006).

Kim, C.

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ Doped Mid-IR Laser Materials,” (invited review) Laser and Photonics Review 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[Crossref]

Konak, T.

Konstantinov, V. I.

V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, L. I. Postnova, V. I. Konstantinov, V. P. Mikhailov, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Preparation and properties of bulk ZnSe: Cr single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 198-199, 980–983 (1999).
[Crossref]

Korostelin, Yu. V.

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kozlovsky, V. I.

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kronenberg, J.

H. Wolf, J. Kronenberg, F. Wagner, Th. Wichert, and ISOLDE Collaboration, “Pre-requisites for the formation of unusual diffusion profiles in II–VI semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1405–1408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuleshov, N. V.

V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, L. I. Postnova, V. I. Konstantinov, V. P. Mikhailov, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Preparation and properties of bulk ZnSe: Cr single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 198-199, 980–983 (1999).
[Crossref]

Landman, A. I.

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Levchenko, V. I.

V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, L. I. Postnova, V. I. Konstantinov, V. P. Mikhailov, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Preparation and properties of bulk ZnSe: Cr single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 198-199, 980–983 (1999).
[Crossref]

Martinez, A.

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, A. Martinez, and S. B. Mirov, “Energy scaling of room temperature Fe2+:ZnSe gain-switched 4.3 μm laser,” Proc. SPIE 7912, 79121C (2011).
[Crossref]

Martovitsky, V. P.

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martyshkin, D.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in Mid-IR Lasers Based on Cr and Fe Doped II-VI Chalcogenides,” IEEE J. of Selected Topics in QE 21(1), 1601719 (2015).

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ Doped Mid-IR Laser Materials,” (invited review) Laser and Photonics Review 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martyshkin, D. V.

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, A. Martinez, and S. B. Mirov, “Energy scaling of room temperature Fe2+:ZnSe gain-switched 4.3 μm laser,” Proc. SPIE 7912, 79121C (2011).
[Crossref]

Mikhailov, V. P.

V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, L. I. Postnova, V. I. Konstantinov, V. P. Mikhailov, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Preparation and properties of bulk ZnSe: Cr single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 198-199, 980–983 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mirov, M.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in Mid-IR Lasers Based on Cr and Fe Doped II-VI Chalcogenides,” IEEE J. of Selected Topics in QE 21(1), 1601719 (2015).

Mirov, S.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in Mid-IR Lasers Based on Cr and Fe Doped II-VI Chalcogenides,” IEEE J. of Selected Topics in QE 21(1), 1601719 (2015).

Mirov, S. B.

T. Konak, M. Tekavec, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Electrical, spectroscopic, and laser characterization of γ-irradiated transition metal doped II–VI semiconductors,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(6), 777–786 (2013).

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, A. Martinez, and S. B. Mirov, “Energy scaling of room temperature Fe2+:ZnSe gain-switched 4.3 μm laser,” Proc. SPIE 7912, 79121C (2011).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ Doped Mid-IR Laser Materials,” (invited review) Laser and Photonics Review 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).

Mislavskii, V. V.

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mosaleva, S. E.

N. N. Il’ichev, P. V. Shapkin, A. S. Nasibov, and S. E. Mosaleva, “Cobalt Diffusion during Doping of ZnSe Single Crystals,” Inorg. Mater. 43(10), 1050–1053 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moskalev, I.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in Mid-IR Lasers Based on Cr and Fe Doped II-VI Chalcogenides,” IEEE J. of Selected Topics in QE 21(1), 1601719 (2015).

Moskalev, I. S.

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ Doped Mid-IR Laser Materials,” (invited review) Laser and Photonics Review 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[Crossref]

Myoung, N.

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, A. Martinez, and S. B. Mirov, “Energy scaling of room temperature Fe2+:ZnSe gain-switched 4.3 μm laser,” Proc. SPIE 7912, 79121C (2011).
[Crossref]

Nasibov, A. S.

N. N. Il’ichev, P. V. Shapkin, A. S. Nasibov, and S. E. Mosaleva, “Cobalt Diffusion during Doping of ZnSe Single Crystals,” Inorg. Mater. 43(10), 1050–1053 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ndap, J.-O.

