Abstract

Five triturating nano-scale carbon materials based saturable absorbers are compared for passively mode-locked high-gain erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs), including few-layer graphene nano-sheets, graphite, graphene oxide, carbon black and charcoal nano-particles. Nonlinear transmittance analyses show that these nano-scale carbon powders with saturation intensity increased from 0.8 to 6.1 MW/cm2 can reduce their modulation depth (MD) from 60% (few-layer graphene) to 23% (charcoal nano-powder). Except few-layer graphene, other carbon materials exhibit Raman scattering spectra with enlarged D-peaks and attenuated 2D-peaks. Even with the nonlinear absorbance slightly decreased from 5.4 × 10−2 (few-layer graphene) to 3.7 × 10−2 (charcoal), these carbon material powders still start the mode-locking of the EDFLs with <500-fs pulsewidth at L-band. The effect of saturable absorber induced self-amplitude modulation (SAM) becomes weakened, whereas the intense self-phase modulation (SPM) dominates the pulse shortening force afterwards. These observations elucidate that the carbon based saturable absorber plays a role like the mode-locking initiator and stabilizer instead of serving as a strong pulse compressor.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 51–56 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Single- and double-walled carbon nanotube based saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045105 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Xing, H. Guo, X. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. A. Huan, “The Physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4564–4573 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283(17), 3334–3338 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Chirped pulse amplification of a femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035104 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261109 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. Kim, J. Cho, S.-Y. Jang, and Y.-W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  29. P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. Z. B. Liu, X. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3024–3026 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene oxide vs. reduced graphene oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. J. Xu, S. Wu, H. Li, J. Liu, R. Sun, F. Tan, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Dissipative soliton generation from a graphene oxide mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23653–23658 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  35. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  36. Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  37. M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “10 GHz fundamental mode fiber laser using a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041118 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  39. W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  40. J.-L. Xu, X.-L. Li, J.-L. He, X.-P. Hao, Y.-Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K.-J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261107 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  41. W. B. Cho, J. W. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, S. Y. Choi, I. H. Baek, K. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “High-quality, large-area monolayer graphene for efficient bulk laser mode-locking near 1.25 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4089–4091 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  43. M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. G.-R. Lin and Y.-C. Lin, “Directly exfoliated and imprinted graphite nano-particle saturable absorber for passive mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(12), 880–886 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  45. Y. H. Lin and G.-R. Lin, “Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 398–404 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  46. Y. H. Lin and G.-R. Lin, “Kelly sideband variation and self four-wave-mixing in femtosecond fiber soliton laser mode-locked by multiple exfoliated graphite nano-particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045109 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  47. Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055105 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  48. C.-Y. Su, A.-Y. Lu, Y. P. Xu, F.-R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, and L.-J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  50. A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  51. D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 238–242 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  52. S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  53. T. Jawhari, A. Roid, and J. Casado, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of some commercially available carbon black materials,” Carbon 33(11), 1561–1565 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  54. G. Sun, X. Li, Y. Qu, X. Wang, H. Yan, and Y. Zhang, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Mater. Lett. 62(4-5), 703–706 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  55. C.-T. Hsieh and W.-Y. Chen, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 4554 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  56. Z. Q. Li, C. J. Lu, Z. P. Xia, Y. Zhou, and Z. Luo, “X-ray diffraction patterns of graphite and turbostratic carbon,” Carbon 45(8), 1686–1695 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  57. Z. Ji, X. Shen, Y. Song, and G. Zhu, “In situ synthesis of graphene/cobalt nanocomposites and their magnetic properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(9), 711–715 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  58. R. N. Zitter, “Saturated optical absorption through band filling in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(2), 73 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  59. F. X. Kartner, “Mode-locked laser theory,” physics.gatech.edu (2006).
  60. M. Y. Sander, S. Frolov, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “10 GHz femtosecond pulse interleaver in planar waveguide technology,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4102–4113 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  61. G.-R. Lin, I.-H. Chiu, and M.-C. Wu, “1.2-ps mode-locked semiconductor optical amplifier fiber laser pulses generated by 60-ps backward dark-optical comb injection and soliton compression,” Opt. Express 13(3), 1008–1014 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  62. G.-R. Lin, C. L. Pan, and Y. T. Lin, “Self-steepening of prechirped amplified and compressed 29-fs fiber laser pulse in large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3597–3601 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  63. H. Byun, D. Pudo, J. Chen, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-repetition-rate, 491 MHz, femtosecond fiber laser with low timing jitter,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2221–2223 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  64. T. Kato, Y. Suetsugu, M. Takagi, E. Sasaoka, and M. Nishimura, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index in optical fiber by the cross-phase-modulation method with depolarized pump light,” Opt. Lett. 20(9), 988–990 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  65. S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28(8), 806–808 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  66. L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  67. G.-R. Lin, J. J. Kang, and C. K. Lee, “High-order rational harmonic mode-locking and pulse-amplitude equalization of SOAFL via reshaped gain-switching FPLD pulse injection,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9570–9579 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  68. F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  69. F. X. Kartner, J. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers—what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  70. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1995).

