Abstract

We present the development of Ag/Ge based ohmic contacts to n-type InP with both low contact resistances and relatively low optical losses. A specific contact resistance as low as 1.5×10−6 Ω cm2 is achieved by optimizing the Ge layer thickness and annealing conditions. The use of Ge instead of metal as the first deposited layer results in a low optical absorption loss in the telecommunication wavelength range. Compared to Au based contacts, the Ag based metallization also shows considerably reduced spiking effects after annealing. Contacts with different lengths are deposited on top of InP membrane waveguides to characterize the optical loss before and after annealing. A factor of 5 reduction of the propagation loss compared to the conventional Au/Ge/Ni contact is demonstrated. This allows for much more optimized designs for membrane photonic devices.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 1–13 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, “Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon,” IET Optoelectron.  5(5), 218–225 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. V. Dolores-Calzadilla, D. Heiss, A. Fiore, and M. Smit, “Waveguide-coupled nanolasers in III-V membranes on silicon,” in 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), (2013), paper We.D6.1.
  4. A. G. Baca, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, R. D. Briggs, and S. J. Pearton, “A survey of ohmic contacts to III-V compound semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 599–606 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. G. Ivey, D. Wang, D. Yang, R. Bruce, and G. Knight, “Au/Ge/Ni ohmic contacts to n-type InP,” J. Electron. Mater. 23(5), 441–446 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. D. Rakic, A. B. Djurisic, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5271–5283 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Ou, D. B. Buchholz, F. Yi, B. Liu, C. Hseih, R. P. H. Chang, and S.-T. Ho, “Ohmic contact of cadmium oxide, a transparent conducting oxide, to n-type indium phosphide,” ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 3(4), 1341–1345 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. V.J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. Dolores-Calzadilla, D. Heiss, and M. Smit, “Highly efficient metal grating coupler for membrane-based integrated photonics,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2786–2789 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. W. Zhao, L. Wang, and I. Adesida, “Electrical and structural investigations of Ag-based ohmic contacts for InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 072105 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. S. Marlow and M. B. Das, “The effects of contact size and non-zero metal resistance on the determination of specific contact resistance,” Solid-State Electron.  25(2), 91–94 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Shen, Y. Jiao, L. Augstin, K. Sander, J. van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, G. Roelkens, and M. Smit, “A low-resistance spiking-free n-type ohmic contact for InP membrane devices,” in 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), (2014), pp. 1–2.
  13. Y. Jiao, J. Pello, A. M. Mejia, L. Shen, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, M. Smit, and J. van der Tol, “Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1645–1648 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Photon Design, FIMMWAVE, http://www.photond.com .
  15. A. H. Clark, “Electrical and Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Rev. 154(3), 750–757 (1967).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

2012 (1)

M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 1–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, “Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon,” IET Optoelectron.  5(5), 218–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Ou, D. B. Buchholz, F. Yi, B. Liu, C. Hseih, R. P. H. Chang, and S.-T. Ho, “Ohmic contact of cadmium oxide, a transparent conducting oxide, to n-type indium phosphide,” ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 3(4), 1341–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

V.J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

W. Zhao, L. Wang, and I. Adesida, “Electrical and structural investigations of Ag-based ohmic contacts for InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 072105 (2006).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

A. G. Baca, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, R. D. Briggs, and S. J. Pearton, “A survey of ohmic contacts to III-V compound semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 599–606 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. G. Ivey, D. Wang, D. Yang, R. Bruce, and G. Knight, “Au/Ge/Ni ohmic contacts to n-type InP,” J. Electron. Mater. 23(5), 441–446 (1994).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

G. S. Marlow and M. B. Das, “The effects of contact size and non-zero metal resistance on the determination of specific contact resistance,” Solid-State Electron.  25(2), 91–94 (1982).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

A. H. Clark, “Electrical and Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Rev. 154(3), 750–757 (1967).
[Crossref]

Adesida, I.

W. Zhao, L. Wang, and I. Adesida, “Electrical and structural investigations of Ag-based ohmic contacts for InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 072105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ambrosius, H.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, “Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon,” IET Optoelectron.  5(5), 218–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, Y. Jiao, L. Augstin, K. Sander, J. van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, G. Roelkens, and M. Smit, “A low-resistance spiking-free n-type ohmic contact for InP membrane devices,” in 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), (2014), pp. 1–2.

Augstin, L.

L. Shen, Y. Jiao, L. Augstin, K. Sander, J. van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, G. Roelkens, and M. Smit, “A low-resistance spiking-free n-type ohmic contact for InP membrane devices,” in 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), (2014), pp. 1–2.

Baca, A. G.

A. G. Baca, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, R. D. Briggs, and S. J. Pearton, “A survey of ohmic contacts to III-V compound semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 599–606 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bordas, F.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, “Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon,” IET Optoelectron.  5(5), 218–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R. D.

A. G. Baca, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, R. D. Briggs, and S. J. Pearton, “A survey of ohmic contacts to III-V compound semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 599–606 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bruce, R.

