Abstract

We report on the growth of Al0.57Ga0.43N/Al0.38Ga0.63N MQWs grown on a relaxed Al0.58Ga0.42N buffer on AlN template by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy. The MQW structure is designed so that the strain in the quantum wells induced by their lattice mismatch with barriers is sufficient to enhance TE polarized emission (E-field ⊥ c). A 630-nm thick relaxed Al0.58Ga0.42N buffer grown on AlN template serves as a pseudo-substrate to release the strain in the barriers and to avoid related defects or composition fluctuation in the active region. Thin (< 2 nm) quantum wells allow preservation of the overlapping of electron and hole wavefunctions considering the strong quantum-confined Stark effect in AlGaN-based MQW structures. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis is used to optimize the growth conditions and to determine the composition of wells and barriers. Optical characterizations of the grown structure reveal a well-defined band-edge emission peak at 285 nm. Based on macro-transmission measurements and simulations, the absorption coefficient of the wells is estimated to be 3 × 105 cm−1 (E-field ⊥ c), attesting that the oscillator strength is preserved for these AlGaN MQWs with high Al content, which is promising for efficient surface-emitting devices in the deep ultra-violet (DUV) region.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2014 (2)

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. V. Ivanov, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, M. A. Yagovkina, N. V. Rzheutskii, E. V. Lutsenko, and V. N. Jmerik, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Al(Ga)N layers and quantum well structures for optically pumped mid-UV lasers on c-Al2O3,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084008 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

V. N. Jmerik, E. V. Lutsenko, and S. V. Ivanov, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of AlGaN heterostructures for deep-ultraviolet optically pumped lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(3), 439–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Holländer, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Murotani, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Silicon concentration dependence of optical polarization in AlGaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021910 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

H. R. Alaei and H. Eshghi, “Theoretical modeling for quantum-confined Stark effect due to internal piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Phys. Lett. A 374(1), 66–69 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, Y. Pei, S. Newman, D. Brown, R. Chung, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Growth of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction field-effect transistors and the observation of a compositional pulling effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171117 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. E. Hawkridge, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Erratic dislocations within funnel defects in AlN templates for AlGaN epitaxial layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171912 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. A. Moram and M. E. Vickers, “X-ray diffraction of III-nitrides,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(3), 036502 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, R. F. Dalmau, P. Lu, and Z. Sitar, “Modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth of AlN layers on native AlN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 022103 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Gautier, C. Sartel, S. Ould-Saad, J. Martin, A. Sirenko, and A. Ougazzaden, “GaN materials growth by MOVPE in a new-design reactor using DMHy and NH3,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 428–432 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, T. Y. Lin, C. F. Shih, K. S. Liu, and N. C. Chen, “Direct evidence of compositional pulling effect in AlxGa1−xN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 290(1), 225–228 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. L. Tsai, C. L. Wang, P. H. Lin, W. T. Liao, and J. R. Gong, “Observation of compositional pulling phenomenon in AlxGa1−xN (0.4<x<1.0) films grown on (0001) sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 31–33 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

N. Binggeli, P. Ferrara, and A. Baldereschi, “Band-offset trends in nitride heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. B 63(24), 245306 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Bogusławski, K. Rapcewicz, and J. J. Bernholc, “Surface segregation and interface stability of AlN/GaN, GaN/InN, and AlN/InN {0001} epitaxial systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(16), 820–826 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. Venezuela, J. Tersoff, J. A. Floro, E. Chason, D. M. Follstaedt, F. Liu, and M. G. Lagally, “Self-organized growth of alloy superlattices,” Lett. to Nat. 397(6721), 678–681 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Macroscopic polarization and band offsets at nitride heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9427–R9430 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. B. Nardelli, K. Rapcewicz, and J. Bernholc, “Strain effects on the interface properties of nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 55(12), R7323–R7326 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

J. Tersoff, “Stress-driven alloy decomposition during step-flow growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(10), 2017–2020 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2553 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “K·P Method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, and J. Schneider, “Determination of the GaN/AlN band offset via the (-/0) acceptor level of iron,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(17), 2211–2213 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

G. B. Stringfellow, “Compositional ordering in semiconductor alloys,” Proc. MRS 312, 35–46 (1993).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

J. J. Hopfield, “Fine structure in the optical absorption edge of anisotropic crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 15(1-2), 97–107 (1960).
[Crossref]

Aggerstam, T.

