Abstract

We report a metamaterial based microwindmill array with a periodic arrangement that can be used in terahertz detector as an absorbing layer. It is found that this structure can absorb terahertz waves efficiently with an average absorptivity of 95% at multiple frequencies of 1.516, 2.205, 2.424 and 2.565 THz, which are absorption peaks of four kinds of drugs. The efficient absorbing property of meta-microwindmill on terahertz wave can be explained in terms of the synergetic effects of localized surface plasmon resonant effect and slow light mode. Moreover, the effect of the error of the structural parameters on the absorption efficiency is carefully analyzed in detail to guide the fabrication.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Oliveira, R. Barat, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, J. Federici, and D. Gary, “Neural network analysis of terahertz spectra of explosives and bio-agents,” Proc. SPIE5070, 60–70 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H.-B. Liu, Y. Chen, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection and identification of explosive RDX by THz diffuse reflection spectroscopy,” Opt. Express14(1), 415–423 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. W. M. Lee and Q. Hu, “Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging by use of a microbolometer focal-plane array,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2563–2565 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 micro-bolometer focal plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Oda, A. W. M. Lee, T. Ishi, I. Hosako, and Q. Hu, “Proposal for real-time terahertz imaging system with palm-size terahertz camera and compact quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630A (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Shen, T. J. Cui, J. Zhao, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, and H. Li, “Polarization-independent wide-angle triple-band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express19(10), 9401–9407 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt.13(7), 075005 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Cao, W. Yu, T. Wang, Z. Xu, C. Wang, Y. Fu, and Y. Liu, “Two-dimensional subwavelength meta-nanopillar array for efficient visible light absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(16), 161109 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano5(6), 4641–4647 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Q. Liang, W. Yu, W. Zhao, T. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Tao, “Numerical study of the meta-nanopyramid array as efficient solar energy absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express3(8), 1187–1196 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Ma, Q. Chen, J. Grant, S. C. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A terahertz polarization insensitive dual band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 945–947 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Z. C. Chen, M. H. Hong, C. S. Lim, N. R. Han, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel laser microfabrication of large-area asymmetric split ring resonator metamaterials and its structural tuning for terahertz resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(18), 181101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, B. Luk’yanchuk, and T. C. Chong, “Hybrid metamaterial design and fabrication for terahertz resonance response enhancement,” Opt. Express18(12), 12421–12429 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Z. C. Chen, M. Rahmani, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Realization of variable three-dimensional terahertz metamaterial tubes for passive resonance tunability,” Adv. Mater.24(23), 143–147 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  23. Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, Z. Y. Pan, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Tunable resonance enhancement of multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabricated by parallel laser micro-lens array lithography on flexible substrates,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 151–157 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, and M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express19(8), 6990–6998 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. Cheng, J. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Wang, N. Zhang, and L. Deng, “Pantoscopic and polarization-insensitive perfect absorbers in the middle infrared spectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(6), 1503–1510 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

S. Cao, W. Yu, T. Wang, Z. Xu, C. Wang, Y. Fu, and Y. Liu, “Two-dimensional subwavelength meta-nanopillar array for efficient visible light absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(16), 161109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liang, W. Yu, W. Zhao, T. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Tao, “Numerical study of the meta-nanopyramid array as efficient solar energy absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express3(8), 1187–1196 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

D. Cheng, J. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Wang, N. Zhang, and L. Deng, “Pantoscopic and polarization-insensitive perfect absorbers in the middle infrared spectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(6), 1503–1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Chen, M. Rahmani, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Realization of variable three-dimensional terahertz metamaterial tubes for passive resonance tunability,” Adv. Mater.24(23), 143–147 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. Oda, A. W. M. Lee, T. Ishi, I. Hosako, and Q. Hu, “Proposal for real-time terahertz imaging system with palm-size terahertz camera and compact quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630A (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano5(6), 4641–4647 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt.13(7), 075005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ma, Q. Chen, J. Grant, S. C. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A terahertz polarization insensitive dual band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 945–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, and M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express19(8), 6990–6998 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shen, T. J. Cui, J. Zhao, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, and H. Li, “Polarization-independent wide-angle triple-band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express19(10), 9401–9407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, Z. Y. Pan, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Tunable resonance enhancement of multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabricated by parallel laser micro-lens array lithography on flexible substrates,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 151–157 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, B. Luk’yanchuk, and T. C. Chong, “Hybrid metamaterial design and fabrication for terahertz resonance response enhancement,” Opt. Express18(12), 12421–12429 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Chen, M. H. Hong, C. S. Lim, N. R. Han, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel laser microfabrication of large-area asymmetric split ring resonator metamaterials and its structural tuning for terahertz resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H.-B. Liu, Y. Chen, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection and identification of explosive RDX by THz diffuse reflection spectroscopy,” Opt. Express14(1), 415–423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 micro-bolometer focal plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee and Q. Hu, “Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging by use of a microbolometer focal-plane array,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2563–2565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

