Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrated a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by incorporating a tungsten disulfide (WS2) film SA fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The WS2 film was thickness-dependent, which had two different states: the bulk WS2 [faced to plasma plume] and tiny WS2 flakes [in the shadow of plasma plume]. This SA device demonstrated low insertion loss (IL) and high power tolerance ability. Interestingly, the SA device possessed different nonlinear absorption regimes related with the film states. By employing this new type of SA, we obtained stable fundamental mode-locking (FML) at pump power of 54 mW, and the generated soliton pulse had pulse duration of 675 fs and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 65 dB. At the maximum pump power of 395 mW, we also obtained up to 1 GHz repetition rate of harmonic mode-locking (HML) with pulse duration of 452 fs and SNR of 48 dB. The experimental results show that WS2-PLD film can serve as a promising SA for ultrafast laser systems.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (4)

P. G. Yan, R. Y. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. J. Liu, H. P. Yang, and S. C. Ruan, “Topological Insulator Solution Filled in Photonic Crystal Fiber for Passive Mode-locked Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 27(3), 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhada, S. H. Kassania, T. Nazaria, H. Jeongb, J. Kima, K. Choic, J. U. Leed, J. H. Kimc, H. Cheongd, D. Yeomb, and K. Oha, “Saturable optical absorption in MoS2 nano-sheet optically deposited on the optical fiber facet,” Opt. Commun. 335, 224–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. D. Wang, C. J. Ma, L. Han, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, S. J. Hua, W. D. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. L. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci Rep 5, 7965 (2015), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Yan, R. Y. Lin, S. C. Ruan, A. J. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95 GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23(1), 154–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (18)

F. Bonaccorso and Z. P. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2d crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 63–78 (2014).

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).

N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser with 41 fs pulse duration,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5564–5571 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a Topological Insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength dissipative soliton generation in a graphene oxide mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11417–11426 (2014).
[PubMed]

X. H. Li, Y. G. Wang, Y. S. Wang, W. Zhao, X. C. Yu, Z. P. Sun, X. P. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “Nonlinear absorption of SWNT film and its effects to the operation state of pulsed fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17227–17235 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xia, H. P. Li, C. Y. Lan, C. Li, X. X. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Khazaeizhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, D. I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using a multilayer MoS2 thin film as a saturable absorber in both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23732–23742 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Z. Huang, Z. Q. Luo, Y. Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. J. Che, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Luo, P. F. Zhu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, N. Zhao, M. Liu, H. Cui, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Microfiber-based, highly nonlinear graphene saturable absorber for formation of versatile structural soliton molecules in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27019–27025 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by a Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4079–4083 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, N. Kumar, and H. Zhao, “Transient absorption microscopy of monolayer and bulk WSe2,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2970–2976 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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2013 (12)

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutie’rrez, A. R. B. Me’ndez, N. P. Lo’pez, A. L. Elı’as, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. L. Urı’as, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
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X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci Rep 3, 2718 (2013).
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P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, P. Böttger, X. Zhang, J. Börner, A. Liebig, M. Albrecht, C. Kloc, O. Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Photoluminescence emission and Raman response of monolayer MoS₂, MoSe₂, and WSe₂,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4908–4916 (2013).
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Y. H. Lin, C.-Y. Yang, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, and G.-R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16763–16776 (2013).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Simultaneous mode-locking at 1565 nm and 1944 nm in fiber laser based on common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18994–19002 (2013).
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M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20062–20072 (2013).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. Ch. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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2012 (7)

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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton-similariton fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
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Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, H. Y. Xu, C. C. Ye, and Z. P. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3709–3711 (2010).
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2009 (6)

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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
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H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
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2008 (3)

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced Optical Limiting Effects in Porphyrin-Covalently Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
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D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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2004 (2)

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G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
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D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
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Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, N. Kumar, and H. Zhao, “Transient absorption microscopy of monolayer and bulk WSe2,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2970–2976 (2014).
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A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutie’rrez, A. R. B. Me’ndez, N. P. Lo’pez, A. L. Elı’as, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. L. Urı’as, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
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Chen, S. Q.

