Abstract

A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible version of membrane projection lithography (MPL) for fabrication of micrometer-scale three-dimensional structures is presented. The approach uses all inorganic materials and standard CMOS processing equipment. In a single layer, MPL is capable of creating all 5 2D-Bravais lattices. Furthermore, standard semiconductor processing steps can be used in a layer-by-layer approach to create fully three dimensional structures with any of the 14 3D-Bravais lattices. The unit cell basis is determined by the projection of the membrane pattern, with many degrees of freedom for defining functional inclusions. Here we demonstrate several unique structural motifs, and characterize 2D arrays of unit cells with split ring resonators in a silicon matrix. The structures exhibit strong polarization dependent resonances and, for properly oriented split ring resonators (SRRs), coupling to the magnetic field of a normally incident transverse electromagnetic wave, a response unique to 3D inclusions.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. N. Liu, J. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(29), 3171–3175 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Dynamic membrane projection lithography,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 962–969 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, V. Savinov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Resonant transparency and non-trivial non-radiating excitations in toroidal metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2967 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. Ren, E. Plum, J. Xu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant nonlinear optical activity in a plasmonic metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 3, 833 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Dynamic membrane projection lithography,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 962–969 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Cho, M. D. Keung, N. Verellen, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, and D. H. Gracias, “Nanoscale origami for 3D optics,” Small 7(14), 1943–1948 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

2010 (3)

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(29), 3171–3175 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

J. H. Cho and D. H. Gracias, “Self-assembly of lithographically patterned nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4049–4052 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, J. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. B. Burckel, C. M. Washburn, A. K. Raub, S. R. J. Brueck, D. R. Wheeler, S. M. Brozik, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined porous carbon electrodes,” Small 5(24), 2792–2796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals with a Large Infrared Bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip Natural Assembly of Silicon Photonic Bandgap Crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adato, R.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aksu, S.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artar, A.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beechem, T. E.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biswas, R.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals with a Large Infrared Bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bo, X. Z.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip Natural Assembly of Silicon Photonic Bandgap Crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Dynamic membrane projection lithography,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 962–969 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(29), 3171–3175 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brozik, S. M.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, C. M. Washburn, A. K. Raub, S. R. J. Brueck, D. R. Wheeler, S. M. Brozik, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined porous carbon electrodes,” Small 5(24), 2792–2796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

D. B. Burckel, C. M. Washburn, A. K. Raub, S. R. J. Brueck, D. R. Wheeler, S. M. Brozik, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined porous carbon electrodes,” Small 5(24), 2792–2796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brumbach, M. T.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burckel, D. B.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Dynamic membrane projection lithography,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 962–969 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(29), 3171–3175 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, C. M. Washburn, A. K. Raub, S. R. J. Brueck, D. R. Wheeler, S. M. Brozik, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined porous carbon electrodes,” Small 5(24), 2792–2796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cataldo, S.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, J. H.

J. H. Cho, M. D. Keung, N. Verellen, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, and D. H. Gracias, “Nanoscale origami for 3D optics,” Small 7(14), 1943–1948 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Cho and D. H. Gracias, “Self-assembly of lithographically patterned nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4049–4052 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, D. J.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dokmeci, M. R.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Kady, I.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals with a Large Infrared Bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellis, A. R.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(29), 3171–3175 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, V. Savinov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Resonant transparency and non-trivial non-radiating excitations in toroidal metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2967 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleming, J. G.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals with a Large Infrared Bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frank, B.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, J. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ginn, J. C.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gracias, D. H.

J. H. Cho, M. D. Keung, N. Verellen, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, and D. H. Gracias, “Nanoscale origami for 3D optics,” Small 7(14), 1943–1948 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Cho and D. H. Gracias, “Self-assembly of lithographically patterned nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4049–4052 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, K. M.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals with a Large Infrared Bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, M.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keung, M. D.

J. H. Cho, M. D. Keung, N. Verellen, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, and D. H. Gracias, “Nanoscale origami for 3D optics,” Small 7(14), 1943–1948 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lagae, L.

J. H. Cho, M. D. Keung, N. Verellen, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, and D. H. Gracias, “Nanoscale origami for 3D optics,” Small 7(14), 1943–1948 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lambert, T. N.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S. Y.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals with a Large Infrared Bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

N. Liu, J. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, J. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michael, J. R.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

J. H. Cho, M. D. Keung, N. Verellen, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, and D. H. Gracias, “Nanoscale origami for 3D optics,” Small 7(14), 1943–1948 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neubrech, F.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norris, D. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip Natural Assembly of Silicon Photonic Bandgap Crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y. S.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plet, C.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plum, E.

M. Ren, E. Plum, J. Xu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant nonlinear optical activity in a plasmonic metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 3, 833 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polsky, R.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, C. M. Washburn, A. K. Raub, S. R. J. Brueck, D. R. Wheeler, S. M. Brozik, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined porous carbon electrodes,” Small 5(24), 2792–2796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raub, A. K.

D. B. Burckel, C. M. Washburn, A. K. Raub, S. R. J. Brueck, D. R. Wheeler, S. M. Brozik, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined porous carbon electrodes,” Small 5(24), 2792–2796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, M.