J.-O. Ndap, K. Chattopadhyay, O. O. Adetunji, D. E. Zelmon, and A. Burger, “Thermal diffusion of Cr2+ in bulk ZnSe,” J. Cryst. Growth 240(1-2), 176–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nyein, E. E.

U. Hömmerich, I. K. Jones, E. E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Comparison of the optical properties of diffusion-doped polycrystalline Cr:ZnSe and Cr:CdTe windows,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 450–453 (2006).

Panutin, V.

K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).

Podmar’kov, Yu. P.

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Postnova, L. I.

V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, L. I. Postnova, V. I. Konstantinov, V. P. Mikhailov, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Preparation and properties of bulk ZnSe: Cr single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 198-199, 980–983 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sennaroglu, A.

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, and M. Somer, “Synthesis and characterization of diffusion-doped Cr2+:ZnSe and Fe2+:ZnSe,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 231–240 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shapkin, P. V.

N. N. Il’ichev, P. V. Shapkin, A. S. Nasibov, and S. E. Mosaleva, “Cobalt Diffusion during Doping of ZnSe Single Crystals,” Inorg. Mater. 43(10), 1050–1053 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shevirdyaeva, G.

K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).

Sizmann, R.

R. Sizmann, “The effect of radiation upon diffusion in metals,” J. Nucl. Mater. 69–70, 386–412 (1978).
[Crossref]

Skasyrsky, Ya. K.

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Somer, M.

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, and M. Somer, “Synthesis and characterization of diffusion-doped Cr2+:ZnSe and Fe2+:ZnSe,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 231–240 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tekavec, M.

Trivedi, S. B.

U. Hömmerich, I. K. Jones, E. E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Comparison of the optical properties of diffusion-doped polycrystalline Cr:ZnSe and Cr:CdTe windows,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 450–453 (2006).

Vasilyev, S.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in Mid-IR Lasers Based on Cr and Fe Doped II-VI Chalcogenides,” IEEE J. of Selected Topics in QE 21(1), 1601719 (2015).

Voronov, A. A.

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wagner, F.

H. Wolf, J. Kronenberg, F. Wagner, Th. Wichert, and ISOLDE Collaboration, “Pre-requisites for the formation of unusual diffusion profiles in II–VI semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1405–1408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wichert, Th.

H. Wolf, J. Kronenberg, F. Wagner, Th. Wichert, and ISOLDE Collaboration, “Pre-requisites for the formation of unusual diffusion profiles in II–VI semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1405–1408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wolf, H.

H. Wolf, J. Kronenberg, F. Wagner, Th. Wichert, and ISOLDE Collaboration, “Pre-requisites for the formation of unusual diffusion profiles in II–VI semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1405–1408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yakimovich, V. N.

V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, L. I. Postnova, V. I. Konstantinov, V. P. Mikhailov, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Preparation and properties of bulk ZnSe: Cr single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 198-199, 980–983 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zelmon, D. E.

J.-O. Ndap, K. Chattopadhyay, O. O. Adetunji, D. E. Zelmon, and A. Burger, “Thermal diffusion of Cr2+ in bulk ZnSe,” J. Cryst. Growth 240(1-2), 176–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zvanut, M. E.

K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).

IEEE J. of Selected Topics in QE (1)

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in Mid-IR Lasers Based on Cr and Fe Doped II-VI Chalcogenides,” IEEE J. of Selected Topics in QE 21(1), 1601719 (2015).

Inorg. Mater. (1)

N. N. Il’ichev, P. V. Shapkin, A. S. Nasibov, and S. E. Mosaleva, “Cobalt Diffusion during Doping of ZnSe Single Crystals,” Inorg. Mater. 43(10), 1050–1053 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, L. I. Postnova, V. I. Konstantinov, V. P. Mikhailov, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Preparation and properties of bulk ZnSe: Cr single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 198-199, 980–983 (1999).
[Crossref]

U. Hömmerich, I. K. Jones, E. E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, “Comparison of the optical properties of diffusion-doped polycrystalline Cr:ZnSe and Cr:CdTe windows,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 450–453 (2006).