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alaei, H. R.

H. R. Alaei and H. Eshghi, “Theoretical modeling for quantum-confined Stark effect due to internal piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Phys. Lett. A 374(1), 66–69 (2009).
[Crossref]

Asada, K.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baldereschi, A.

N. Binggeli, P. Ferrara, and A. Baldereschi, “Band-offset trends in nitride heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. B 63(24), 245306 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baur, J.

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, and J. Schneider, “Determination of the GaN/AlN band offset via the (-/0) acceptor level of iron,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(17), 2211–2213 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Macroscopic polarization and band offsets at nitride heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9427–R9430 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bernholc, J.

M. B. Nardelli, K. Rapcewicz, and J. Bernholc, “Strain effects on the interface properties of nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 55(12), R7323–R7326 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bernholc, J. J.

P. Bogusławski, K. Rapcewicz, and J. J. Bernholc, “Surface segregation and interface stability of AlN/GaN, GaN/InN, and AlN/InN {0001} epitaxial systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(16), 820–826 (2000).
[Crossref]

Binggeli, N.

N. Binggeli, P. Ferrara, and A. Baldereschi, “Band-offset trends in nitride heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. B 63(24), 245306 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boguslawski, P.

P. Bogusławski, K. Rapcewicz, and J. J. Bernholc, “Surface segregation and interface stability of AlN/GaN, GaN/InN, and AlN/InN {0001} epitaxial systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(16), 820–826 (2000).
[Crossref]

Botchkarev, A.

G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2553 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brown, D.

Z. Chen, Y. Pei, S. Newman, D. Brown, R. Chung, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Growth of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction field-effect transistors and the observation of a compositional pulling effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171117 (2009).
[Crossref]

Byrne, D.

M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cadoret, F.

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P. Venezuela, J. Tersoff, J. A. Floro, E. Chason, D. M. Follstaedt, F. Liu, and M. G. Lagally, “Self-organized growth of alloy superlattices,” Lett. to Nat. 397(6721), 678–681 (1999).
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B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
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H. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, T. Y. Lin, C. F. Shih, K. S. Liu, and N. C. Chen, “Direct evidence of compositional pulling effect in AlxGa1−xN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 290(1), 225–228 (2006).
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B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
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H. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, T. Y. Lin, C. F. Shih, K. S. Liu, and N. C. Chen, “Direct evidence of compositional pulling effect in AlxGa1−xN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 290(1), 225–228 (2006).
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Z. Chen, Y. Pei, S. Newman, D. Brown, R. Chung, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Growth of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction field-effect transistors and the observation of a compositional pulling effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171117 (2009).
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Choi, S.

M. E. Hawkridge, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Erratic dislocations within funnel defects in AlN templates for AlGaN epitaxial layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171912 (2009).
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H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, R. F. Dalmau, P. Lu, and Z. Sitar, “Modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth of AlN layers on native AlN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 022103 (2008).
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Chua, C.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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Chua, C. L.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “K·P Method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chung, R.

Z. Chen, Y. Pei, S. Newman, D. Brown, R. Chung, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Growth of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction field-effect transistors and the observation of a compositional pulling effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171117 (2009).
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Dahal, R.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
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Dalmasso, S.

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
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Dalmau, R. F.

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, R. F. Dalmau, P. Lu, and Z. Sitar, “Modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth of AlN layers on native AlN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 022103 (2008).
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Damilano, B.

M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

Z. Chen, Y. Pei, S. Newman, D. Brown, R. Chung, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Growth of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction field-effect transistors and the observation of a compositional pulling effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171117 (2009).
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Djebbour, Z.

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dupuis, R. D.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

M. E. Hawkridge, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Erratic dislocations within funnel defects in AlN templates for AlGaN epitaxial layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171912 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, R. F. Dalmau, P. Lu, and Z. Sitar, “Modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth of AlN layers on native AlN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 022103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dussaigne, A.

M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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H. R. Alaei and H. Eshghi, “Theoretical modeling for quantum-confined Stark effect due to internal piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Phys. Lett. A 374(1), 66–69 (2009).
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B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Holländer, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).
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F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Macroscopic polarization and band offsets at nitride heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9427–R9430 (1998).
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Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Floro, J. A.