F. Oliveira, R. Barat, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, J. Federici, and D. Gary, “Neural network analysis of terahertz spectra of explosives and bio-agents,” Proc. SPIE5070, 60–70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnaud, A.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Oliveira, R. Barat, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, J. Federici, and D. Gary, “Neural network analysis of terahertz spectra of explosives and bio-agents,” Proc. SPIE5070, 60–70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastiaans, G. J.

Bingham, C. M.

Cai, G.

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt.13(7), 075005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, S.

S. Cao, W. Yu, T. Wang, Z. Xu, C. Wang, Y. Fu, and Y. Liu, “Two-dimensional subwavelength meta-nanopillar array for efficient visible light absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(16), 161109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Castelein, P.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z. C.

Cheng, D.

Chong, T. C.

Z. C. Chen, M. Rahmani, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Realization of variable three-dimensional terahertz metamaterial tubes for passive resonance tunability,” Adv. Mater.24(23), 143–147 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, Z. Y. Pan, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Tunable resonance enhancement of multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabricated by parallel laser micro-lens array lithography on flexible substrates,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 151–157 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, B. Luk’yanchuk, and T. C. Chong, “Hybrid metamaterial design and fabrication for terahertz resonance response enhancement,” Opt. Express18(12), 12421–12429 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Chen, M. H. Hong, C. S. Lim, N. R. Han, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel laser microfabrication of large-area asymmetric split ring resonator metamaterials and its structural tuning for terahertz resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cumming, D. R. S.

Deng, L.

Ding, P.

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt.13(7), 075005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, C.

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt.13(7), 075005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N. X.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Federici, J.

F. Oliveira, R. Barat, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, J. Federici, and D. Gary, “Neural network analysis of terahertz spectra of explosives and bio-agents,” Proc. SPIE5070, 60–70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

S. Cao, W. Yu, T. Wang, Z. Xu, C. Wang, Y. Fu, and Y. Liu, “Two-dimensional subwavelength meta-nanopillar array for efficient visible light absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(16), 161109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fung, K. H.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Oliveira, R. Barat, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, J. Federici, and D. Gary, “Neural network analysis of terahertz spectra of explosives and bio-agents,” Proc. SPIE5070, 60–70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gellie, P.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, Y. D.

Z. C. Chen, M. Rahmani, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Realization of variable three-dimensional terahertz metamaterial tubes for passive resonance tunability,” Adv. Mater.24(23), 143–147 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, Z. Y. Pan, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Tunable resonance enhancement of multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabricated by parallel laser micro-lens array lithography on flexible substrates,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 151–157 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goudon, V.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grant, J.

Hairsult, L.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, N. R.

Hao, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, M. H.

Hosako, I.

N. Oda, A. W. M. Lee, T. Ishi, I. Hosako, and Q. Hu, “Proposal for real-time terahertz imaging system with palm-size terahertz camera and compact quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630A (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

N. Oda, A. W. M. Lee, T. Ishi, I. Hosako, and Q. Hu, “Proposal for real-time terahertz imaging system with palm-size terahertz camera and compact quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630A (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 micro-bolometer focal plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee and Q. Hu, “Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging by use of a microbolometer focal-plane array,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2563–2565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt.13(7), 075005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Oliveira, R. Barat, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, J. Federici, and D. Gary, “Neural network analysis of terahertz spectra of explosives and bio-agents,” Proc. SPIE5070, 60–70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Imperinetti, P.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Irie, T.