2013 (5)

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Single- and double-walled carbon nanotube based saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045105 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Chirped pulse amplification of a femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035104 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin and G.-R. Lin, “Kelly sideband variation and self four-wave-mixing in femtosecond fiber soliton laser mode-locked by multiple exfoliated graphite nano-particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (12)

Y. H. Lin and G.-R. Lin, “Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 398–404 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Sander, S. Frolov, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “10 GHz femtosecond pulse interleaver in planar waveguide technology,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4102–4113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene oxide vs. reduced graphene oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, S. Wu, H. Li, J. Liu, R. Sun, F. Tan, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Dissipative soliton generation from a graphene oxide mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23653–23658 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “10 GHz fundamental mode fiber laser using a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041118 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (12)

H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, J. Cho, S.-Y. Jang, and Y.-W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-T. Hsieh and W.-Y. Chen, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 4554 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Ji, X. Shen, Y. Song, and G. Zhu, “In situ synthesis of graphene/cobalt nanocomposites and their magnetic properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(9), 711–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Liu, X. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3024–3026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-L. Xu, X.-L. Li, J.-L. He, X.-P. Hao, Y.-Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K.-J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. B. Cho, J. W. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, S. Y. Choi, I. H. Baek, K. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “High-quality, large-area monolayer graphene for efficient bulk laser mode-locking near 1.25 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4089–4091 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

G.-R. Lin and Y.-C. Lin, “Directly exfoliated and imprinted graphite nano-particle saturable absorber for passive mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(12), 880–886 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Su, A.-Y. Lu, Y. P. Xu, F.-R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, and L.-J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (14)

G.-R. Lin, J. J. Kang, and C. K. Lee, “High-order rational harmonic mode-locking and pulse-amplitude equalization of SOAFL via reshaped gain-switching FPLD pulse injection,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9570–9579 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283(17), 3334–3338 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Xing, H. Guo, X. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. A. Huan, “The Physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4564–4573 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Byun, D. Pudo, J. Chen, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-repetition-rate, 491 MHz, femtosecond fiber laser with low timing jitter,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2221–2223 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sun, X. Li, Y. Qu, X. Wang, H. Yan, and Y. Zhang, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Mater. Lett. 62(4-5), 703–706 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

G.-R. Lin, C. L. Pan, and Y. T. Lin, “Self-steepening of prechirped amplified and compressed 29-fs fiber laser pulse in large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3597–3601 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Li, C. J. Lu, Z. P. Xia, Y. Zhou, and Z. Luo, “X-ray diffraction patterns of graphite and turbostratic carbon,” Carbon 45(8), 1686–1695 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 51–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

F. X. Kartner, J. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers—what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

1992 (1)

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28(8), 806–808 (1992).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

R. N. Zitter, “Saturated optical absorption through band filling in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(2), 73 (1969).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Chirped pulse amplification of a femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035104 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene oxide vs. reduced graphene oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anija, M.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aus der Au, J.

F. X. Kartner, J. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers—what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

Baek, I. H.

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283(17), 3334–3338 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boguslawski, J.

Bol, A. A.

H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, C. L.

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Byun, H.

Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Casado, J.

T. Jawhari, A. Roid, and J. Casado, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of some commercially available carbon black materials,” Carbon 33(11), 1561–1565 (1995).
[Crossref]

Casiraghi, C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. M.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.-R.