P. Venezuela, J. Tersoff, J. A. Floro, E. Chason, D. M. Follstaedt, F. Liu, and M. G. Lagally, “Self-organized growth of alloy superlattices,” Lett. to Nat. 397(6721), 678–681 (1999).
[Crossref]

Follstaedt, D. M.

P. Venezuela, J. Tersoff, J. A. Floro, E. Chason, D. M. Follstaedt, F. Liu, and M. G. Lagally, “Self-organized growth of alloy superlattices,” Lett. to Nat. 397(6721), 678–681 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fu, D. Y.

B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fujioka, A.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gautier, S.

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
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S. Gautier, C. Sartel, S. Ould-Saad, J. Martin, A. Sirenko, and A. Ougazzaden, “GaN materials growth by MOVPE in a new-design reactor using DMHy and NH3,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 428–432 (2007).
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M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
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Gong, J. R.

Y. L. Tsai, C. L. Wang, P. H. Lin, W. T. Liao, and J. R. Gong, “Observation of compositional pulling phenomenon in AlxGa1−xN (0.4<x<1.0) films grown on (0001) sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 31–33 (2003).
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M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hawkridge, M. E.

M. E. Hawkridge, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Erratic dislocations within funnel defects in AlN templates for AlGaN epitaxial layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171912 (2009).
[Crossref]

Helin, S.

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Heuken, M.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Holländer, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).
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H. Murotani, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Silicon concentration dependence of optical polarization in AlGaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021910 (2011).
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B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Holländer, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).
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V. N. Jmerik, E. V. Lutsenko, and S. V. Ivanov, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of AlGaN heterostructures for deep-ultraviolet optically pumped lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(3), 439–450 (2013).
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Ji, X. L.

B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
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Jiang, R. L.

B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jmerik, V. N.

S. V. Ivanov, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, M. A. Yagovkina, N. V. Rzheutskii, E. V. Lutsenko, and V. N. Jmerik, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Al(Ga)N layers and quantum well structures for optically pumped mid-UV lasers on c-Al2O3,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084008 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. N. Jmerik, E. V. Lutsenko, and S. V. Ivanov, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of AlGaN heterostructures for deep-ultraviolet optically pumped lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(3), 439–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. M.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kalisch, H.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Holländer, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kao, T.-T.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Kaufmann, U.

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, and J. Schneider, “Determination of the GaN/AlN band offset via the (-/0) acceptor level of iron,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(17), 2211–2213 (1994).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

Z. Chen, Y. Pei, S. Newman, D. Brown, R. Chung, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Growth of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction field-effect transistors and the observation of a compositional pulling effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171117 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

M. E. Hawkridge, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Erratic dislocations within funnel defects in AlN templates for AlGaN epitaxial layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171912 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, R. F. Dalmau, P. Lu, and Z. Sitar, “Modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth of AlN layers on native AlN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 022103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kishikawa, D.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kosugi, T.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kunzer, M.

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, and J. Schneider, “Determination of the GaN/AlN band offset via the (-/0) acceptor level of iron,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(17), 2211–2213 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lagally, M. G.

P. Venezuela, J. Tersoff, J. A. Floro, E. Chason, D. M. Follstaedt, F. Liu, and M. G. Lagally, “Self-organized growth of alloy superlattices,” Lett. to Nat. 397(6721), 678–681 (1999).
[Crossref]

Largeau, L.

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laügt, S.

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Le Louarn, A.

M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leroux, M.

M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Li, X.-H.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Liao, W. T.

Y. L. Tsai, C. L. Wang, P. H. Lin, W. T. Liao, and J. R. Gong, “Observation of compositional pulling phenomenon in AlxGa1−xN (0.4<x<1.0) films grown on (0001) sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 31–33 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liliental-Weber, Z.

M. E. Hawkridge, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Erratic dislocations within funnel defects in AlN templates for AlGaN epitaxial layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171912 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. Y.

H. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, T. Y. Lin, C. F. Shih, K. S. Liu, and N. C. Chen, “Direct evidence of compositional pulling effect in AlxGa1−xN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 290(1), 225–228 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, P. H.

Y. L. Tsai, C. L. Wang, P. H. Lin, W. T. Liao, and J. R. Gong, “Observation of compositional pulling phenomenon in AlxGa1−xN (0.4<x<1.0) films grown on (0001) sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 31–33 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. Y.

H. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, T. Y. Lin, C. F. Shih, K. S. Liu, and N. C. Chen, “Direct evidence of compositional pulling effect in AlxGa1−xN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 290(1), 225–228 (2006).
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Liu, B.

B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
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P. Venezuela, J. Tersoff, J. A. Floro, E. Chason, D. M. Follstaedt, F. Liu, and M. G. Lagally, “Self-organized growth of alloy superlattices,” Lett. to Nat. 397(6721), 678–681 (1999).
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Liu, K.

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, K. S.

H. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, T. Y. Lin, C. F. Shih, K. S. Liu, and N. C. Chen, “Direct evidence of compositional pulling effect in AlxGa1−xN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 290(1), 225–228 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lochner, Z.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Lu, P.

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, R. F. Dalmau, P. Lu, and Z. Sitar, “Modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth of AlN layers on native AlN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 022103 (2008).
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Lutsenko, E. V.

S. V. Ivanov, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, M. A. Yagovkina, N. V. Rzheutskii, E. V. Lutsenko, and V. N. Jmerik, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Al(Ga)N layers and quantum well structures for optically pumped mid-UV lasers on c-Al2O3,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084008 (2014).
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V. N. Jmerik, E. V. Lutsenko, and S. V. Ivanov, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of AlGaN heterostructures for deep-ultraviolet optically pumped lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(3), 439–450 (2013).
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Maier, K.

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, and J. Schneider, “Determination of the GaN/AlN band offset via the (-/0) acceptor level of iron,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(17), 2211–2213 (1994).
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Marcinkevicius, S.

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
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Martin, G.

G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2553 (1996).
[Crossref]

Martin, J.

S. Gautier, C. Sartel, S. Ould-Saad, J. Martin, A. Sirenko, and A. Ougazzaden, “GaN materials growth by MOVPE in a new-design reactor using DMHy and NH3,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 428–432 (2007).
[Crossref]

Massies, J.

M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mauguin, O.

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
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Migan-Dubois, A.

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
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Mishra, U. K.

Z. Chen, Y. Pei, S. Newman, D. Brown, R. Chung, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Growth of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction field-effect transistors and the observation of a compositional pulling effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171117 (2009).
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H. Murotani, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Silicon concentration dependence of optical polarization in AlGaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021910 (2011).
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M. A. Moram and M. E. Vickers, “X-ray diffraction of III-nitrides,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(3), 036502 (2009).
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G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2553 (1996).
[Crossref]

Moudakir, T.

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Murotani, H.

H. Murotani, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Silicon concentration dependence of optical polarization in AlGaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

Z. Chen, Y. Pei, S. Newman, D. Brown, R. Chung, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Growth of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction field-effect transistors and the observation of a compositional pulling effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171117 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nakarmi, M. L.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nam, K. B.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nardelli, M. B.

M. B. Nardelli, K. Rapcewicz, and J. Bernholc, “Strain effects on the interface properties of nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 55(12), R7323–R7326 (1997).
[Crossref]

Natali, F.

M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nechaev, D. V.

S. V. Ivanov, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, M. A. Yagovkina, N. V. Rzheutskii, E. V. Lutsenko, and V. N. Jmerik, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Al(Ga)N layers and quantum well structures for optically pumped mid-UV lasers on c-Al2O3,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nepal, N.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Newman, S.

Z. Chen, Y. Pei, S. Newman, D. Brown, R. Chung, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Growth of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction field-effect transistors and the observation of a compositional pulling effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171117 (2009).
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Northrup, J. E.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
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O’Malley, S. M.

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, T.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ohtsuka, T.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Omnes, F.

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ougazzaden, A.

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Gautier, C. Sartel, S. Ould-Saad, J. Martin, A. Sirenko, and A. Ougazzaden, “GaN materials growth by MOVPE in a new-design reactor using DMHy and NH3,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 428–432 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ould-Saad, S.

S. Gautier, C. Sartel, S. Ould-Saad, J. Martin, A. Sirenko, and A. Ougazzaden, “GaN materials growth by MOVPE in a new-design reactor using DMHy and NH3,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 428–432 (2007).
[Crossref]

Paduano, Q. S.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pantha, B. N.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pantzas, K.

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passerel, M.

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Patriarche, G.

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pei, Y.