D. G. Ivey, D. Wang, D. Yang, R. Bruce, and G. Knight, “Au/Ge/Ni ohmic contacts to n-type InP,” J. Electron. Mater. 23(5), 441–446 (1994).
[Crossref]

Buchholz, D. B.

F. Ou, D. B. Buchholz, F. Yi, B. Liu, C. Hseih, R. P. H. Chang, and S.-T. Ho, “Ohmic contact of cadmium oxide, a transparent conducting oxide, to n-type indium phosphide,” ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 3(4), 1341–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. P. H.

F. Ou, D. B. Buchholz, F. Yi, B. Liu, C. Hseih, R. P. H. Chang, and S.-T. Ho, “Ohmic contact of cadmium oxide, a transparent conducting oxide, to n-type indium phosphide,” ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 3(4), 1341–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chaturvedi, P.

V.J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Clark, A. H.

A. H. Clark, “Electrical and Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Rev. 154(3), 750–757 (1967).
[Crossref]

Das, M. B.

G. S. Marlow and M. B. Das, “The effects of contact size and non-zero metal resistance on the determination of specific contact resistance,” Solid-State Electron.  25(2), 91–94 (1982).
[Crossref]

Djurisic, A. B.

Dolores-Calzadilla, V.

V. Dolores-Calzadilla, D. Heiss, and M. Smit, “Highly efficient metal grating coupler for membrane-based integrated photonics,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2786–2789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Dolores-Calzadilla, D. Heiss, A. Fiore, and M. Smit, “Waveguide-coupled nanolasers in III-V membranes on silicon,” in 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), (2013), paper We.D6.1.

Elazar, J. M.

Fang, N. X.

V.J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fiore, A.

V. Dolores-Calzadilla, D. Heiss, A. Fiore, and M. Smit, “Waveguide-coupled nanolasers in III-V membranes on silicon,” in 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), (2013), paper We.D6.1.

Geluk, E. J.

Heiss, D.

V. Dolores-Calzadilla, D. Heiss, and M. Smit, “Highly efficient metal grating coupler for membrane-based integrated photonics,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2786–2789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Dolores-Calzadilla, D. Heiss, A. Fiore, and M. Smit, “Waveguide-coupled nanolasers in III-V membranes on silicon,” in 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), (2013), paper We.D6.1.

Hill, M.

M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 1–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ho, S.-T.

F. Ou, D. B. Buchholz, F. Yi, B. Liu, C. Hseih, R. P. H. Chang, and S.-T. Ho, “Ohmic contact of cadmium oxide, a transparent conducting oxide, to n-type indium phosphide,” ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 3(4), 1341–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hseih, C.

F. Ou, D. B. Buchholz, F. Yi, B. Liu, C. Hseih, R. P. H. Chang, and S.-T. Ho, “Ohmic contact of cadmium oxide, a transparent conducting oxide, to n-type indium phosphide,” ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 3(4), 1341–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Islam, M. S.

V.J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivey, D. G.

D. G. Ivey, D. Wang, D. Yang, R. Bruce, and G. Knight, “Au/Ge/Ni ohmic contacts to n-type InP,” J. Electron. Mater. 23(5), 441–446 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jiao, Y.

Y. Jiao, J. Pello, A. M. Mejia, L. Shen, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, M. Smit, and J. van der Tol, “Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1645–1648 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shen, Y. Jiao, L. Augstin, K. Sander, J. van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, G. Roelkens, and M. Smit, “A low-resistance spiking-free n-type ohmic contact for InP membrane devices,” in 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), (2014), pp. 1–2.

Karouta, F.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, “Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon,” IET Optoelectron.  5(5), 218–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

Knight, G.

D. G. Ivey, D. Wang, D. Yang, R. Bruce, and G. Knight, “Au/Ge/Ni ohmic contacts to n-type InP,” J. Electron. Mater. 23(5), 441–446 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, N. P.

V.J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

F. Ou, D. B. Buchholz, F. Yi, B. Liu, C. Hseih, R. P. H. Chang, and S.-T. Ho, “Ohmic contact of cadmium oxide, a transparent conducting oxide, to n-type indium phosphide,” ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 3(4), 1341–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Logeeswaran, V.J.

V.J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Majewski, M. L.

Marlow, G. S.

G. S. Marlow and M. B. Das, “The effects of contact size and non-zero metal resistance on the determination of specific contact resistance,” Solid-State Electron.  25(2), 91–94 (1982).
[Crossref]

Mejia, A. M.

Ou, F.

F. Ou, D. B. Buchholz, F. Yi, B. Liu, C. Hseih, R. P. H. Chang, and S.-T. Ho, “Ohmic contact of cadmium oxide, a transparent conducting oxide, to n-type indium phosphide,” ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 3(4), 1341–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

A. G. Baca, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, R. D. Briggs, and S. J. Pearton, “A survey of ohmic contacts to III-V compound semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 599–606 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pello, J.

Y. Jiao, J. Pello, A. M. Mejia, L. Shen, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, M. Smit, and J. van der Tol, “Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1645–1648 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, “Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon,” IET Optoelectron.  5(5), 218–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rakic, A. D.

