Abstract

A-plane GaN epilayers doped with erbium (GaN:Er) have been grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The 1.54 µm emission properties were probed by photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy and compared with those of c-plane GaN:Er. It was found that the emission intensity from a-plane GaN:Er is 4 times higher than that of c-plane GaN:Er. The intensity of the 1.54 µm emission was found to increase with increasing Er molar flux. A-plane Er-doped GaN epilayers exhibit a small thermal quenching effect, with only a 12% decrease in the integrated intensity of the 1.54 µm PL emission, occurred between 10 and 300 K.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992–994 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. R. Brown, A. F. J. Cox, W. A. Shand, and J. M. Williams, “The spectroscopy of rare earth doped chalcogenides,” Advances in Quantum Electronics 2, 69–155 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, C. H. Qiu, and F. Namavar, “Electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen coimplanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2098–2100 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compound Semiconductor 6(1), 48–52 (2000).
  6. J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943–945 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. J. Neuhalfen and B. W. Wessels, “Thermal quenching of Er3+‐related luminescence in In1−xGaxP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(21), 2657–2659 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. M. Zavada and D. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of erbium in III–V compound semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 38(7), 1285–1293 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  11. U. Hömmerich, J. T. Seo, M. Thaik, C. R. Abernathy, J. D. MacKenzie, and J. M. Zavada, “Near infrared (1.54 μm) luminescence properties of erbium doped gallium nitride,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303–304, 331–335 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. M. Zavada, M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, and R. G. Wilson, “Luminescence characteristics of Er-doped GaN semiconductor thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301, 207–213 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182–184 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Selective enhancement of 1540 nm Er3+ emission centers in Er-implanted GaN by Mg codoping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(17), 2403–2405 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, A. J. Steckl, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, A. Braud, and J. M. Zavada, “Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 719–721 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 µm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051110 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  21. I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2010 (1)

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 µm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051110 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, A. J. Steckl, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, A. Braud, and J. M. Zavada, “Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 719–721 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Selective enhancement of 1540 nm Er3+ emission centers in Er-implanted GaN by Mg codoping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(17), 2403–2405 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, and R. G. Wilson, “Luminescence characteristics of Er-doped GaN semiconductor thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301, 207–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

U. Hömmerich, J. T. Seo, M. Thaik, C. R. Abernathy, J. D. MacKenzie, and J. M. Zavada, “Near infrared (1.54 μm) luminescence properties of erbium doped gallium nitride,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303–304, 331–335 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compound Semiconductor 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182–184 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, C. H. Qiu, and F. Namavar, “Electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen coimplanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2098–2100 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. M. Zavada and D. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of erbium in III–V compound semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 38(7), 1285–1293 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992–994 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. J. Neuhalfen and B. W. Wessels, “Thermal quenching of Er3+‐related luminescence in In1−xGaxP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(21), 2657–2659 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

M. R. Brown, A. F. J. Cox, W. A. Shand, and J. M. Williams, “The spectroscopy of rare earth doped chalcogenides,” Advances in Quantum Electronics 2, 69–155 (1974).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, C. R.

U. Hömmerich, J. T. Seo, M. Thaik, C. R. Abernathy, J. D. MacKenzie, and J. M. Zavada, “Near infrared (1.54 μm) luminescence properties of erbium doped gallium nitride,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303–304, 331–335 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, and R. G. Wilson, “Luminescence characteristics of Er-doped GaN semiconductor thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301, 207–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992–994 (1994).
[Crossref]

Axmann, A.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[Crossref]

Birkhahn, R.

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compound Semiconductor 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182–184 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bishop, S. G.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Selective enhancement of 1540 nm Er3+ emission centers in Er-implanted GaN by Mg codoping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(17), 2403–2405 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Braud, A.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, A. J. Steckl, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, A. Braud, and J. M. Zavada, “Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 719–721 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brown, M. R.

M. R. Brown, A. F. J. Cox, W. A. Shand, and J. M. Williams, “The spectroscopy of rare earth doped chalcogenides,” Advances in Quantum Electronics 2, 69–155 (1974).
[Crossref]

Chow, P.

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. J.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Selective enhancement of 1540 nm Er3+ emission centers in Er-implanted GaN by Mg codoping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(17), 2403–2405 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cox, A. F. J.

M. R. Brown, A. F. J. Cox, W. A. Shand, and J. M. Williams, “The spectroscopy of rare earth doped chalcogenides,” Advances in Quantum Electronics 2, 69–155 (1974).
[Crossref]

Cruz, S. C.

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ennen, H.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[Crossref]

Favennec, P. N.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Feng, I. W.

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feuerstein, R. J.

J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, C. H. Qiu, and F. Namavar, “Electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen coimplanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2098–2100 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fu, T.

