Abstract

Optical nanoantennas play a crucial role in controlling near-fields on the nanoscale and being counterparts of commonly used conventional optical components such as lens, prisms, gratings, etc. for shaping the wavefront of light in the far-field. In this paper we highlight a dc-pulsed voltage electrochemical etching method with a self-tuneable duty cycle for highly reproducible design of plasmonic (metallic) nanoantennas. With the method, we introduce such concepts as design, optimization and figure-of-merit for evaluating fabrication efficiency. The ability of the nanoantennas to enhance and localize the optical fields beyond the diffraction limit is statistically studied with Rayleigh scattering from the tip apex and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of a single walled carbon nanotubes bundle.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  8. C. Höppener, Z. J. Lapin, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Self-Similar Gold-Nanoparticle Antennas for a Cascaded Enhancement of the Optical Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(1), 017402 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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  14. L. Jiang-Tao, Y. Yan, W.-K. Zhang, Y.-H. Liu, Z.-Y. Jiang, and G.-Y. Si, “Plasmonic nanoantennae fabricated by focused Ion beam milling,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(4), 851–855 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. S. S. Kharintsev, A. I. Noskov, G. G. Hoffmann, and J. Loos, “Near-field optical taper antennas fabricated with a highly replicable ac electrochemical etching method,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025202 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, A. I. Fishman, and M. K. Salakhov, “Plasmonic optical antenna design for performing tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(14), 145501 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. Ward, “Electrohydrostatic wetting of poorly-conducting liquids,” J. Electrost. 64(12), 817–825 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. S. Kharintsev, A. M. Rogov, and S. G. Kazarian, “Nanopatterning and tuning of optical taper antenna apex for tip-enhanced Raman scattering performance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(9), 093106 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

I. Maouli, A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, S. Kawata, and P. Verma, “Optical antennas for tunable enhancement in tip-enhansed Raman spectroscopy imaging,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032401 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Tanirah, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “Fabrication of a plasmonic nanocone on top of an AFM cantilever,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 215–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Jiang-Tao, Y. Yan, W.-K. Zhang, Y.-H. Liu, Z.-Y. Jiang, and G.-Y. Si, “Plasmonic nanoantennae fabricated by focused Ion beam milling,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(4), 851–855 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Stadler, B. Oswald, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Characterizing unusual metal substrates for gap-mode tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(2), 227–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. E. Krasnok, I. S. Maksymov, A. I. Denisyuk, P. A. Belov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. R. Simovskii, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical nanoantennas,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 183(6), 561–589 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, A. I. Fishman, and M. K. Salakhov, “Plasmonic optical antenna design for performing tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(14), 145501 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kharintsev, A. M. Rogov, and S. G. Kazarian, “Nanopatterning and tuning of optical taper antenna apex for tip-enhanced Raman scattering performance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(9), 093106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

C. Höppener, Z. J. Lapin, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Self-Similar Gold-Nanoparticle Antennas for a Cascaded Enhancement of the Optical Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(1), 017402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Feichtner, O. Selig, M. Kiunke, and B. Hecht, “Evolutionary Optimization of Optical Antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 127701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

L. Novotny, “From near-field optics to optical antennas,” Phys. Today 64(7), 47–52 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kharintsev, A. I. Noskov, G. G. Hoffmann, and J. Loos, “Near-field optical taper antennas fabricated with a highly replicable ac electrochemical etching method,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

P. Verma, T. Ichimura, T. Yano, Y. Saito, and S. Kawata, “Nano-imaging through tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: Stepping beyond the classical limits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(4), 548–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Stadler, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical imaging using top-illumination tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4514–4520 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 438 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M.-D. Zhuang, H.-M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z.-X. Xie, D.-Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z.-Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 101105 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. Ward, “Electrohydrostatic wetting of poorly-conducting liquids,” J. Electrost. 64(12), 817–825 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

L. Billot, L. Berguiga, M.L. de la Chapellea, Y. Gilbert, and R. Bachelot, “Production of gold tips for tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy: analysis of the etching parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 139–145 (2005).

