Abstract

We report a high birefringence terphenyl liquid crystal mixture, designated as M3, for infrared phase modulation with special emphasis on mid-wave infrared (MWIR). In addition to high birefringence, M3 exhibits excellent UV stability, modest dielectric anisotropy, and a very broad nematic range. The high birefringence enables a thin cell gap to be used for achieving a 2π phase change while maintaining a high transmittance (T>98%) in the MWIR region. To achieve fast response time, we employed a polymer network liquid crystal using M3 with phase change at λ = 4μm and 3.6-ms response time. This response time is about 100X faster than that of a nematic LC phase modulator.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023305 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Peng, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, S. Tripathi, and R. J. Twieg, “Low loss liquid crystals for infrared applications,” Liq. Cryst. 41(11), 1545–1552 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Dąbrowski, P. Kula, and J. Herman, “High birefringence liquid crystals,” Crystals 3(3), 443–482 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, H. Xianyu, J. Sun, P. Kula, R. Dabrowski, S. Tripathi, R. J. Twieg, and S.-T. Wu, “Low absorption liquid crystals for mid-wave infrared applications,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10843–10848 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Hird, “Fluorinated liquid crystals - properties and applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 36(12), 2070–2095 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, S. Fang, A. A. Zakhidov, S. B. Lee, A. E. Aliev, C. D. Williams, K. R. Atkinson, and R. H. Baughman, “Strong, transparent, multifunctional, carbon nanotube sheets,” Science 309(5738), 1215–1219 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y.-H. Fan, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S.-T. Wu, Q.-H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Schadt, “Liquid crystal materials and liquid crystal displays,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 305–379 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. Schadt, “Field-effect liquid-crystal displays and liquid-crystal materials: key technologies of the 1990s,” Displays 13(1), 11–34 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S.-T. Wu, D. Coates, and E. Bartmann, “Physical properties of chlorinated liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 10(5), 635–646 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

S.-T. Wu, “Infrared markers for determining the order parameters of uniaxial liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 26(16), 3434–3440 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-T. Wu, “Infrared properties of nematic liquid crystals: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 26(2), 120–128 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

S.-T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

H. Kneppe, F. Schneider, and N. K. Sharma, “Rotational viscosity γ1 of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 77(6), 3203–3208 (1982).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

G. W. Gray and A. Mosley, “The synthesis of deuteriated 4-n-alkyl-4′-cyanobiphenyls,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 48(3–4), 233–242 (1978).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

I. Haller, “Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103–118 (1975).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Transverse field effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(4), 165–166 (1973).
[Crossref]

1971 (2)

M. F. Schiekel and K. Fahrenschon, “Deformation of nematic liquid crystals with vertical orientation in electrical fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(10), 391–393 (1971).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

I. H. Malitson, “Refractive properties of barium fluoride,” JOSA 54(5), 628–630 (1964).
[Crossref]

Aliev, A. E.

M. Zhang, S. Fang, A. A. Zakhidov, S. B. Lee, A. E. Aliev, C. D. Williams, K. R. Atkinson, and R. H. Baughman, “Strong, transparent, multifunctional, carbon nanotube sheets,” Science 309(5738), 1215–1219 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, K. R.

M. Zhang, S. Fang, A. A. Zakhidov, S. B. Lee, A. E. Aliev, C. D. Williams, K. R. Atkinson, and R. H. Baughman, “Strong, transparent, multifunctional, carbon nanotube sheets,” Science 309(5738), 1215–1219 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartmann, E.

S.-T. Wu, D. Coates, and E. Bartmann, “Physical properties of chlorinated liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 10(5), 635–646 (1991).
[Crossref]

Baughman, R. H.

M. Zhang, S. Fang, A. A. Zakhidov, S. B. Lee, A. E. Aliev, C. D. Williams, K. R. Atkinson, and R. H. Baughman, “Strong, transparent, multifunctional, carbon nanotube sheets,” Science 309(5738), 1215–1219 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brugioni, S.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Peng, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, S. Tripathi, and R. J. Twieg, “Low loss liquid crystals for infrared applications,” Liq. Cryst. 41(11), 1545–1552 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Xianyu, J. Sun, P. Kula, R. Dabrowski, S. Tripathi, R. J. Twieg, and S.-T. Wu, “Low absorption liquid crystals for mid-wave infrared applications,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10843–10848 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Coates, D.

S.-T. Wu, D. Coates, and E. Bartmann, “Physical properties of chlorinated liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 10(5), 635–646 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dabrowski, R.

Efron, U.

Faetti, S.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fahrenschon, K.

M. F. Schiekel and K. Fahrenschon, “Deformation of nematic liquid crystals with vertical orientation in electrical fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(10), 391–393 (1971).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Fan, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fang, S.