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishi, T.

N. Oda, A. W. M. Lee, T. Ishi, I. Hosako, and Q. Hu, “Proposal for real-time terahertz imaging system with palm-size terahertz camera and compact quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W. X.

Jiang, Z. H.

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano5(6), 4641–4647 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, Y.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalid, A.

Kumar, S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 micro-bolometer focal plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurashina, S.

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne Dera, J.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

Lee, A. W. M.

N. Oda, A. W. M. Lee, T. Ishi, I. Hosako, and Q. Hu, “Proposal for real-time terahertz imaging system with palm-size terahertz camera and compact quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630A (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 micro-bolometer focal plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee and Q. Hu, “Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging by use of a microbolometer focal-plane array,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2563–2565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Liang, E.

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt.13(7), 075005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Q.

Lim, C. S.

Liu, H.-B.

Liu, X.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

S. Cao, W. Yu, T. Wang, Z. Xu, C. Wang, Y. Fu, and Y. Liu, “Two-dimensional subwavelength meta-nanopillar array for efficient visible light absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(16), 161109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

Ma, H.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H. F.

Ma, Y.

Maillou, T.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, T. S.

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano5(6), 4641–4647 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meilham, J.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, M.

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, B.

Oda, N.

N. Oda, A. W. M. Lee, T. Ishi, I. Hosako, and Q. Hu, “Proposal for real-time terahertz imaging system with palm-size terahertz camera and compact quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630A (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohuichi, S.

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Oliveira, R. Barat, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, J. Federici, and D. Gary, “Neural network analysis of terahertz spectra of explosives and bio-agents,” Proc. SPIE5070, 60–70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ouvier Buffet, J. L.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Z. Y.

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pocas, S.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rahmani, M.

Z. C. Chen, M. Rahmani, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Realization of variable three-dimensional terahertz metamaterial tubes for passive resonance tunability,” Adv. Mater.24(23), 143–147 (2012).
[PubMed]

Reno, J. L.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 micro-bolometer focal plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saha, S. C.

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sano, M.

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Oliveira, R. Barat, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, J. Federici, and D. Gary, “Neural network analysis of terahertz spectra of explosives and bio-agents,” Proc. SPIE5070, 60–70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekine, N.

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

Shi, L. P.

Z. C. Chen, M. H. Hong, C. S. Lim, N. R. Han, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel laser microfabrication of large-area asymmetric split ring resonator metamaterials and its structural tuning for terahertz resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simoens, F.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonoda, K.

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudoh, T.

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sudou, T.

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, H.

Tao, S.

Toor, F.

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano5(6), 4641–4647 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

S. Cao, W. Yu, T. Wang, Z. Xu, C. Wang, Y. Fu, and Y. Liu, “Two-dimensional subwavelength meta-nanopillar array for efficient visible light absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(16), 161109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Cheng, J. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Wang, N. Zhang, and L. Deng, “Pantoscopic and polarization-insensitive perfect absorbers in the middle infrared spectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(6), 1503–1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

S. Cao, W. Yu, T. Wang, Z. Xu, C. Wang, Y. Fu, and Y. Liu, “Two-dimensional subwavelength meta-nanopillar array for efficient visible light absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(16), 161109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liang, W. Yu, W. Zhao, T. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Tao, “Numerical study of the meta-nanopyramid array as efficient solar energy absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express3(8), 1187–1196 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Werner, D. H.

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano5(6), 4641–4647 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, B. S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 micro-bolometer focal plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

Xu, J.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

S. Cao, W. Yu, T. Wang, Z. Xu, C. Wang, Y. Fu, and Y. Liu, “Two-dimensional subwavelength meta-nanopillar array for efficient visible light absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(16), 161109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xue, Q.

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt.13(7), 075005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoneyama, H.

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

S. Cao, W. Yu, T. Wang, Z. Xu, C. Wang, Y. Fu, and Y. Liu, “Two-dimensional subwavelength meta-nanopillar array for efficient visible light absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(16), 161109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liang, W. Yu, W. Zhao, T. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Tao, “Numerical study of the meta-nanopyramid array as efficient solar energy absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express3(8), 1187–1196 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S.