C.-Y. Su, A.-Y. Lu, Y. P. Xu, F.-R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, and L.-J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, W.-Y.

C.-T. Hsieh and W.-Y. Chen, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 4554 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K. N.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Single- and double-walled carbon nanotube based saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045105 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, W.-H.

Chi, Y. C.

Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chiu, I.-H.

Cho, J.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S.-Y. Jang, and Y.-W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, W. B.

Choi, S. Y.

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Cunning, B. V.

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dikin, D. A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dimitrakopoulos, C.

H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ensslin, K.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freitag, M.

H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frolov, S.

Fuse, K.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graf, D.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

Han, W. S.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hao, X.-P.

J.-L. Xu, X.-L. Li, J.-L. He, X.-P. Hao, Y.-Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K.-J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

He, J.-L.

J.-L. Xu, X.-L. Li, J.-L. He, X.-P. Hao, Y.-Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K.-J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

He, X.

Hennrich, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hierold, C.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holdynski, M.

Hong, B. H.

Hsieh, C.-T.

C.-T. Hsieh and W.-Y. Chen, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 4554 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huan, C. H. A.

Huang, P. L.

Huang, S. H.

Huang, Y.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

Jablonski, M.

Jagiello, J.

Jang, S. Y.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jang, S.-Y.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S.-Y. Jang, and Y.-W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jawhari, T.

T. Jawhari, A. Roid, and J. Casado, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of some commercially available carbon black materials,” Carbon 33(11), 1561–1565 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ji, Z.

Z. Ji, X. Shen, Y. Song, and G. Zhu, “In situ synthesis of graphene/cobalt nanocomposites and their magnetic properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(9), 711–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jia, Y.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jose, R.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jung, I. D.

F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jungen, A.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaczmarek, P.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Chirped pulse amplification of a femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kamaraju, N.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. J.

Kartner, F. X.

F. X. Kartner, J. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers—what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kato, T.

Kelleher, E. J. R.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

F. X. Kartner, J. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers—what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kelly, S. M. J.

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28(8), 806–808 (1992).
[Crossref]

Khlobystov, A. N.

C.-Y. Su, A.-Y. Lu, Y. P. Xu, F.-R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, and L.-J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kielpinski, D.

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S.-Y. Jang, and Y.-W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

Kim, K.

Kleinhammes, A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

Knize, R. J.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kohlhaas, K. A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kozinski, R.

Krzempek, K.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Chirped pulse amplification of a femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. H.

Lazzeri, M.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. K.

Lee, H. W.

Lee, J. H.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, L. J.

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, L.-J.

C.-Y. Su, A.-Y. Lu, Y. P. Xu, F.-R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, and L.-J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

G. Sun, X. Li, Y. Qu, X. Wang, H. Yan, and Y. Zhang, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Mater. Lett. 62(4-5), 703–706 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, X.-L.

J.-L. Xu, X.-L. Li, J.-L. He, X.-P. Hao, Y.-Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K.-J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Li, C. J. Lu, Z. P. Xia, Y. Zhou, and Z. Luo, “X-ray diffraction patterns of graphite and turbostratic carbon,” Carbon 45(8), 1686–1695 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lim, C. T.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, B.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.-R.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Single- and double-walled carbon nanotube based saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin and G.-R. Lin, “Kelly sideband variation and self four-wave-mixing in femtosecond fiber soliton laser mode-locked by multiple exfoliated graphite nano-particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin and G.-R. Lin, “Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 398–404 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

G.-R. Lin and Y.-C. Lin, “Directly exfoliated and imprinted graphite nano-particle saturable absorber for passive mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(12), 880–886 (2011).
[Crossref]

G.-R. Lin, J. J. Kang, and C. K. Lee, “High-order rational harmonic mode-locking and pulse-amplitude equalization of SOAFL via reshaped gain-switching FPLD pulse injection,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9570–9579 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-R. Lin, C. L. Pan, and Y. T. Lin, “Self-steepening of prechirped amplified and compressed 29-fs fiber laser pulse in large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3597–3601 (2007).
[Crossref]

G.-R. Lin, I.-H. Chiu, and M.-C. Wu, “1.2-ps mode-locked semiconductor optical amplifier fiber laser pulses generated by 60-ps backward dark-optical comb injection and soliton compression,” Opt. Express 13(3), 1008–1014 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S. C.