M. Zhang, S. Fang, A. A. Zakhidov, S. B. Lee, A. E. Aliev, C. D. Williams, K. R. Atkinson, and R. H. Baughman, “Strong, transparent, multifunctional, carbon nanotube sheets,” Science 309(5738), 1215–1219 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

Y.-H. Fan, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gray, G. W.

G. W. Gray and A. Mosley, “The synthesis of deuteriated 4-n-alkyl-4′-cyanobiphenyls,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 48(3–4), 233–242 (1978).
[Crossref]

Haller, I.

I. Haller, “Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103–118 (1975).
[Crossref]

Haseba, Y.

J. Sun, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023305 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hecht, D. S.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helfrich, W.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

Herman, J.

R. Dąbrowski, P. Kula, and J. Herman, “High birefringence liquid crystals,” Crystals 3(3), 443–482 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hird, M.

M. Hird, “Fluorinated liquid crystals - properties and applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 36(12), 2070–2095 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, T.-Y.

Hu, L.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Irvin, G.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, B.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kempe, M. D.

S.-T. Wu, Q.-H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kneppe, H.

H. Kneppe, F. Schneider, and N. K. Sharma, “Rotational viscosity γ1 of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 77(6), 3203–3208 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kornfield, J. A.

S.-T. Wu, Q.-H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kula, P.

Lackner, A. M.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. B.

M. Zhang, S. Fang, A. A. Zakhidov, S. B. Lee, A. E. Aliev, C. D. Williams, K. R. Atkinson, and R. H. Baughman, “Strong, transparent, multifunctional, carbon nanotube sheets,” Science 309(5738), 1215–1219 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lim, K. C.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Fan, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

X. Lin, J. Wu, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. Jin, and Y. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Malitson, I. H.

I. H. Malitson, “Refractive properties of barium fluoride,” JOSA 54(5), 628–630 (1964).
[Crossref]

Margerum, J. D.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

Meucci, R.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mosley, A.

G. W. Gray and A. Mosley, “The synthesis of deuteriated 4-n-alkyl-4′-cyanobiphenyls,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 48(3–4), 233–242 (1978).
[Crossref]

Peng, F.

F. Peng, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, S. Tripathi, and R. J. Twieg, “Low loss liquid crystals for infrared applications,” Liq. Cryst. 41(11), 1545–1552 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

Y.-H. Fan, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, “Liquid crystal materials and liquid crystal displays,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 305–379 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, “Field-effect liquid-crystal displays and liquid-crystal materials: key technologies of the 1990s,” Displays 13(1), 11–34 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

Schiekel, M. F.

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J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
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F. Peng, Y. Chen, S.-T. Wu, S. Tripathi, and R. J. Twieg, “Low loss liquid crystals for infrared applications,” Liq. Cryst. 41(11), 1545–1552 (2014).
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F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
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J. Sun, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023305 (2014).
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Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
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J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
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J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
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J. Sun, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023305 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Fan, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
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[Crossref]

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Kneppe, F. Schneider, and N. K. Sharma, “Rotational viscosity γ1 of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 77(6), 3203–3208 (1982).
[Crossref]

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Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

F. Peng, Y. Chen, J. Yuan, H. Chen, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with large dielectric anisotropy,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3597–3601 (2014).
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J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
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B. Mistry, A Handbook of Spectroscopic Data Chemistry: UV, IR, PMR, CNMR and Mass Spectroscopy (Oxford Book Company, Jaipur, India, 2009).

D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).

E. Lueder, Liquid Crystal Displays: Addressing Schemes and Electro-optical Effects (John Wiley & Sons, 2010).

U. Efron, Spatial Light Modulator Technology: Materials, Devices, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994).

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, Introduction to Adaptive Lenses (Wiley, 2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Temperature dependent birefringence of M3 at λ = 633nm: the circles are measured data and the red line is a fitting curve with Eq. (2).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Birefringence dispersion of M3 at room temperature: circles are measured data and solid line is fitting with Eq. (3).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured transmittance spectrum of M3 in the MWIR region with cell gap d = 24μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Temperature dependent visco-elastic coefficients of M3: circles are measured data and red line is fitting with Eq. (6). λ = 633nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The voltage-dependence phase change curves of PNLC sample in a reflective mode at λ = 1.55μm and λ = 4μm, respectively. Cell gap d = 11.8 μm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Chemical structures and phase transition temperatures of the seven terphenyl compounds employed. Tmp represents melting point and Tc clearing point.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Operation voltage and decay time of three PNLCs at λ = 4μm and RT.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ=2πdΔn/λ.
Δ n = Δ n 0 ( 1 T / T c ) β ,
Δ n = G λ 2 λ * 2 λ 2 λ * 2 ,
δ ( t ) = δ 0 exp ( 2 t / τ 0 ) ,
τ 0 = γ 1 d 2 / ( K 11 π 2 ) ,
γ 1 K 11 = A exp ( E a / k B T ) ( 1 T / T c ) β ,
V 2π ~ d d 1 K 11 ε 0 Δε ,

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