Z. Chen, Y. Pei, S. Newman, D. Brown, R. Chung, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Growth of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction field-effect transistors and the observation of a compositional pulling effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171117 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pinos, A.

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ponce, F. A.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Rapcewicz, K.

P. Bogusławski, K. Rapcewicz, and J. J. Bernholc, “Surface segregation and interface stability of AlN/GaN, GaN/InN, and AlN/InN {0001} epitaxial systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(16), 820–826 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. B. Nardelli, K. Rapcewicz, and J. Bernholc, “Strain effects on the interface properties of nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 55(12), R7323–R7326 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ratnikov, V. V.

S. V. Ivanov, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, M. A. Yagovkina, N. V. Rzheutskii, E. V. Lutsenko, and V. N. Jmerik, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Al(Ga)N layers and quantum well structures for optically pumped mid-UV lasers on c-Al2O3,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reuters, B.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Holländer, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).
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Rockett, A.

G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2553 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ryou, J.-H.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

M. E. Hawkridge, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Erratic dislocations within funnel defects in AlN templates for AlGaN epitaxial layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171912 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, R. F. Dalmau, P. Lu, and Z. Sitar, “Modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth of AlN layers on native AlN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 022103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ryu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rzheutskii, N. V.

S. V. Ivanov, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, M. A. Yagovkina, N. V. Rzheutskii, E. V. Lutsenko, and V. N. Jmerik, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Al(Ga)N layers and quantum well structures for optically pumped mid-UV lasers on c-Al2O3,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sartel, C.

S. Gautier, C. Sartel, S. Ould-Saad, J. Martin, A. Sirenko, and A. Ougazzaden, “GaN materials growth by MOVPE in a new-design reactor using DMHy and NH3,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 428–432 (2007).
[Crossref]

Satter, M. M.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Schneider, J.

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, and J. Schneider, “Determination of the GaN/AlN band offset via the (-/0) acceptor level of iron,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(17), 2211–2213 (1994).
[Crossref]

Semond, F.

M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.-C.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Shih, C. F.

H. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, T. Y. Lin, C. F. Shih, K. S. Liu, and N. C. Chen, “Direct evidence of compositional pulling effect in AlxGa1−xN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 290(1), 225–228 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shim, J.-I.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sirenko, A.

S. Gautier, C. Sartel, S. Ould-Saad, J. Martin, A. Sirenko, and A. Ougazzaden, “GaN materials growth by MOVPE in a new-design reactor using DMHy and NH3,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 428–432 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sirenko, A. A.

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sitar, Z.

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, R. F. Dalmau, P. Lu, and Z. Sitar, “Modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth of AlN layers on native AlN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 022103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sitnikova, A. A.

S. V. Ivanov, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, M. A. Yagovkina, N. V. Rzheutskii, E. V. Lutsenko, and V. N. Jmerik, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Al(Ga)N layers and quantum well structures for optically pumped mid-UV lasers on c-Al2O3,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stringfellow, G. B.

G. B. Stringfellow, “Compositional ordering in semiconductor alloys,” Proc. MRS 312, 35–46 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sun, K.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Suresh, S.

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tersoff, J.

P. Venezuela, J. Tersoff, J. A. Floro, E. Chason, D. M. Follstaedt, F. Liu, and M. G. Lagally, “Self-organized growth of alloy superlattices,” Lett. to Nat. 397(6721), 678–681 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Tersoff, “Stress-driven alloy decomposition during step-flow growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(10), 2017–2020 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Touzi, C.

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Troadec, D.

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, Y. L.

Y. L. Tsai, C. L. Wang, P. H. Lin, W. T. Liao, and J. R. Gong, “Observation of compositional pulling phenomenon in AlxGa1−xN (0.4<x<1.0) films grown on (0001) sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 31–33 (2003).
[Crossref]

Venezuela, P.

P. Venezuela, J. Tersoff, J. A. Floro, E. Chason, D. M. Follstaedt, F. Liu, and M. G. Lagally, “Self-organized growth of alloy superlattices,” Lett. to Nat. 397(6721), 678–681 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vescan, A.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Holländer, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vézian, S.

M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vickers, M. E.

M. A. Moram and M. E. Vickers, “X-ray diffraction of III-nitrides,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(3), 036502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vogt, P.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Voss, P. L.

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C. L.