Ren, F.

A. G. Baca, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, R. D. Briggs, and S. J. Pearton, “A survey of ohmic contacts to III-V compound semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 599–606 (1997).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, “Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon,” IET Optoelectron.  5(5), 218–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, Y. Jiao, L. Augstin, K. Sander, J. van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, G. Roelkens, and M. Smit, “A low-resistance spiking-free n-type ohmic contact for InP membrane devices,” in 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), (2014), pp. 1–2.

Sander, K.

L. Shen, Y. Jiao, L. Augstin, K. Sander, J. van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, G. Roelkens, and M. Smit, “A low-resistance spiking-free n-type ohmic contact for InP membrane devices,” in 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), (2014), pp. 1–2.

Shen, L.

Y. Jiao, J. Pello, A. M. Mejia, L. Shen, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, M. Smit, and J. van der Tol, “Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1645–1648 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shen, Y. Jiao, L. Augstin, K. Sander, J. van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, G. Roelkens, and M. Smit, “A low-resistance spiking-free n-type ohmic contact for InP membrane devices,” in 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), (2014), pp. 1–2.

Smalbrugge, B.

Smit, M.

Y. Jiao, J. Pello, A. M. Mejia, L. Shen, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, M. Smit, and J. van der Tol, “Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1645–1648 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Dolores-Calzadilla, D. Heiss, and M. Smit, “Highly efficient metal grating coupler for membrane-based integrated photonics,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2786–2789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 1–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, “Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon,” IET Optoelectron.  5(5), 218–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Dolores-Calzadilla, D. Heiss, A. Fiore, and M. Smit, “Waveguide-coupled nanolasers in III-V membranes on silicon,” in 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), (2013), paper We.D6.1.

L. Shen, Y. Jiao, L. Augstin, K. Sander, J. van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, G. Roelkens, and M. Smit, “A low-resistance spiking-free n-type ohmic contact for InP membrane devices,” in 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), (2014), pp. 1–2.

Thijs, P.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, “Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon,” IET Optoelectron.  5(5), 218–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

van der Tol, J.

Y. Jiao, J. Pello, A. M. Mejia, L. Shen, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, M. Smit, and J. van der Tol, “Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1645–1648 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 6(1), 1–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, “Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon,” IET Optoelectron.  5(5), 218–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, Y. Jiao, L. Augstin, K. Sander, J. van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, G. Roelkens, and M. Smit, “A low-resistance spiking-free n-type ohmic contact for InP membrane devices,” in 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), (2014), pp. 1–2.

Wang, D.

D. G. Ivey, D. Wang, D. Yang, R. Bruce, and G. Knight, “Au/Ge/Ni ohmic contacts to n-type InP,” J. Electron. Mater. 23(5), 441–446 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

W. Zhao, L. Wang, and I. Adesida, “Electrical and structural investigations of Ag-based ohmic contacts for InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 072105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. Y.

V.J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Williams, R. S.

V.J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, W.

V.J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

D. G. Ivey, D. Wang, D. Yang, R. Bruce, and G. Knight, “Au/Ge/Ni ohmic contacts to n-type InP,” J. Electron. Mater. 23(5), 441–446 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yi, F.

F. Ou, D. B. Buchholz, F. Yi, B. Liu, C. Hseih, R. P. H. Chang, and S.-T. Ho, “Ohmic contact of cadmium oxide, a transparent conducting oxide, to n-type indium phosphide,” ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 3(4), 1341–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, “Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon,” IET Optoelectron.  5(5), 218–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, L. Wang, and I. Adesida, “Electrical and structural investigations of Ag-based ohmic contacts for InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 072105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zolper, J. C.

A. G. Baca, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, R. D. Briggs, and S. J. Pearton, “A survey of ohmic contacts to III-V compound semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 308–309, 599–606 (1997).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces (1)

F. Ou, D. B. Buchholz, F. Yi, B. Liu, C. Hseih, R. P. H. Chang, and S.-T. Ho, “Ohmic contact of cadmium oxide, a transparent conducting oxide, to n-type indium phosphide,” ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 3(4), 1341–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Zhao, L. Wang, and I. Adesida, “Electrical and structural investigations of Ag-based ohmic contacts for InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 072105 (2006).
[Crossref]

IET Optoelectron (1)

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Photon Design, FIMMWAVE, http://www.photond.com .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Specific contact resistance of Ag/Ge contacts as a function of annealing temperature. Samples with various thicknesses of Ge are shown.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Cross-sectional SEM images of annealed (a) Ag/Ge and (b) Au/Ge/Ni contacts to n-InP. Both are annealed at 400 °C for 15 s.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Image of an array of fabricated membrane WGs. The dark parts at both ends of each WG are the grating couplers (b) Zoom-in image of two contacts on top of the WGs. (c) Cross-section of the WG with contact on top.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Insertion loss of membrane WGs as a function of contact length. Results with different contacts are shown. Dotted lines represent linear fits. (a) Measured before annealing. (b) Measured after annealing at 400 °C for 15 s.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Fitted loss coefficients (dB/μm).

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