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. Ren, G. Picardi, and B. Pettinger, “Preparation of gold tips suitable for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and light emission by electrochemical etching,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 837 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aizpurua, J.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrecht, M.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachelot, R.

L. Billot, L. Berguiga, M.L. de la Chapellea, Y. Gilbert, and R. Bachelot, “Production of gold tips for tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy: analysis of the etching parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 139–145 (2005).

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belov, P. A.

A. E. Krasnok, I. S. Maksymov, A. I. Denisyuk, P. A. Belov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. R. Simovskii, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical nanoantennas,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 183(6), 561–589 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berguiga, L.

L. Billot, L. Berguiga, M.L. de la Chapellea, Y. Gilbert, and R. Bachelot, “Production of gold tips for tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy: analysis of the etching parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 139–145 (2005).

Bharadwaj, P.

C. Höppener, Z. J. Lapin, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Self-Similar Gold-Nanoparticle Antennas for a Cascaded Enhancement of the Optical Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(1), 017402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 438 (2009).
[Crossref]

Billot, L.

L. Billot, L. Berguiga, M.L. de la Chapellea, Y. Gilbert, and R. Bachelot, “Production of gold tips for tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy: analysis of the etching parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 139–145 (2005).

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. G.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de la Chapellea, M.L.

L. Billot, L. Berguiga, M.L. de la Chapellea, Y. Gilbert, and R. Bachelot, “Production of gold tips for tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy: analysis of the etching parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 139–145 (2005).

Denisyuk, A. I.

A. E. Krasnok, I. S. Maksymov, A. I. Denisyuk, P. A. Belov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. R. Simovskii, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical nanoantennas,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 183(6), 561–589 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deutsch, B.

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 438 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z. C.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feichtner, T.

T. Feichtner, O. Selig, M. Kiunke, and B. Hecht, “Evolutionary Optimization of Optical Antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 127701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fishman, A. I.

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, A. I. Fishman, and M. K. Salakhov, “Plasmonic optical antenna design for performing tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(14), 145501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fleischer, M.

O. Tanirah, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “Fabrication of a plasmonic nanocone on top of an AFM cantilever,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 215–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gilbert, Y.

L. Billot, L. Berguiga, M.L. de la Chapellea, Y. Gilbert, and R. Bachelot, “Production of gold tips for tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy: analysis of the etching parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 139–145 (2005).

Hecht, B.

T. Feichtner, O. Selig, M. Kiunke, and B. Hecht, “Evolutionary Optimization of Optical Antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 127701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, G. G.

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, A. I. Fishman, and M. K. Salakhov, “Plasmonic optical antenna design for performing tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(14), 145501 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kharintsev, A. I. Noskov, G. G. Hoffmann, and J. Loos, “Near-field optical taper antennas fabricated with a highly replicable ac electrochemical etching method,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Höppener, C.

C. Höppener, Z. J. Lapin, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Self-Similar Gold-Nanoparticle Antennas for a Cascaded Enhancement of the Optical Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(1), 017402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, J. G.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ichimura, T.

P. Verma, T. Ichimura, T. Yano, Y. Saito, and S. Kawata, “Nano-imaging through tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: Stepping beyond the classical limits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(4), 548–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.-Y.

L. Jiang-Tao, Y. Yan, W.-K. Zhang, Y.-H. Liu, Z.-Y. Jiang, and G.-Y. Si, “Plasmonic nanoantennae fabricated by focused Ion beam milling,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(4), 851–855 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang-Tao, L.

L. Jiang-Tao, Y. Yan, W.-K. Zhang, Y.-H. Liu, Z.-Y. Jiang, and G.-Y. Si, “Plasmonic nanoantennae fabricated by focused Ion beam milling,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(4), 851–855 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

I. Maouli, A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, S. Kawata, and P. Verma, “Optical antennas for tunable enhancement in tip-enhansed Raman spectroscopy imaging,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032401 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Verma, T. Ichimura, T. Yano, Y. Saito, and S. Kawata, “Nano-imaging through tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: Stepping beyond the classical limits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(4), 548–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kazarian, S. G.