M. Ren, E. Plum, J. Xu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant nonlinear optical activity in a plasmonic metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 3, 833 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogacheva, A. V.

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, V. Savinov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Resonant transparency and non-trivial non-radiating excitations in toroidal metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2967 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savinov, V.

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, V. Savinov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Resonant transparency and non-trivial non-radiating excitations in toroidal metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2967 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selvarasah, S.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinclair, M. B.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Dynamic membrane projection lithography,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 962–969 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(29), 3171–3175 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sturm, J. C.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip Natural Assembly of Silicon Photonic Bandgap Crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ten Eyck, G. A.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(29), 3171–3175 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, V. Savinov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Resonant transparency and non-trivial non-radiating excitations in toroidal metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2967 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

J. H. Cho, M. D. Keung, N. Verellen, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, and D. H. Gracias, “Nanoscale origami for 3D optics,” Small 7(14), 1943–1948 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verellen, N.

J. H. Cho, M. D. Keung, N. Verellen, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, and D. H. Gracias, “Nanoscale origami for 3D optics,” Small 7(14), 1943–1948 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip Natural Assembly of Silicon Photonic Bandgap Crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Washburn, C. M.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, C. M. Washburn, A. K. Raub, S. R. J. Brueck, D. R. Wheeler, S. M. Brozik, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined porous carbon electrodes,” Small 5(24), 2792–2796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wendt, J. R.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Dynamic membrane projection lithography,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 962–969 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(29), 3171–3175 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wheeler, D. R.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, C. M. Washburn, A. K. Raub, S. R. J. Brueck, D. R. Wheeler, S. M. Brozik, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined porous carbon electrodes,” Small 5(24), 2792–2796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

M. Ren, E. Plum, J. Xu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant nonlinear optical activity in a plasmonic metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 3, 833 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yanik, A. A.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, V. Savinov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Resonant transparency and non-trivial non-radiating excitations in toroidal metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2967 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ren, E. Plum, J. Xu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant nonlinear optical activity in a plasmonic metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 3, 833 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

N. Liu, J. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (2)

X. Xiao, T. E. Beechem, M. T. Brumbach, T. N. Lambert, D. J. Davis, J. R. Michael, C. M. Washburn, J. Wang, S. M. Brozik, D. R. Wheeler, D. B. Burckel, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined three-dimensional graphene structures,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3573–3579 (2012).
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S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
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Adv. Mater. (3)

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(29), 3171–3175 (2010).
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D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
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S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
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Nano Lett. (2)

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
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J. H. Cho and D. H. Gracias, “Self-assembly of lithographically patterned nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4049–4052 (2009).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

M. Ren, E. Plum, J. Xu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant nonlinear optical activity in a plasmonic metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 3, 833 (2012).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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V. A. Fedotov, A. V. Rogacheva, V. Savinov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Resonant transparency and non-trivial non-radiating excitations in toroidal metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2967 (2013).
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Science (2)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
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D. B. Burckel, C. M. Washburn, A. K. Raub, S. R. J. Brueck, D. R. Wheeler, S. M. Brozik, and R. Polsky, “Lithographically defined porous carbon electrodes,” Small 5(24), 2792–2796 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a.) Starting silicon wafer; b.) Etch cavity; c.) Backfill cavity with silicon dioxide; d.) Chemically mechanically polish wafer; e.) Deposit aluminum nitride membrane; f.) Pattern membrane; g.) Evacuate backfill oxide; h.)-i) Perform directional evaporations onto interior faces of cavity; j.) Perform liftoff to remove metal coated membrane; k.) SEM image of cubic silicon cavities; l.) SEM image of backfilled cavities with patterned membrane; m.) SEM image of evacuated cavities with patterned membrane suspended over cavity; n.) SEM image of unit cells decorated with 2 gold split ring resonators (basis) per unit cell (after liftoff).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM Images of:a.) a square lattice with cubic unit cell; b.) a square lattice with cubic unit cells, filled with a 3-rectangular patch basis; c.) a triangular lattice of cylindrical unit cells; d.) a triangular lattice of cylindrical unit cells with a single 0.25 micrometer plasmonic basis; e.) a triangular lattice of hexagonal unit cells; f.) a triangular lattice of hexagonal unit cells with a single tri-pole metallic basis; g.) a square lattice of silicon rectangular parallelepiped unit cells; h.) a square lattice of rectangular parallelepiped unit cells with a single metallic cross as the basis.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a.) Schematic showing the effect compression/elongation effect with deposition angle; b.) schematic showing the impact of membrane thickness on inclusion dimensions; c.) Schematic and SEM image showing the impact of accumulation during deposition on inclusion shape.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a.) Schematic depiction of an MPL cubic unit cell arrayed in all five 2D-Bravais lattices; b.) SEM image of the MPL process performed in a deposited polysilicon film. The ability to use deposited films allows the use of standard layer-by-layer fabrication techniques and enables creation of all 14 3D Bravais lattices.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Graph of the unnormalized measured reflectivity for two orientations of split ring resonator and two incident polarizations (angle of incidence = 10°).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Graph of the unnormalized measured reflectivity for both incident polarizations for a square array of cubic unit cells with a 2-SRR basis. Circled regions indicate emergence of features due to coupling between the neighboring SRRs.

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