Chen, Y.

J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci Rep 4, 6346 (2014).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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Chen, Y. S.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced Optical Limiting Effects in Porphyrin-Covalently Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
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A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutie’rrez, A. R. B. Me’ndez, N. P. Lo’pez, A. L. Elı’as, C. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. L. Urı’as, J. C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
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Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, N. Kumar, and H. Zhao, “Transient absorption microscopy of monolayer and bulk WSe2,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2970–2976 (2014).
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X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci Rep 3, 2718 (2013).
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H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
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Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced Optical Limiting Effects in Porphyrin-Covalently Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci Rep 4, 6346 (2014).
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W. J. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Q. Chu, M. L. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
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M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. H. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast er: fiber laser,” Nano Research. in press., doi:.
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(7), 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. C.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. J.

Zhang, W. D.

D. Mao, Y. D. Wang, C. J. Ma, L. Han, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, S. J. Hua, W. D. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. L. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci Rep 5, 7965 (2015), doi:.
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Zhang, X.

Zhang, X. X.

Zhang, X. Y.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.Y.

K. Wu, X.Y. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J.P. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” arxiv.org/abs/1411.5777(2014) .

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, C. J.

J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci Rep 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
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H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a Topological Insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
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S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. Ch. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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Zhao, H.

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Zhao, J. L.

D. Mao, Y. D. Wang, C. J. Ma, L. Han, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, S. J. Hua, W. D. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. L. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci Rep 5, 7965 (2015), doi:.
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Zhao, J. Q.

Zhao, L. M.

Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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Zhao, N.

Zhao, Q. Z.

K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

Zhao, W. J.

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Zheng, X. W.

Zhong, M.

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Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by a Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4079–4083 (2014).
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Zhu, P. F.

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K. P. Wang, J. Wang, J. T. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Y. Feng, X. Y. Zhang, B. X. Jiang, Q. Z. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, N. Kumar, and H. Zhao, “Transient absorption microscopy of monolayer and bulk WSe2,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2970–2976 (2014).
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W. J. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Q. Chu, M. L. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
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H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(7), 1385–1390 (2012).
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Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced Optical Limiting Effects in Porphyrin-Covalently Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
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Y. Z. Huang, Z. Q. Luo, Y. Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. J. Che, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
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M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
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J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
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Y. H. Lin, C.-Y. Yang, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, and G.-R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16763–16776 (2013).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Simultaneous mode-locking at 1565 nm and 1944 nm in fiber laser based on common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18994–19002 (2013).
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D. Mao, Y. D. Wang, C. J. Ma, L. Han, B. Q. Jiang, X. T. Gan, S. J. Hua, W. D. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. L. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci Rep 5, 7965 (2015), doi:.
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K. Wu, X.Y. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J.P. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” arxiv.org/abs/1411.5777(2014) .

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. H. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast er: fiber laser,” Nano Research. in press., doi:.
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 WS2 target and one of its enlarged region.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM characteristic of the microfiber based WS2 SA. (a) Microfiber waist region; (b) Film thickness at the side that faced to the plasma plume; (c) Film thickness at the opposite side. (d) Film morphology.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 EDS of the WS2-PLD film.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Raman spectrum of bulk WS2, (b) Raman spectra of bare quartz glass and WS2 film on quartz glass.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured linear transmission; (b) Measured saturable absorption curve.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured power tolerance property of the WS2-PLD SA device.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental setup.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 FML performance. (a) Spectrum; (b) RF spectrum; Inset: fundamental repetition frequency measured with a 1 kHz RBW; (c) Recorded pulse train; (d) Measured pulse duration.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 HML performance at the repetition frequency of 1.04 GHz. (a) Spectrum; (b) RF spectrum in full range with a 10 kHz RBW; (c) Measured pulse duration.

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