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992–994 (1994).
[Crossref]

Garter, M.

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compound Semiconductor 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182–184 (1999).
[Crossref]

Heikenfeld, J.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, A. J. Steckl, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, A. Braud, and J. M. Zavada, “Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 719–721 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compound Semiconductor 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

Hertog, B.

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hommerich, U.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, A. J. Steckl, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, A. Braud, and J. M. Zavada, “Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 719–721 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, and R. G. Wilson, “Luminescence characteristics of Er-doped GaN semiconductor thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301, 207–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hömmerich, U.

U. Hömmerich, J. T. Seo, M. Thaik, C. R. Abernathy, J. D. MacKenzie, and J. M. Zavada, “Near infrared (1.54 μm) luminescence properties of erbium doped gallium nitride,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303–304, 331–335 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 µm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jin, S. X.

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Selective enhancement of 1540 nm Er3+ emission centers in Er-implanted GaN by Mg codoping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(17), 2403–2405 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Klein, P. B.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Selective enhancement of 1540 nm Er3+ emission centers in Er-implanted GaN by Mg codoping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(17), 2403–2405 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

L’Halidon, H.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Le Guillou, Y.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. S.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, A. J. Steckl, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, A. Braud, and J. M. Zavada, “Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 719–721 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compound Semiconductor 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

Li, J.

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Selective enhancement of 1540 nm Er3+ emission centers in Er-implanted GaN by Mg codoping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(17), 2403–2405 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 µm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

MacKenzie, J. D.

J. M. Zavada, M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, and R. G. Wilson, “Luminescence characteristics of Er-doped GaN semiconductor thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301, 207–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

U. Hömmerich, J. T. Seo, M. Thaik, C. R. Abernathy, J. D. MacKenzie, and J. M. Zavada, “Near infrared (1.54 μm) luminescence properties of erbium doped gallium nitride,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303–304, 331–335 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mates, T. E.

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moutonnet, D.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Namavar, F.

J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, C. H. Qiu, and F. Namavar, “Electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen coimplanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2098–2100 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nepal, N.

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 µm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

Neuhalfen, A. J.

A. J. Neuhalfen and B. W. Wessels, “Thermal quenching of Er3+‐related luminescence in In1−xGaxP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(21), 2657–2659 (1992).
[Crossref]

Newman, N.

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992–994 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pankove, J. I.

J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, C. H. Qiu, and F. Namavar, “Electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen coimplanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2098–2100 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

J. M. Zavada, M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, and R. G. Wilson, “Luminescence characteristics of Er-doped GaN semiconductor thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301, 207–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992–994 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pomrenke, G.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C. H.

J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, C. H. Qiu, and F. Namavar, “Electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen coimplanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2098–2100 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rhee, S. J.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Selective enhancement of 1540 nm Er3+ emission centers in Er-implanted GaN by Mg codoping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(17), 2403–2405 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rubin, M.

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992–994 (1994).
[Crossref]

Salvi, M.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Schneider, J.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, R. N.

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992–994 (1994).
[Crossref]

Scofield, J.

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182–184 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sedhain, A.

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seo, J. T.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, A. J. Steckl, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, A. Braud, and J. M. Zavada, “Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 719–721 (2001).
[Crossref]

U. Hömmerich, J. T. Seo, M. Thaik, C. R. Abernathy, J. D. MacKenzie, and J. M. Zavada, “Near infrared (1.54 μm) luminescence properties of erbium doped gallium nitride,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303–304, 331–335 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shand, W. A.

M. R. Brown, A. F. J. Cox, W. A. Shand, and J. M. Williams, “The spectroscopy of rare earth doped chalcogenides,” Advances in Quantum Electronics 2, 69–155 (1974).
[Crossref]

Steckl, A. J.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, A. J. Steckl, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, A. Braud, and J. M. Zavada, “Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 719–721 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compound Semiconductor 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182–184 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thaik, M.

J. M. Zavada, M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, and R. G. Wilson, “Luminescence characteristics of Er-doped GaN semiconductor thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301, 207–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

U. Hömmerich, J. T. Seo, M. Thaik, C. R. Abernathy, J. D. MacKenzie, and J. M. Zavada, “Near infrared (1.54 μm) luminescence properties of erbium doped gallium nitride,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303–304, 331–335 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
[Crossref]

Torvik, J. T.

J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, C. H. Qiu, and F. Namavar, “Electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen coimplanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2098–2100 (1996).
[Crossref]

Turnbull, D. A.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ugolini, C.

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 µm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wessels, B. W.

A. J. Neuhalfen and B. W. Wessels, “Thermal quenching of Er3+‐related luminescence in In1−xGaxP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(21), 2657–2659 (1992).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. M.