Y. L. Tsai, C. L. Wang, P. H. Lin, W. T. Liao, and J. R. Gong, “Observation of compositional pulling phenomenon in AlxGa1−xN (0.4<x<1.0) films grown on (0001) sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 31–33 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Weyburne, D.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wille, A.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Holländer, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wunderer, T.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z. L.

B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yagovkina, M. A.

S. V. Ivanov, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, M. A. Yagovkina, N. V. Rzheutskii, E. V. Lutsenko, and V. N. Jmerik, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Al(Ga)N layers and quantum well structures for optically pumped mid-UV lasers on c-Al2O3,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamada, Y.

H. Murotani, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Silicon concentration dependence of optical polarization in AlGaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoder, P. D.

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Yoo, D.

M. E. Hawkridge, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Erratic dislocations within funnel defects in AlN templates for AlGaN epitaxial layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171912 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, R. F. Dalmau, P. Lu, and Z. Sitar, “Modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth of AlN layers on native AlN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 022103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J. G.

B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y. D.

B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Murotani, Y. Yamada, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Silicon concentration dependence of optical polarization in AlGaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021910 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, and J. Schneider, “Determination of the GaN/AlN band offset via the (-/0) acceptor level of iron,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(17), 2211–2213 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2553 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, R. F. Dalmau, P. Lu, and Z. Sitar, “Modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth of AlN layers on native AlN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 022103 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. E. Hawkridge, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. J. Kim, S. Choi, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Erratic dislocations within funnel defects in AlN templates for AlGaN epitaxial layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171912 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Tsai, C. L. Wang, P. H. Lin, W. T. Liao, and J. R. Gong, “Observation of compositional pulling phenomenon in AlxGa1−xN (0.4<x<1.0) films grown on (0001) sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 31–33 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, R. Zhang, J. G. Zheng, X. L. Ji, D. Y. Fu, Z. L. Xie, D. J. Chen, P. Chen, R. L. Jiang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Composition pulling effect and strain relief mechanism in AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261916 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, Y. Pei, S. Newman, D. Brown, R. Chung, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Growth of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction field-effect transistors and the observation of a compositional pulling effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171117 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Holländer, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

S. Gautier, C. Sartel, S. Ould-Saad, J. Martin, A. Sirenko, and A. Ougazzaden, “GaN materials growth by MOVPE in a new-design reactor using DMHy and NH3,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 428–432 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, T. Y. Lin, C. F. Shih, K. S. Liu, and N. C. Chen, “Direct evidence of compositional pulling effect in AlxGa1−xN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 290(1), 225–228 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Gautier, T. Aggerstam, A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. Shur, S. M. O’Malley, A. A. Sirenko, Z. Djebbour, A. Migan-Dubois, T. Moudakir, and A. Ougazzaden, “AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by MOVPE on AlN templates using nitrogen as a carrier gas,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4927–4931 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

J. J. Hopfield, “Fine structure in the optical absorption edge of anisotropic crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 15(1-2), 97–107 (1960).
[Crossref]

Lett. to Nat. (1)

P. Venezuela, J. Tersoff, J. A. Floro, E. Chason, D. M. Follstaedt, F. Liu, and M. G. Lagally, “Self-organized growth of alloy superlattices,” Lett. to Nat. 397(6721), 678–681 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

K. Pantzas, G. Patriarche, D. Troadec, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, S. Suresh, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, P. L. Voss, and A. Ougazzaden, “Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 23(45), 455707 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

H. R. Alaei and H. Eshghi, “Theoretical modeling for quantum-confined Stark effect due to internal piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Phys. Lett. A 374(1), 66–69 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (5)

M. B. Nardelli, K. Rapcewicz, and J. Bernholc, “Strain effects on the interface properties of nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 55(12), R7323–R7326 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. Binggeli, P. Ferrara, and A. Baldereschi, “Band-offset trends in nitride heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. B 63(24), 245306 (2001).
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F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Macroscopic polarization and band offsets at nitride heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9427–R9430 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Bogusławski, K. Rapcewicz, and J. J. Bernholc, “Surface segregation and interface stability of AlN/GaN, GaN/InN, and AlN/InN {0001} epitaxial systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(16), 820–826 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “K·P Method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Tersoff, “Stress-driven alloy decomposition during step-flow growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(10), 2017–2020 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

V. N. Jmerik, E. V. Lutsenko, and S. V. Ivanov, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of AlGaN heterostructures for deep-ultraviolet optically pumped lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(3), 439–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Lochner, X.-H. Li, T.-T. Kao, M. M. Satter, H. J. Kim, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, K. Sun, Y. Wei, T. Li, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Stimulated emission at 257 nm from optically-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(9), 1768–1770 (2013).