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin and G.-R. Lin, “Kelly sideband variation and self four-wave-mixing in femtosecond fiber soliton laser mode-locked by multiple exfoliated graphite nano-particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055105 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Single- and double-walled carbon nanotube based saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045105 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin and G.-R. Lin, “Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 398–404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. T.

Lin, Y.-C.

G.-R. Lin and Y.-C. Lin, “Directly exfoliated and imprinted graphite nano-particle saturable absorber for passive mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(12), 880–886 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lipinska, L.

Liu, J.

Liu, Z. B.

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283(17), 3334–3338 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, A.-Y.

C.-Y. Su, A.-Y. Lu, Y. P. Xu, F.-R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, and L.-J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. J.

Z. Q. Li, C. J. Lu, Z. P. Xia, Y. Zhou, and Z. Luo, “X-ray diffraction patterns of graphite and turbostratic carbon,” Carbon 45(8), 1686–1695 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Li, C. J. Lu, Z. P. Xia, Y. Zhou, and Z. Luo, “X-ray diffraction patterns of graphite and turbostratic carbon,” Carbon 45(8), 1686–1695 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “10 GHz fundamental mode fiber laser using a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041118 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauri, F.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, J. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milne, W. I.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molitor, F.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, S. T.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nicolosi, V.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, M.

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paletko, P.

Pan, C. L.

Pasternak, I.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Chirped pulse amplification of a femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piner, R. D.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polavarapu, L.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Popov, S. V.

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pudo, D.

Qu, Y.

G. Sun, X. Li, Y. Qu, X. Wang, H. Yan, and Y. Zhang, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Mater. Lett. 62(4-5), 703–706 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qu, Z. S.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ramakrishna, S.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rao, C. N. R.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Roid, A.

T. Jawhari, A. Roid, and J. Casado, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of some commercially available carbon black materials,” Carbon 33(11), 1561–1565 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rotermund, F.

Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruo, S.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sander, M. Y.

Sasaoka, E.

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sennaroglu, A.

Set, S. Y.

Shen, X.

Z. Ji, X. Shen, Y. Song, and G. Zhu, “In situ synthesis of graphene/cobalt nanocomposites and their magnetic properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(9), 711–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shmulovich, J.

Sobon, G.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Chirped pulse amplification of a femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035104 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene oxide vs. reduced graphene oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y.

Z. Ji, X. Shen, Y. Song, and G. Zhu, “In situ synthesis of graphene/cobalt nanocomposites and their magnetic properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(9), 711–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.-W.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S.-Y. Jang, and Y.-W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sood, A. K.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sotor, J.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Chirped pulse amplification of a femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035104 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene oxide vs. reduced graphene oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stampfer, C.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stankovich, S.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strupinski, W.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Chirped pulse amplification of a femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Su, C. Y.

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Su, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Su, A.-Y. Lu, Y. P. Xu, F.-R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, and L.-J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, L. B.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Subrahmanyam, K. S.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Suetsugu, Y.

Sum, T. C.

Sun, G.

G. Sun, X. Li, Y. Qu, X. Wang, H. Yan, and Y. Zhang, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Mater. Lett. 62(4-5), 703–706 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, R.

Sun, Z.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takagi, M.

Tamura, K.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tan, F.

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tan, W. D.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283(17), 3334–3338 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. R.

Tjin, S. C.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Travers, J. C.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tulevski, G.

H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasu, K. S.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Wang, S.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

G. Sun, X. Li, Y. Qu, X. Wang, H. Yan, and Y. Zhang, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Mater. Lett. 62(4-5), 703–706 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. G.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirtz, L.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M.-C.

Wu, S.

Wu, Y.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.-Z.

J.-L. Xu, X.-L. Li, J.-L. He, X.-P. Hao, Y.-Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K.-J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, Z. P.