S. S. Kharintsev, A. M. Rogov, and S. G. Kazarian, “Nanopatterning and tuning of optical taper antenna apex for tip-enhanced Raman scattering performance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(9), 093106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kern, D. P.

O. Tanirah, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “Fabrication of a plasmonic nanocone on top of an AFM cantilever,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 215–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kharintsev, S. S.

S. S. Kharintsev, A. M. Rogov, and S. G. Kazarian, “Nanopatterning and tuning of optical taper antenna apex for tip-enhanced Raman scattering performance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(9), 093106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, A. I. Fishman, and M. K. Salakhov, “Plasmonic optical antenna design for performing tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(14), 145501 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kharintsev, A. I. Noskov, G. G. Hoffmann, and J. Loos, “Near-field optical taper antennas fabricated with a highly replicable ac electrochemical etching method,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiunke, M.

T. Feichtner, O. Selig, M. Kiunke, and B. Hecht, “Evolutionary Optimization of Optical Antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 127701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. E. Krasnok, I. S. Maksymov, A. I. Denisyuk, P. A. Belov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. R. Simovskii, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical nanoantennas,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 183(6), 561–589 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kostcheev, S.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krasnok, A. E.

A. E. Krasnok, I. S. Maksymov, A. I. Denisyuk, P. A. Belov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. R. Simovskii, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical nanoantennas,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 183(6), 561–589 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lapin, Z. J.

C. Höppener, Z. J. Lapin, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Self-Similar Gold-Nanoparticle Antennas for a Cascaded Enhancement of the Optical Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(1), 017402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lerondel, G.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, Y.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lienau, C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-H.

L. Jiang-Tao, Y. Yan, W.-K. Zhang, Y.-H. Liu, Z.-Y. Jiang, and G.-Y. Si, “Plasmonic nanoantennae fabricated by focused Ion beam milling,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(4), 851–855 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M.-D. Zhuang, H.-M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z.-X. Xie, D.-Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z.-Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 101105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Loos, J.

S. S. Kharintsev, A. I. Noskov, G. G. Hoffmann, and J. Loos, “Near-field optical taper antennas fabricated with a highly replicable ac electrochemical etching method,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maksymov, I. S.

A. E. Krasnok, I. S. Maksymov, A. I. Denisyuk, P. A. Belov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. R. Simovskii, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical nanoantennas,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 183(6), 561–589 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maouli, I.

I. Maouli, A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, S. Kawata, and P. Verma, “Optical antennas for tunable enhancement in tip-enhansed Raman spectroscopy imaging,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

A. E. Krasnok, I. S. Maksymov, A. I. Denisyuk, P. A. Belov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. R. Simovskii, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical nanoantennas,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 183(6), 561–589 (2013).
[Crossref]

Neacsu, C. C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noskov, A. I.

S. S. Kharintsev, A. I. Noskov, G. G. Hoffmann, and J. Loos, “Near-field optical taper antennas fabricated with a highly replicable ac electrochemical etching method,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

C. Höppener, Z. J. Lapin, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Self-Similar Gold-Nanoparticle Antennas for a Cascaded Enhancement of the Optical Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(1), 017402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, “From near-field optics to optical antennas,” Phys. Today 64(7), 47–52 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 438 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oswald, B.

J. Stadler, B. Oswald, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Characterizing unusual metal substrates for gap-mode tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(2), 227–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pettinger, B.

B. Ren, G. Picardi, and B. Pettinger, “Preparation of gold tips suitable for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and light emission by electrochemical etching,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 837 (2004).
[Crossref]

Picardi, G.