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

M. Leroux, S. Dalmasso, F. Natali, S. Helin, C. Touzi, S. Laügt, M. Passerel, F. Omnes, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Optical characterization of AlxGa1-xN alloys (x<0.7) grown on sapphire or silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), 887–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. MRS (1)

G. B. Stringfellow, “Compositional ordering in semiconductor alloys,” Proc. MRS 312, 35–46 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

M. A. Moram and M. E. Vickers, “X-ray diffraction of III-nitrides,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(3), 036502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

A. Fujioka, K. Asada, H. Yamada, T. Ohtsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Kosugi, D. Kishikawa, and T. Mukai, “High-output-power 255/280/310 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and their lifetime characteristics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084005 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. V. Ivanov, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, M. A. Yagovkina, N. V. Rzheutskii, E. V. Lutsenko, and V. N. Jmerik, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Al(Ga)N layers and quantum well structures for optically pumped mid-UV lasers on c-Al2O3,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

M. Leroux, F. Semond, F. Natali, D. Byrne, F. Cadoret, B. Damilano, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, A. Le Louarn, S. Vézian, and J. Massies, “About some optical properties of AlxGa1−xN /GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Superlattices Microstruct. 36(4-6), 659–674 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

G. Rakotonanahary, “Spectroscopie des transitions excitoniques dans des puits quantiques GaN/AlGaN,” thèse de doctorat (PhD) en Physique de l'université Blaise-Pascal-Clermont-Ferrand II, 159 p (2011).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Relative oscillator strengths for the optical transitions between the valence bands (Γ7 (CH) and Γ9 (HH)) and conduction band (CB) in an AlGaN/AlGaN quantum well as a function of the Al composition in the barriers, with Al content in the well fixed to xAl = 0.37. The corresponding strain in the well is also reported in the top axis. Calculations consider that the barriers are strain-free and QWs are fully-strained on AlGaN barriers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Design of the AlGaN/AlGaN MQW structure grown on a relaxed AlGaN buffer on AlN template for emission wavelength at 280 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Al composition of AlGaN layers fully-strained on AlN templates plotted as a function of TMAl/(TMAl + TMGa) ratio. The inset shows the growth rate versus total flow rate of (TMAl + TMGa).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (1 1 −2 4) Reciprocal Mapping for the (a): 29-nm thick AlGaN fully strained on AlN template and (b): 350-nm AlGaN layer with 55% relaxation on AlN template. Both samples are grown under a fixed TMAl/III ratio of 57%.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Al content in the AlGaN single layers plotted as a function of (a) layer thickness, and (b) corresponding layer relaxation for three different TMAl/(TMAl + TMGa) ratios.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) (0 0 0 2) 2θ-ω scan of the 630-nm relaxed Al0.58Ga0.42N layer. Inset shows (0 0 0 2) rocking curves of AlN template and AlGaN layer; (b) skew symmetric scans to separate tilt angle and twist angle.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (0 0 0 2) 2θ-ω scan for 4 quantum wells grown on a relaxed buffer on AlN template and the simulation of the structure which used values obtained by XRD, STEM and EDX analysis. The RSM of (1 1 −2 4) reflection is shown in the inset.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Cross-section High-angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images taken along the <1 1 −2 0> zone axis for MQWs and buffer layer; (b) High magnification of HAADF-STEM images; (c) Al composition map obtained from (b).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra at 77 K (and at 300 K in the inset) for two different values of excitation power; (b) Photoluminescence (PL) at 77 K and 300 K under excitation of 266 nm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Macro-transmission measurements and transfer-matrix simulation of MQWs together with absorption coefficients (αwell, αbarrier, buffer) used in the simulation.

Equations (4)

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β 2 =( β twist 2 β tilt 2 ) sin 2 χ+ β tilt 2
N screw = β tilt 2 /(4.35× b c 2 ) N edge = β twist 2 /(4.35× b a 2 )
I(M)=d(M)×K× i x i Z i α
I x (M) d x (M) = K 2 × Z Ga α [a(α)b(α)×x]

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