Z. Q. Li, C. J. Lu, Z. P. Xia, Y. Zhou, and Z. Luo, “X-ray diffraction patterns of graphite and turbostratic carbon,” Carbon 45(8), 1686–1695 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xie, G. Q.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xing, G.

Xu, B.

Xu, J.

Xu, J.-L.

J.-L. Xu, X.-L. Li, J.-L. He, X.-P. Hao, Y.-Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K.-J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.-H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y. P.

C.-Y. Su, A.-Y. Lu, Y. P. Xu, F.-R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, and L.-J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaguchi, H.

Yamashita, S.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “10 GHz fundamental mode fiber laser using a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041118 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sun, X. Li, Y. Qu, X. Wang, H. Yan, and Y. Zhang, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Mater. Lett. 62(4-5), 703–706 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.-J.

J.-L. Xu, X.-L. Li, J.-L. He, X.-P. Hao, Y.-Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K.-J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.-H.

Yang, Y.

J.-L. Xu, X.-L. Li, J.-L. He, X.-P. Hao, Y.-Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K.-J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ye, C.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. Y.

Yeom, D.-I.

Zdrojek, M.

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283(17), 3334–3338 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

G. Sun, X. Li, Y. Qu, X. Wang, H. Yan, and Y. Zhang, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Mater. Lett. 62(4-5), 703–706 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283(17), 3334–3338 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, L. H.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Z. Q. Li, C. J. Lu, Z. P. Xia, Y. Zhou, and Z. Luo, “X-ray diffraction patterns of graphite and turbostratic carbon,” Carbon 45(8), 1686–1695 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

Z. Ji, X. Shen, Y. Song, and G. Zhu, “In situ synthesis of graphene/cobalt nanocomposites and their magnetic properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(9), 711–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zitter, R. N.

R. N. Zitter, “Saturated optical absorption through band filling in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(2), 73 (1969).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (3)

H. Yan, F. Xia, W. Zhu, M. Freitag, C. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, G. Tulevski, and P. Avouris, “Infrared spectroscopy of wafer-scale graphene,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9854–9860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Su, A.-Y. Lu, Y. P. Xu, F.-R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, and L.-J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

R. N. Zitter, “Saturated optical absorption through band filling in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(2), 73 (1969).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “10 GHz fundamental mode fiber laser using a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041118 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Xu, X.-L. Li, J.-L. He, X.-P. Hao, Y.-Z. Wu, Y. Yang, and K.-J. Yang, “Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261107 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, J. Cho, S.-Y. Jang, and Y.-W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261109 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carbon (3)

Z. Q. Li, C. J. Lu, Z. P. Xia, Y. Zhou, and Z. Luo, “X-ray diffraction patterns of graphite and turbostratic carbon,” Carbon 45(8), 1686–1695 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and S. Ruo, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Jawhari, A. Roid, and J. Casado, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of some commercially available carbon black materials,” Carbon 33(11), 1561–1565 (1995).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28(8), 806–808 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

F. X. Kartner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kartner, J. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers—what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic J. (1)

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonic J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Laser Phys. (1)

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Single- and double-walled carbon nanotube based saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (7)

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Chirped pulse amplification of a femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035104 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

G.-R. Lin and Y.-C. Lin, “Directly exfoliated and imprinted graphite nano-particle saturable absorber for passive mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(12), 880–886 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin and G.-R. Lin, “Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 398–404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin and G.-R. Lin, “Kelly sideband variation and self four-wave-mixing in femtosecond fiber soliton laser mode-locked by multiple exfoliated graphite nano-particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055105 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

G. Sun, X. Li, Y. Qu, X. Wang, H. Yan, and Y. Zhang, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Mater. Lett. 62(4-5), 703–706 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

Z. Ji, X. Shen, Y. Song, and G. Zhu, “In situ synthesis of graphene/cobalt nanocomposites and their magnetic properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(9), 711–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 238–242 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Res. (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283(17), 3334–3338 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xing, H. Guo, X. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. A. Huan, “The Physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4564–4573 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene oxide vs. reduced graphene oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, S. Wu, H. Li, J. Liu, R. Sun, F. Tan, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Dissipative soliton generation from a graphene oxide mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23653–23658 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Sander, S. Frolov, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “10 GHz femtosecond pulse interleaver in planar waveguide technology,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4102–4113 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-R. Lin, I.-H. Chiu, and M.-C. Wu, “1.2-ps mode-locked semiconductor optical amplifier fiber laser pulses generated by 60-ps backward dark-optical comb injection and soliton compression,” Opt. Express 13(3), 1008–1014 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-R. Lin, J. J. Kang, and C. K. Lee, “High-order rational harmonic mode-locking and pulse-amplitude equalization of SOAFL via reshaped gain-switching FPLD pulse injection,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9570–9579 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