M. R. Brown, A. F. J. Cox, W. A. Shand, and J. M. Williams, “The spectroscopy of rare earth doped chalcogenides,” Advances in Quantum Electronics 2, 69–155 (1974).
[Crossref]

Wilson, R. G.

J. M. Zavada, M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, and R. G. Wilson, “Luminescence characteristics of Er-doped GaN semiconductor thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301, 207–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992–994 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J.

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J. M.

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 µm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, A. J. Steckl, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, A. Braud, and J. M. Zavada, “Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 719–721 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, and R. G. Wilson, “Luminescence characteristics of Er-doped GaN semiconductor thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301, 207–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

U. Hömmerich, J. T. Seo, M. Thaik, C. R. Abernathy, J. D. MacKenzie, and J. M. Zavada, “Near infrared (1.54 μm) luminescence properties of erbium doped gallium nitride,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303–304, 331–335 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada and D. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of erbium in III–V compound semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 38(7), 1285–1293 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992–994 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

J. M. Zavada and D. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of erbium in III–V compound semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 38(7), 1285–1293 (1995).
[Crossref]

Advances in Quantum Electronics (1)

M. R. Brown, A. F. J. Cox, W. A. Shand, and J. M. Williams, “The spectroscopy of rare earth doped chalcogenides,” Advances in Quantum Electronics 2, 69–155 (1974).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

J. T. Torvik, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, C. H. Qiu, and F. Namavar, “Electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen coimplanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2098–2100 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. G. Wilson, R. N. Schwartz, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, N. Newman, M. Rubin, T. Fu, and J. M. Zavada, “1.54‐μm photoluminescence from Er‐implanted GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 992–994 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of erbium implanted gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2641–2643 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, S. X. Jin, N. Nepal, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, P. Chow, and B. Hertog, “Electroluminescent properties of erbium-doped III–N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1061–1063 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54‐μm luminescence of erbium‐implanted III‐V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. J. Neuhalfen and B. W. Wessels, “Thermal quenching of Er3+‐related luminescence in In1−xGaxP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(21), 2657–2659 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Garter, J. Scofield, R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, “Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from indium tin oxide Schottky diodes to GaN:Er on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 182–184 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Selective enhancement of 1540 nm Er3+ emission centers in Er-implanted GaN by Mg codoping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(17), 2403–2405 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, A. J. Steckl, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, A. Braud, and J. M. Zavada, “Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 719–721 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN epilayers synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151903 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Ugolini, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Excitation dynamics of the 1.54 µm emission in Er doped GaN synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051110 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of GaN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2710–2712 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, D. A. Turnbull, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, S. G. Bishop, and P. B. Klein, “Trap-mediated excitation of Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2662–2664 (1997).
[Crossref]

I. W. Feng, J. Li, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Compound Semiconductor (1)

A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and D. S. Lee, “Rare earth doped gallium nitride — light emission from ultraviolet to infrared,” Compound Semiconductor 6(1), 48–52 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Halidon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Alloy. Comp. (2)

U. Hömmerich, J. T. Seo, M. Thaik, C. R. Abernathy, J. D. MacKenzie, and J. M. Zavada, “Near infrared (1.54 μm) luminescence properties of erbium doped gallium nitride,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303–304, 331–335 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada, M. Thaik, U. Hommerich, J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, and R. G. Wilson, “Luminescence characteristics of Er-doped GaN semiconductor thin films,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301, 207–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

S. C. Cruz, S. Keller, T. E. Mates, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Crystallographic orientation dependence of dopant and impurity incorporation in GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(15), 3817–3823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

J. M. Zavada and D. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of erbium in III–V compound semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 38(7), 1285–1293 (1995).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 X-ray diffraction θ-2θ scan of a-plane Er doped GaN epilayer grown on r-plane sapphire substrate. Inset: Schematic layer structure of a-plane Er doped GaN epilayer (GaN:Er).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of room temperature (300 K) Er-related PL spectra near1.54 µm between a-plane and c-plane Er doped GaN epilayers. The excitation wavelength used was 375 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Room temperature PL spectra of a-plane Er doped GaN epilayers showing the variation in the emission intensity of the Er related emission at 1.54 µm with the Er molar flux employed during the growth. The excitation wavelength used was 375 nm. Inset: The PL intensity at 1.54 µm as a function of Er molar flux.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 PL spectra of the 1.54 µm emission of a-plane Er doped GaN measured at different temperatures from 10 to 400 K. The excitation wavelength used was 195 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Integrated PL emission intensity of the 1.54 µm emission of a-plane Er doped GaN vs sample temperature. Inset: Arrhenius plot of the integrated PL intensity of the 1.54 µm emission. The solid line in the plot is the least squares fit of the measured data to Eq. (1). The excitation wavelength used was 195 nm.

Equations (1)

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I int (T)= I 0 [ 1+C e ( E 0 kT ) ] 1

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