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano5(6), 4641–4647 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, N.

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

Zhao, J.

Zhao, W.

Zhou, L.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano5(6), 4641–4647 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

Z. C. Chen, M. Rahmani, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Realization of variable three-dimensional terahertz metamaterial tubes for passive resonance tunability,” Adv. Mater.24(23), 143–147 (2012).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Cao, W. Yu, T. Wang, Z. Xu, C. Wang, Y. Fu, and Y. Liu, “Two-dimensional subwavelength meta-nanopillar array for efficient visible light absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(16), 161109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Chen, M. H. Hong, C. S. Lim, N. R. Han, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel laser microfabrication of large-area asymmetric split ring resonator metamaterials and its structural tuning for terahertz resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 micro-bolometer focal plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt.13(7), 075005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nano Lett.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Proc. SPIE

N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, T. Sasaki, M. Sano, S. Kurashina, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudoh, and T. Irie, “Detection of terahertz radiation from quantum cascade laser, using vanadium oxide microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE6940, 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, M. Sano, K. Sonoda, H. Yoneyama, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, T. Sasaki, I. Hosako, N. Sekine, T. Sudou, and S. Ohuichi, “Development of terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera,” Proc. SPIE8012, 80121B (2011).
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N. Oda, A. W. M. Lee, T. Ishi, I. Hosako, and Q. Hu, “Proposal for real-time terahertz imaging system with palm-size terahertz camera and compact quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630A (2012).
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F. Simoens, A. Arnaud, P. Castelein, V. Goudon, P. Imperinetti, J. Lalanne Dera, J. Meilham, J. L. Ouvier Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, L. Hairsult, P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, and C. Sirtori, “Development of uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array for explosive detection and identification,” Proc. SPIE7837, 78370B (2010).
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F. Oliveira, R. Barat, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, J. Federici, and D. Gary, “Neural network analysis of terahertz spectra of explosives and bio-agents,” Proc. SPIE5070, 60–70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of meta-microwindmill terahertz absorber: (a) microwindmill structure on the top of a polyimide spacer and one unit cell showing the direction of propagation of incident EM waves, and (b) cross-sectional view of the unit cell. The wide (L) and length (P) of unit cell are L = 144 μm and P = 120 μm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of the meta-microwindmill absorber. (a) Absorption (red), reflection (blue) and transmission (pink) against frequency for normal incident terahertz wave, and (b) Absorption against frequency for different incident angles of 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° for TM wave.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of power density for the metamaterial microwindmill absorber in the plane z = 0 μm at four resonant frequencies. (a) 1.516 THz, (b) 2.205 THz, (c) 2.424 THz, and (d) 2.565 THz, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distribution of electric field for the metamaterial microwindmill absorber in the plane z = 0 μm at four resonant frequencies. (a) 1.516 THz, (b) 2.205 THz, (c)2.424 THz, and (d) 2.565 THz, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric energy density and energy loss density of the meta-microwindmill absorber along z axis under the subunit 3. (a) electric energy density, (b) energy loss density, (b1) detail view of energy loss density in the dielectric layer at 1.516 THz resonant frequency, and (c) energy loss density at 2 THz nonresonant frequency.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distributions of the normalized magnetic field and the energy flow for the microwindmill absorber in the plane of z = −2 μm and −4 μm at 2.424 THz. (a) magnetic energy distribution in the plane of z = -2 μm, (b) energy flow distribution in z = -2 μm, (c) magnetic energy distribution in z = -4 μm, and (d) energy flow distribution in z = -4 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption spectra of meta-microwindmill absorber at different parameters errors. (a) With different gaps between the opposite subunits (t) (when r = 0 μm), (b) With different radius (r) at the vertex of the microfan (when t = 5 μm), (b1) Detailed view of absorption peak at around 2.43 THz in Fig. 7(b) and (b2) Detailed view of absorption peak at around 2.57 THz in Fig. 7(b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimized width (a) and length (b) of the rectangles for four subunits of the microwindmill structure.

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