B. Ren, G. Picardi, and B. Pettinger, “Preparation of gold tips suitable for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and light emission by electrochemical etching,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 837 (2004).
[Crossref]

Raschke, M. B.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, B.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M.-D. Zhuang, H.-M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z.-X. Xie, D.-Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z.-Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 101105 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Ren, G. Picardi, and B. Pettinger, “Preparation of gold tips suitable for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and light emission by electrochemical etching,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 837 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rogov, A. M.

S. S. Kharintsev, A. M. Rogov, and S. G. Kazarian, “Nanopatterning and tuning of optical taper antenna apex for tip-enhanced Raman scattering performance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(9), 093106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Royer, P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, Y.

I. Maouli, A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, S. Kawata, and P. Verma, “Optical antennas for tunable enhancement in tip-enhansed Raman spectroscopy imaging,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032401 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Verma, T. Ichimura, T. Yano, Y. Saito, and S. Kawata, “Nano-imaging through tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: Stepping beyond the classical limits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(4), 548–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Salakhov, M. K.

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, A. I. Fishman, and M. K. Salakhov, “Plasmonic optical antenna design for performing tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(14), 145501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmid, T.

J. Stadler, B. Oswald, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Characterizing unusual metal substrates for gap-mode tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(2), 227–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Stadler, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical imaging using top-illumination tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4514–4520 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selig, O.

T. Feichtner, O. Selig, M. Kiunke, and B. Hecht, “Evolutionary Optimization of Optical Antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 127701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Si, G.-Y.

L. Jiang-Tao, Y. Yan, W.-K. Zhang, Y.-H. Liu, Z.-Y. Jiang, and G.-Y. Si, “Plasmonic nanoantennae fabricated by focused Ion beam milling,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(4), 851–855 (2015).
[Crossref]

Simovskii, C. R.

A. E. Krasnok, I. S. Maksymov, A. I. Denisyuk, P. A. Belov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. R. Simovskii, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical nanoantennas,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 183(6), 561–589 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stadler, J.

J. Stadler, B. Oswald, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Characterizing unusual metal substrates for gap-mode tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(2), 227–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Stadler, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical imaging using top-illumination tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4514–4520 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taguchi, A.

I. Maouli, A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, S. Kawata, and P. Verma, “Optical antennas for tunable enhancement in tip-enhansed Raman spectroscopy imaging,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tanirah, O.

O. Tanirah, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “Fabrication of a plasmonic nanocone on top of an AFM cantilever,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 215–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tian, Z.-Q.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M.-D. Zhuang, H.-M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z.-X. Xie, D.-Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z.-Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 101105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Verma, P.

I. Maouli, A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, S. Kawata, and P. Verma, “Optical antennas for tunable enhancement in tip-enhansed Raman spectroscopy imaging,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032401 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Verma, T. Ichimura, T. Yano, Y. Saito, and S. Kawata, “Nano-imaging through tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: Stepping beyond the classical limits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(4), 548–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M.-D. Zhuang, H.-M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z.-X. Xie, D.-Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z.-Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 101105 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M.-D. Zhuang, H.-M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z.-X. Xie, D.-Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z.-Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 101105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ward, T.

T. Ward, “Electrohydrostatic wetting of poorly-conducting liquids,” J. Electrost. 64(12), 817–825 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, D.-Y.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M.-D. Zhuang, H.-M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z.-X. Xie, D.-Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z.-Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 101105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z.-X.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M.-D. Zhuang, H.-M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z.-X. Xie, D.-Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z.-Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 101105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

L. Jiang-Tao, Y. Yan, W.-K. Zhang, Y.-H. Liu, Z.-Y. Jiang, and G.-Y. Si, “Plasmonic nanoantennae fabricated by focused Ion beam milling,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(4), 851–855 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. L.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yano, T.

P. Verma, T. Ichimura, T. Yano, Y. Saito, and S. Kawata, “Nano-imaging through tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: Stepping beyond the classical limits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(4), 548–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zenobi, R.

J. Stadler, B. Oswald, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Characterizing unusual metal substrates for gap-mode tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(2), 227–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Stadler, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical imaging using top-illumination tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4514–4520 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.-M.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M.-D. Zhuang, H.-M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z.-X. Xie, D.-Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z.-Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 101105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.-K.

