Abstract

The shape dependence of target materials on the sensitivity of terahertz metamaterial sensors was investigated. Polystyrene microbeads with a known dielectric constant and spherical, ovular, lens-shaped, and star-shaped structures were studied. The resonant frequency showed a clear red-shift after the deposition of low-density microbeads owing to the change in the dielectric environment in the gap area of the metamaterials. Results of simulations based on a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, in which the known dielectric constant of a polystyrene sphere was used, showed excellent agreement with experimental results. The shift in the resonant frequency increased linearly with the surface density, saturating at 60–80 GHz when the gap area was full of microbeads. More importantly, the resonant frequency shift was higher for non-spherical microbeads, such as the star-shaped microbeads. Therefore, the shape of the individual target material was a crucial factor in determining metamaterial sensor sensitivity.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electromagnetic metamaterials for terahertz applications,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 42–50 (2008).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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  11. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. J. Park and Y. H. Ahn, “Substrate effects on terahertz metamaterial resonances for various metal thicknesses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 65(11), 1843–1847 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  16. S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Yusof, H. Keegan, C. D. Spillane, O. M. Sheils, C. M. Martin, J. J. O’Leary, R. Zengerle, and P. Koltay, “Inkjet-like printing of single-cells,” Lab Chip 11(14), 2447–2454 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

S. J. Park and Y. H. Ahn, “Substrate effects on terahertz metamaterial resonances for various metal thicknesses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 65(11), 1843–1847 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y. M. Bahk, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Yusof, H. Keegan, C. D. Spillane, O. M. Sheils, C. M. Martin, J. J. O’Leary, R. Zengerle, and P. Koltay, “Inkjet-like printing of single-cells,” Lab Chip 11(14), 2447–2454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: Sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electromagnetic metamaterials for terahertz applications,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 42–50 (2008).

2006 (2)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

G. Zhao, M. Mors, T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polystyrene foam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(6), 1476–1479 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: Frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Abbott, D.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahn, K. J.

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y. M. Bahk, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park and Y. H. Ahn, “Substrate effects on terahertz metamaterial resonances for various metal thicknesses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 65(11), 1843–1847 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electromagnetic metamaterials for terahertz applications,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 42–50 (2008).

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahk, Y. M.

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y. M. Bahk, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhaskaran, M.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

Chang, S.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electromagnetic metamaterials for terahertz applications,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 42–50 (2008).

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S. B.

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. J.

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electromagnetic metamaterials for terahertz applications,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 42–50 (2008).

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

Han, S.

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y. M. Bahk, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S. T.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Highstrete, C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electromagnetic metamaterials for terahertz applications,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 42–50 (2008).

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hong, J. T.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Keegan, H.

A. Yusof, H. Keegan, C. D. Spillane, O. M. Sheils, C. M. Martin, J. J. O’Leary, R. Zengerle, and P. Koltay, “Inkjet-like printing of single-cells,” Lab Chip 11(14), 2447–2454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y. M. Bahk, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koltay, P.

A. Yusof, H. Keegan, C. D. Spillane, O. M. Sheils, C. M. Martin, J. J. O’Leary, R. Zengerle, and P. Koltay, “Inkjet-like printing of single-cells,” Lab Chip 11(14), 2447–2454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electromagnetic metamaterials for terahertz applications,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 42–50 (2008).

Lee, S.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacColl, R.

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: Frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mannella, C. A.

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: Frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, C. M.

A. Yusof, H. Keegan, C. D. Spillane, O. M. Sheils, C. M. Martin, J. J. O’Leary, R. Zengerle, and P. Koltay, “Inkjet-like printing of single-cells,” Lab Chip 11(14), 2447–2454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menikh, A.

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: Frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, A.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mors, M.

O’Hara, J. F.

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: Sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electromagnetic metamaterials for terahertz applications,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 42–50 (2008).

O’Leary, J. J.

A. Yusof, H. Keegan, C. D. Spillane, O. M. Sheils, C. M. Martin, J. J. O’Leary, R. Zengerle, and P. Koltay, “Inkjet-like printing of single-cells,” Lab Chip 11(14), 2447–2454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electromagnetic metamaterials for terahertz applications,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 42–50 (2008).

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, D. J.

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, H. R.

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y. M. Bahk, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, I.

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, J. K.

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, J. Y.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, N.

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y. M. Bahk, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park and Y. H. Ahn, “Substrate effects on terahertz metamaterial resonances for various metal thicknesses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 65(11), 1843–1847 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, W. K.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pepper, M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Planken, P. C. M.

Robbins, D.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rotermund, F.

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, C. M.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sheils, O. M.

A. Yusof, H. Keegan, C. D. Spillane, O. M. Sheils, C. M. Martin, J. J. O’Leary, R. Zengerle, and P. Koltay, “Inkjet-like printing of single-cells,” Lab Chip 11(14), 2447–2454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

Smirnova, E.

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, B. H.

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spillane, C. D.

A. Yusof, H. Keegan, C. D. Spillane, O. M. Sheils, C. M. Martin, J. J. O’Leary, R. Zengerle, and P. Koltay, “Inkjet-like printing of single-cells,” Lab Chip 11(14), 2447–2454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sriram, S.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stewart, W.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: Sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electromagnetic metamaterials for terahertz applications,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 42–50 (2008).

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ung, B. S.-Y.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wallace, V. P.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenckebach, T.

Withayachumnankul, W.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yim, J. H.

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yusof, A.

A. Yusof, H. Keegan, C. D. Spillane, O. M. Sheils, C. M. Martin, J. J. O’Leary, R. Zengerle, and P. Koltay, “Inkjet-like printing of single-cells,” Lab Chip 11(14), 2447–2454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zengerle, R.

A. Yusof, H. Keegan, C. D. Spillane, O. M. Sheils, C. M. Martin, J. J. O’Leary, R. Zengerle, and P. Koltay, “Inkjet-like printing of single-cells,” Lab Chip 11(14), 2447–2454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X. C.

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: Frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, G.

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121101 (2013).
[Crossref]

ChemPhysChem (1)

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: Frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

S. J. Park and Y. H. Ahn, “Substrate effects on terahertz metamaterial resonances for various metal thicknesses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 65(11), 1843–1847 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

A. Yusof, H. Keegan, C. D. Spillane, O. M. Sheils, C. M. Martin, J. J. O’Leary, R. Zengerle, and P. Koltay, “Inkjet-like printing of single-cells,” Lab Chip 11(14), 2447–2454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y. M. Bahk, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electromagnetic metamaterials for terahertz applications,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 42–50 (2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of terahertz (THz) metamaterial sensor. (b) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of spherical polystyrene beads deposited on a THz metamaterial device.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized THz transmission amplitudes for the electrical split-ring resonator (eSRR) with varying surface number density of polystyrene spheres from (a) experiments and (b) simulations. (inset of Fig. 2a) Microscopic images of polystyrene spheres on eSRR arrays with the densities of 0.035/µm2 (left) and 0.140/µm2 (right). (c) Δf/f0 as a function of surface number density extracted from (a) and (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Resonant frequency shift as a function of surface number density for various polystyrene types: (a) sphere, (b) oval, (c) lens, and (d) star.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Saturation surface number density of spherical, ovular, lens-shaped, and star-shaped polystyrene in THz metamaterial sensor.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δf f 0 = α N s ( ε p ε air ) ε eff
Δf=Δ f sat (1exp( N s / N sat ))

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