C.-T. Hsieh and W.-Y. Chen, “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets from detonation technique,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 4554 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

F. X. Kartner, “Mode-locked laser theory,” physics.gatech.edu (2006).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The photographs and (b) the SEM images of graphene on Cu foil, graphite, graphene oxide, carbon black, and charcoal nano-particles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The configuration of the graphite nano-sheet based passively mode-locked EDFL system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The Raman scattering spectra and (b) the XRD spectra of few-layer graphene, graphite nano-particle, graphene oxide nano-particle, carbon black nano-particle and charcoal nano-particle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The nonlinear transmittance and (b) the normalized absorbance of few-layer graphene, graphite nano-particle, graphene oxide nano-particle, carbon black nano-particle and charcoal nano-particle. The abscissas are in log-scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The pumping power vs. the pumping current of two LDs (orange: 980 nm; gray: 1480 nm). (b) The output power of EDFL systems vs. the pumping powers of two LDs (Upper abscissa: 1480-nm LD pumping power (mW); Lower abscissa: 980-nm LD pumping power (mW)).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The autocorrelation traces, (b) the optical spectra and (c) the oscilloscope traces of the passively mode-locked EDFLs with few-layer graphene, graphite nano-particle, graphene oxide nano-particle, carbon black nano-particle and charcoal nano-particle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The autocorrelation traces and (b) the optical spectra of the passively mode-locked EDFLs with few-layer graphene under different pumping currents of 900 mA (red), 800 mA (orange), 700 mA (magenta), 600 mA (olive), 500 mA (Dark yellow), 400 mA (blue), 300 mA (purple), 200 mA (Navy), 100 mA (Dark gray), and 70 mA (black).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The variations of (a) EDFL pulsewidth and (b) FWHM with the carbon based materials under the operations of two LDs' pumping powers (Upper abscissa: 1480-nm LD pumping power (mW); lower abscissa: 980-nm LD pumping power (mW)).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Pulse compression ratio versus intra-cavity GDD at a given SPM factor.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The governing factor N versus the driving current of pumping LD in the EDFL passively mode-locked by using different carbon materials based saturable absorbers.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The Raman scattering intensity ratios of I2D/IG and ID/IG, and the {002} XRD peak position (θD) and linewidth (Δθ) of the carbon based nano-scale materials

Tables Icon

Table 2 The characteristic parameters of saturable absorbance of the carbon based materials.

Tables Icon

Table 3 The comparison of the passively mode-locked EDFLs with different saturable absorbers.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T=exp( q total )=exp( q non 1+ I Peak / I sat q lin ),
q= q non 1+ I Peak / I sat + q lin =( q non + q lin )( 1 γ I Peak ( q non + q lin ) )=( q non + q lin )(1 M D ).
Δ ω m = ± 2 ln ( 1 + 2 ) τ p m 8 Z 0 Z E D F L 1 = ± 2 ln ( 1 + 2 ) 4 π m | i = 1 n β i L i | 1 q n o n | A p e a k | 2 2 D g P s a t ,
T R A(T,t) T = [ g l 0 + D g,f 2 t 2 +γ | A 0 | 2 ] SAM A(T,t)+j [ D 2 t 2 δ | A 0 | 2 ] SPM A(T,t).
A c (T,t)=A [ sech( t τ ) ] (1+jβ) e jϕT/ T R ,
β= 3 2 ( 1+ δ N D N δ N + D N )± [ 3 2 ( 1+ δ N D N δ N + D N ) ] 2 +2 .
τ= τ 0 2 (2 β 2 3β D N ),
N= L GDD L SPM = ( δ EDF L EDF + δ SMF L SMF ) P peak τ 2 | β 2 | ,

Metrics