L. Jiang-Tao, Y. Yan, W.-K. Zhang, Y.-H. Liu, Z.-Y. Jiang, and G.-Y. Si, “Plasmonic nanoantennae fabricated by focused Ion beam milling,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(4), 851–855 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, M.-D.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M.-D. Zhuang, H.-M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z.-X. Xie, D.-Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z.-Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 101105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 438 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

I. Maouli, A. Taguchi, Y. Saito, S. Kawata, and P. Verma, “Optical antennas for tunable enhancement in tip-enhansed Raman spectroscopy imaging,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M.-D. Zhuang, H.-M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z.-X. Xie, D.-Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z.-Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 101105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. (1)

L. Jiang-Tao, Y. Yan, W.-K. Zhang, Y.-H. Liu, Z.-Y. Jiang, and G.-Y. Si, “Plasmonic nanoantennae fabricated by focused Ion beam milling,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(4), 851–855 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Billot, L. Berguiga, M.L. de la Chapellea, Y. Gilbert, and R. Bachelot, “Production of gold tips for tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy: analysis of the etching parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 139–145 (2005).

J. Electrost. (1)

T. Ward, “Electrohydrostatic wetting of poorly-conducting liquids,” J. Electrost. 64(12), 817–825 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, A. I. Fishman, and M. K. Salakhov, “Plasmonic optical antenna design for performing tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(14), 145501 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

J. Stadler, B. Oswald, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Characterizing unusual metal substrates for gap-mode tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(2), 227–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. Verma, T. Ichimura, T. Yano, Y. Saito, and S. Kawata, “Nano-imaging through tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: Stepping beyond the classical limits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(4), 548–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

O. Tanirah, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “Fabrication of a plasmonic nanocone on top of an AFM cantilever,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 215–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

J. Stadler, T. Schmid, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical imaging using top-illumination tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4514–4520 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. S. Kharintsev, A. I. Noskov, G. G. Hoffmann, and J. Loos, “Near-field optical taper antennas fabricated with a highly replicable ac electrochemical etching method,” Nanotechnology 22(2), 025202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Höppener, Z. J. Lapin, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Self-Similar Gold-Nanoparticle Antennas for a Cascaded Enhancement of the Optical Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(1), 017402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Feichtner, O. Selig, M. Kiunke, and B. Hecht, “Evolutionary Optimization of Optical Antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 127701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

L. Novotny, “From near-field optics to optical antennas,” Phys. Today 64(7), 47–52 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

B. Ren, G. Picardi, and B. Pettinger, “Preparation of gold tips suitable for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and light emission by electrochemical etching,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 837 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kharintsev, A. M. Rogov, and S. G. Kazarian, “Nanopatterning and tuning of optical taper antenna apex for tip-enhanced Raman scattering performance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(9), 093106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Usp. Fiziol. Nauk (1)

A. E. Krasnok, I. S. Maksymov, A. I. Denisyuk, P. A. Belov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. R. Simovskii, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical nanoantennas,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk 183(6), 561–589 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principle of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University Press, 2012).

A. Zayats and S. Maier, Active Plasmonics and Tuneable Plasmonic Metamaterials (John Wiley & Sons, 2013).

M. Agio and A. Alu, Optical Antennas (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketch of an incident photon and gold tip coupling (a), two-electrode chemical cell and linear sweep voltammetry for gold wire in a mixture of HCl and Ethanol (1:1) (b), SEM images of smooth (c) and rough (e) tips and TEM images of their tip apexes (d) and (f), respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 DC-pulsed voltage etching with a self-tuneable duty cycle (voltage and current curves) (a), a histogram of impulse lengths (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A histogram of curvature radii of gold tips fabricated with dc-etching (1) and adaptive etching (2).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A histogram of the field-enhancement factor (a), optical patterns of tips illuminated with a linearly polarized light (b) and (c).

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