Abstract

We report a novel imprinting method employing an ultraviolet (UV) cured reactive mesogen (RM) hardened in a homeotropic orientation. During UV curing, selectively photopolymerized bonds were created and RM molecules were aligned vertically. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, we confirmed than an increased atomic percentage of the alignment layer was made from the RM, which was UV cured using the imprinting method. The measurement of retardation showed the anisotropic nature of the imprinted substrates. Also, vertically aligned (VA) liquid crystal (LC) cells created by this imprinting method showed superior electro-optic (EO) properties as compared with the rubbing method.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. H. Gray and D. L. Gin, “Polymerizable Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Transition-Metal Ions as Building Blocks for Nanostructured Polymers and Composites,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1827–1832 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Miyata and K. Kuroda, “Alignment of Mesoporous Silica on a Glass Substrate by a Rubbing Method,” Chem. Mater. 11(6), 1609–1614 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. V. K. Gupta and N. L. Abbot, “Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates,” Science 276(5318), 1533–1536 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  21. H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  31. Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. F. Lin and Y. L. Lo, “Optical Retardation Measurement Using a Zeeman Laser,” Key Eng. Mater. 326–328, 191–194 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (6)

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. F. Lin and Y. L. Lo, “Optical Retardation Measurement Using a Zeeman Laser,” Key Eng. Mater. 326–328, 191–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Miyata and K. Kuroda, “Alignment of Mesoporous Silica on a Glass Substrate by a Rubbing Method,” Chem. Mater. 11(6), 1609–1614 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. H. Gray and D. L. Gin, “Polymerizable Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Transition-Metal Ions as Building Blocks for Nanostructured Polymers and Composites,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1827–1832 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

V. K. Gupta and N. L. Abbot, “Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates,” Science 276(5318), 1533–1536 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Abbot, N. L.

V. K. Gupta and N. L. Abbot, “Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates,” Science 276(5318), 1533–1536 (1997).
[Crossref]

Achalkumar, A. S.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, K.-S.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bouligand, Y.

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Boyd, I. W.

J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bramble, J. P.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broer, D. J.

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Buguin, A.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bushby, R. J.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cairns, D. R.

D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
[Crossref]

Choi, B.-D.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cladis, P. E.

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Crawford, G. P.

D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
[Crossref]

Decker, C.

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

Decker, D.

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dong, K.-Y.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eichenlaub, N. S.

D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
[Crossref]

Elemans, J. A. A. W.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Escuti, M. J.

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Evans, S. D.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, J.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fujishima, A.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, A.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
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Fukumoto, H.

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
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Garcia, P. M. L.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
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D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
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D. H. Gray and D. L. Gin, “Polymerizable Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Transition-Metal Ions as Building Blocks for Nanostructured Polymers and Composites,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1827–1832 (1998).
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Gobrecht, J.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
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Gray, D. H.

D. H. Gray and D. L. Gin, “Polymerizable Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Transition-Metal Ions as Building Blocks for Nanostructured Polymers and Composites,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1827–1832 (1998).
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Gu, W.

D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Z.-Z.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
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Gupta, V. K.

V. K. Gupta and N. L. Abbot, “Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates,” Science 276(5318), 1533–1536 (1997).
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Han, J.-M.

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hanft, D.

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
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Heitzman, C. E.

H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
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Hoogboom, J.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoshino, K.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, J.-Y.

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jandke, M.

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.-Y.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jo, S. I.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ju, B.-K.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kagata, T.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, Y.-G.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
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Kato, T.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawatsuki, N.

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
[Crossref]

Keller, P.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
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Kelly, S. M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
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Kim, B.-Y.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-J.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. G.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. M.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. S.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-H.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-K.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kitamura, T.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kondo, K.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kubo, S.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, K.

H. Miyata and K. Kuroda, “Alignment of Mesoporous Silica on a Glass Substrate by a Rubbing Method,” Chem. Mater. 11(6), 1609–1614 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ladoux, B.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazarenko, S. V.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, G.-D.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. K.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-J.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-M.

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-K.

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-H.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liebert, L.

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.-H.

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. F.

J. F. Lin and Y. L. Lo, “Optical Retardation Measurement Using a Zeeman Laser,” Key Eng. Mater. 326–328, 191–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lo, Y. L.

J. F. Lin and Y. L. Lo, “Optical Retardation Measurement Using a Zeeman Laser,” Key Eng. Mater. 326–328, 191–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, R.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lyu, J.-J.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

McCulloch, I.

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miyata, H.

H. Miyata and K. Kuroda, “Alignment of Mesoporous Silica on a Glass Substrate by a Rubbing Method,” Chem. Mater. 11(6), 1609–1614 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukoh, A.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Na, H.-J.

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nagano, S.

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nolte, R. J. M.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, B.-Y.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ohno, H.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otten, M. B. J.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ouchi, Y.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Padeste, C.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-G.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pindzola, B. A.

D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prompinit, P.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rasing, T.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rowan, A. E.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sánchez, C.

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sato, O.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
[Crossref]

Scharf, T.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schift, H.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
[Crossref]

Segawa, H.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
[Crossref]

Seki, T.

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
[Crossref]

Seo, D.-S.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shkunov, M.

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

Silberzan, P.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sly, J.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strohriegl, P.

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

Strzelecki, L.

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, K.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Thiem, H.

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tu, H.

H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Haaren, J.

J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verbakel, F.

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Viet, T. N. T.

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wälti, C.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber-Koehl, E.

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yoshio, M.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. J.

J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.-Y.

J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W. J.

D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (5)

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. H. Gray and D. L. Gin, “Polymerizable Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Transition-Metal Ions as Building Blocks for Nanostructured Polymers and Composites,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1827–1832 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Miyata and K. Kuroda, “Alignment of Mesoporous Silica on a Glass Substrate by a Rubbing Method,” Chem. Mater. 11(6), 1609–1614 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (3)

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
[Crossref]

Key Eng. Mater. (1)

J. F. Lin and Y. L. Lo, “Optical Retardation Measurement Using a Zeeman Laser,” Key Eng. Mater. 326–328, 191–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (2)

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. (1)

D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

V. K. Gupta and N. L. Abbot, “Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates,” Science 276(5318), 1533–1536 (1997).
[Crossref]

Soft Matter (1)

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of fabrication via the imprinting method. An RM monolayer detached and implementation of these imprinted PI layers in the VA mode cell.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 AFM images of homeotropic PI, the imprinted cell, and the rubbed cell.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A Rotation angle dependence of the optical retardation of rubbing, imprinting, and homeotropic PI surfaces: a) 60% homeotropic PI, b) 70% homeotropic PI, c) 80% homeotropic PI, d) 90% homeotropic PI.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Pretilt angles of LC molecules on imprinted RM layers with polarized UV exposure and rubbing treatment as a function of hometropic PI ratio.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Response time of imprinted and rubbed VA cells: a) rise time of imprinted VA cell, b) decay time of imprinted VA cell, c) rise time of rubbed VA cell, d) decay time of rubbed VA cell.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Voltage-transmittance properties of VA cells: a) imprinted VA cell, b) rubbed VA cell.

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