Abstract

A flexible hybrid structure electroluminescent (HSEL) device was fabricated from ZnS:Cu phosphor microparticles dispersed in a UV-curable polymer matrix. We observed a maximum luminance of 111 cd/m2 at 10 kHz and 170 V from a device wherein the mixing ratio between the phosphor particles and highly dielectric polymer binder was 70:30 wt%. Furthermore, by uniformly dispersing highly dielectric BaTiO3 nanoparticles within the polymer matrix, we were able to obtain a luminance of up to 211 cd/m2 in the HSEL device. Compared to the conventional thermal curing process, this UV process greatly simplifies the fabrication steps by combining phosphors and dielectric materials at room temperature. This process also demonstrates a promising pathway toward creating flexible and printed EL devices in the future.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K.-I. Park, J. H. Son, G.-T. Hwang, C. K. Jeong, J. Ryu, M. Koo, I. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Byun, Z. L. Wang, and K. J. Lee, “Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater.26(16), 2514–2520 (2014).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Kobayashi, K. Ohmi, K. Ichino, and T. Kunimoto, “Research on inorganic electroluminescence – present status,” Phys. Status Solidi205(1), 11–14 (2008).
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  8. P. D. Rack and P. H. Holloway, “The structure, device physics, and material properties of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Mater. Sci. Eng.R21, 171–219 (1997).
  9. A. N. Krasnov, “Selection of dielectrics for alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent device,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 1–13 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. E. Howard, “The importance of insulator properties in a thin-film electroluminescent device,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.24(7), 903–908 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Satoh, N. Nakatsuta, K. Tsuruya, Y. Tabata, T. Tamura, Y. Ichikawa, and H. Tango, “Electrical properties of two-sided luminescence powder-distributed inorganic electroluminescence panels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.18(S1), 239–242 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. J. Kim, D. W. Shin, J.-Y. Kim, S. H. Park, I. T. Han, and J. B. Yoo, “The production of a flexible electroluminescent device on polyethylene terephthalate films using transparent conducting carbon nanotube electrode,” Carbon47(15), 3461–3465 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Y. Kim, M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, S. Song, J. Lee, I. Han, J. B. Yoo, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Electroluminescence enhancement of the phosphor dispersed in a polymer matrix using the tandem structure,” Org. Electron.12(3), 529–533 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Y. Kim, H. Kim, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Enhanced electroluminescence performances by controlling the position of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys.112(10), 104515 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Shinoya, T. Koda, K. Era, and H. Fujiwara, “Nature of luminescence transitions in ZnS crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.19(7), 1157–1167 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Manzoor, S. R. Vadera, N. Kumar, and T. R. N. Kutty, “Multicolor electroluminescent devices using doped ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 284–286 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. G. Fischer, “Electroluminescent lines in ZnS powder particles I,” J. Electrochem. Soc.109(11), 1043–1049 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. G. Fischer, “Electroluminescent lines in ZnS powder particles II,” J. Electrochem. Soc.110(7), 733–748 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. I. Abdalla, A. Godin, A. Brenac, and J.-P. Noblanc, “Electrical conduction and degradation mechanisms in powder ZnS:Mn,Cu direct current electroluminescent devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.28(6), 689–693 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. H. Cumpston and K. F. Jensen, “Electromigration of aluminum cathodes in polymer-based electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(25), 3941–3943 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Hirabayashi, H. Kozawaguchi, and B. Tsujiyama, “Study on A-C powder EL phosphor deterioration factors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.130(11), 2259–2263 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Bhattacharyya, S. M. Goodnick, and J. F. Wager, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys.73(7), 3390–3395 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Bringuier, “Impact excitation in ZnS-type electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4505–4512 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. J. Bergman, “The dielectric constant of a composite material-A problem in classical physics,” Phys. Rep.43(9), 377–407 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

