Abstract

Effects of the polarization field distribution in the quantum well layer of InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on their photoelectric properties are numerically studied. Specifically, the polarization and built-in electricfield distributions, energy band diagrams, carrier concentrations, radiative recombination rate, carrier current density, electroluminescence (EL) spectra, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) are investigated. The simulation results suggest that the triangular polarization field distribution contributes to uniform carrier distribution in the quantum wells, which inhibits electron current leakage and enhances radiative recombination. In addition, the effects of the polarization field on InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) are effectively suppressed by implementation of triangular MQWs, which leads to minimization of the resulting efficiency droop. LEDs incorporated with triangular MQWs with gallium face-oriented inclination band profiles exhibit a 128% improvement in EL intensity at 20 mA and a 9% reduction in droop at 100 mA in comparison to the conventional square-MQW LEDs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(14), 143506 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(9), 091111 (2014).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-P. Lan, C.-C. Lin, P.-T. Lee, M.-H. Shih, Y.-K. Kuo, and H.-C. Kuo, “Hole injection and electron overflow improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express22(1), 463–469 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys.114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(23), 231118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

L.-H. Zhu, Q.-H. Zheng, and B.-L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangular-shaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(12), 125003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, and L. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng.50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balke, H.

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng.50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baranowski, M.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bellotti, E.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(23), 231118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bertazzi, F.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys.114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(23), 231118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Binot, R. A.

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng.50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borghs, G.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(9), 091111 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.-J.

Chen, R.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(14), 143506 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.-H.

Choi, R.

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cook, L.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

Craven, M.

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Dong, X.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

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D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
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G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys.114(7), 071101 (2013).
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F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
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R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
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S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041116 (2012).
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C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
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K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061116 (2009).
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J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
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F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
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S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
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S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
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C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
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C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
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C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
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Kuo, Y.-K.

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C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
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C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
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R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
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Lee, P.-T.

Li, D.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
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C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(9), 091111 (2014).
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C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
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C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
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C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
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L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
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L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
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Lin, C.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
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Liu, B.-L.

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Liu, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(14), 143506 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-C.

C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(9), 091111 (2014).
[CrossRef]

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F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng.50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meneghesso, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys.114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys.114(7), 071101 (2013).
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F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mur, L. R.

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng.50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, F. A.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Ram-Mohan, L.

I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, and L. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rudaz, S.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J.-H.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saguatti, D.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys.114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shatalov, M.

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

Shen, Y.-C.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.-H.

Shim, H.

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steranka, F.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, S.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Subramanya, S.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E.

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(14), 143506 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(14), 143506 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. T.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(14), 143506 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

Trottier, T.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vampola, K. J.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Hes, U. M.

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng.50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verzellesi, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys.114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, and L. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-H.

Wang, G.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xian, Y.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, E.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys.114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(14), 143506 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(14), 143506 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

Zheng, Q.-H.

L.-H. Zhu, Q.-H. Zheng, and B.-L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangular-shaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(12), 125003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Zhu, L.-H.

L.-H. Zhu, Q.-H. Zheng, and B.-L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangular-shaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(12), 125003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(23), 231118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(14), 143506 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(9), 091111 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Biotechnol. Bioeng. (1)

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng.50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys.114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, and L. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T.-J. Yang, J. S. Speck, and Y.-R. Wu, “Influence of nanoscale indium fluctuation in the InGaN quantum-well LED to the efficiency droop with a fully 3D simulation model,” in SPIE OPTO(International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), pp. 89861I–89861I–89868.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of LED structures and (b) distribution of indium composition in SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, and NOAT-MQW.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distribution of polarization field (a) and built-in electricfield (b) for SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, andNOAT-MQW at 20 mA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy band diagram(a) and enlarged drawing(b) of QW near EBL of SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW and NOAT-MQW at 20 mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distribution of carrier concentrations (a) and radiative recombination rates(b) of SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, and NOAT-MQW structures at 20 mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distribution of hole current densities(a) and electron current densities(b) for SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, andNOAT MQW at 20 mA. Inset: Enlarged drawing of current densities near the EBL of the triangular QWs structures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electroluminescence (EL) spectra at 20 mA(a) and IQE as a function of current density (b) for SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, andNOAT-MQW.

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