J.-O. Ndap, K. Chattopadhyay, O. O. Adetunji, D. E. Zelmon, and A. Burger, “Thermal diffusion of Cr2+ in bulk ZnSe,” J. Cryst. Growth 240(1-2), 176–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Nucl. Mater. (1)

R. Sizmann, “The effect of radiation upon diffusion in metals,” J. Nucl. Mater. 69–70, 386–412 (1978).
[Crossref]

Laser and Photonics Review (1)

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ Doped Mid-IR Laser Materials,” (invited review) Laser and Photonics Review 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. (1)

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, and M. Somer, “Synthesis and characterization of diffusion-doped Cr2+:ZnSe and Fe2+:ZnSe,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 231–240 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

OSA TOPS (1)

K. Ghraham, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, M. E. Zvanut, A. Avanesov, V. Badikov, B. Ignatev, V. Panutin, and G. Shevirdyaeva, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Laser Performance of Diffusion Doped Cr2+:ZnS,” OSA TOPS 50, 561–567 (2001).

Phys. Status Solidi B (2)

V. I. Kozlovsky, V. A. Akimov, M. P. Frolov, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, V. P. Martovitsky, V. V. Mislavskii, Yu. P. Podmar’kov, Ya. K. Skasyrsky, and A. A. Voronov, “Room-temperature tunable mid-infrared lasers on transition-metal doped II–VI compound crystals grown from vapor phase,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1553–1556 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Wolf, J. Kronenberg, F. Wagner, Th. Wichert, and ISOLDE Collaboration, “Pre-requisites for the formation of unusual diffusion profiles in II–VI semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1405–1408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, A. Martinez, and S. B. Mirov, “Energy scaling of room temperature Fe2+:ZnSe gain-switched 4.3 μm laser,” Proc. SPIE 7912, 79121C (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

N. Myoung, “Development and Characterization of Thermal Diffusion Doped Fe2+:ZnSe/ZnS Polycrystalline Gain Media for Room Temperature Mid-IR Lasing,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 2011.

T. R. Allen and G. S. Was, Radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. In K. E. Sickafus, E. A. Kotomin, and B. P Uberuage, editors, Radiation Effects in Solids, chapter 6. Springer, 2007.

S. B. Mirov and V. V. Fedorov, “Mid-IR microchip laser: ZnS:Cr2+ laser and saturation absorption material,” US Patent No 6,960,486.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A) Absorption spectrum of Fe:ZnSe crystal measured in the direction of diffusion. Initial absorption spectrum of the Fe:ZnSe crystal (i); curves ii and iii were measured after polished off 86 and 186 μm, respectively; B) The curves iv and v show transmitted power of the laser beams at 2048 nm and 2637 nm, respectively, as a function of distance from the surface. The transmitted power at 2048 serves as a baseline measurement to account for passive losses and Fresnel reflections.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A) Experimental set-up for measurement of the concentration gradient of iron ions. B) Beam waist profile of expanded beam focused by 150mm CaF2 shown as beam diameter as a function of position along the optical axis and a fit of a beam profile with M2 = 2.4.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A) Total optical density of Fe:ZnSe as a function of thickness removed by polishing comparing γ-enhanced (crossed circles) and traditional (triangles) diffusion. B) Normalized optical density as a function of thickness removed by polishing comparing γ-enhanced (crossed circles) and traditional (triangles) diffusion.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A) Optical density as a function of distance from the crystal facet in i) γ-irradiated and ii) non-irradiated Fe:ZnSe as measured by laser scanning method. B) Comparison of gradient profile in iii) γ-irradiated and iv) non-irradiated Fe:ZnSe as measured by laser scan method (points) and fit obtained by polishing method (solid lines)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A) Optical density as a function of distance from the crystal facet for Fe:ZnS annealed with (solid) and without (dashed) γ-irradiation; B.) Normalized gradient of Fe concentration in ZnS annealed under γ-irradiation (solid) and with no irradiation (dashed).

Equations (3)

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C( x,t )= M πDt exp( x 2 4Dt ),
OD( δ )= δ σC( x,t )dx=σM[ 1erf( x 4Dt ) ],
erf( z ) 2 π 0 z exp( ξ 2 )dξ

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