K.-I. Park, J. H. Son, G.-T. Hwang, C. K. Jeong, J. Ryu, M. Koo, I. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Byun, Z. L. Wang, and K. J. Lee, “Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater.26(16), 2514–2520 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Kim, H. Kim, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Enhanced electroluminescence performances by controlling the position of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys.112(10), 104515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. Y. Kim, M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, S. Song, J. Lee, I. Han, J. B. Yoo, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Electroluminescence enhancement of the phosphor dispersed in a polymer matrix using the tandem structure,” Org. Electron.12(3), 529–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. J. Kim, D. W. Shin, J.-Y. Kim, S. H. Park, I. T. Han, and J. B. Yoo, “The production of a flexible electroluminescent device on polyethylene terephthalate films using transparent conducting carbon nanotube electrode,” Carbon47(15), 3461–3465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. Kobayashi, K. Ohmi, K. Ichino, and T. Kunimoto, “Research on inorganic electroluminescence – present status,” Phys. Status Solidi205(1), 11–14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Satoh, N. Nakatsuta, K. Tsuruya, Y. Tabata, T. Tamura, Y. Ichikawa, and H. Tango, “Electrical properties of two-sided luminescence powder-distributed inorganic electroluminescence panels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.18(S1), 239–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Manzoor, S. R. Vadera, N. Kumar, and T. R. N. Kutty, “Multicolor electroluminescent devices using doped ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 284–286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. N. Krasnov, “Selection of dielectrics for alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent device,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 1–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. D. Rack and P. H. Holloway, “The structure, device physics, and material properties of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Mater. Sci. Eng.R21, 171–219 (1997).

1996 (1)

B. H. Cumpston and K. F. Jensen, “Electromigration of aluminum cathodes in polymer-based electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(25), 3941–3943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Bhattacharyya, S. M. Goodnick, and J. F. Wager, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys.73(7), 3390–3395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. Bringuier, “Impact excitation in ZnS-type electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4505–4512 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

K. Hirabayashi, H. Kozawaguchi, and B. Tsujiyama, “Study on A-C powder EL phosphor deterioration factors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.130(11), 2259–2263 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. I. Abdalla, A. Godin, A. Brenac, and J.-P. Noblanc, “Electrical conduction and degradation mechanisms in powder ZnS:Mn,Cu direct current electroluminescent devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.28(6), 689–693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. J. Bergman, “The dielectric constant of a composite material-A problem in classical physics,” Phys. Rep.43(9), 377–407 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

W. E. Howard, “The importance of insulator properties in a thin-film electroluminescent device,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.24(7), 903–908 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

S. Shinoya, T. Koda, K. Era, and H. Fujiwara, “Nature of luminescence transitions in ZnS crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.19(7), 1157–1167 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

A. G. Fischer, “Electroluminescent lines in ZnS powder particles II,” J. Electrochem. Soc.110(7), 733–748 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

A. G. Fischer, “Electroluminescent lines in ZnS powder particles I,” J. Electrochem. Soc.109(11), 1043–1049 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aazou, S.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Abdalla, M. I.

M. I. Abdalla, A. Godin, A. Brenac, and J.-P. Noblanc, “Electrical conduction and degradation mechanisms in powder ZnS:Mn,Cu direct current electroluminescent devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.28(6), 689–693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Amsden, J. J.

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, M. J.

J. Y. Kim, M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, S. Song, J. Lee, I. Han, J. B. Yoo, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Electroluminescence enhancement of the phosphor dispersed in a polymer matrix using the tandem structure,” Org. Electron.12(3), 529–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman, “The dielectric constant of a composite material-A problem in classical physics,” Phys. Rep.43(9), 377–407 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, K.

K. Bhattacharyya, S. M. Goodnick, and J. F. Wager, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys.73(7), 3390–3395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, J. A.

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenac, A.

M. I. Abdalla, A. Godin, A. Brenac, and J.-P. Noblanc, “Electrical conduction and degradation mechanisms in powder ZnS:Mn,Cu direct current electroluminescent devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.28(6), 689–693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bringuier, E.

E. Bringuier, “Impact excitation in ZnS-type electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4505–4512 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Byun, M.

K.-I. Park, J. H. Son, G.-T. Hwang, C. K. Jeong, J. Ryu, M. Koo, I. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Byun, Z. L. Wang, and K. J. Lee, “Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater.26(16), 2514–2520 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, I.

K.-I. Park, J. H. Son, G.-T. Hwang, C. K. Jeong, J. Ryu, M. Koo, I. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Byun, Z. L. Wang, and K. J. Lee, “Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater.26(16), 2514–2520 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choquette, K.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contreras, D.

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston and K. F. Jensen, “Electromigration of aluminum cathodes in polymer-based electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(25), 3941–3943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Egbe, D. A. M.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Elvikis, P.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Era, K.

S. Shinoya, T. Koda, K. Era, and H. Fujiwara, “Nature of luminescence transitions in ZnS crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.19(7), 1157–1167 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, P.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, A. G.

A. G. Fischer, “Electroluminescent lines in ZnS powder particles II,” J. Electrochem. Soc.110(7), 733–748 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Fischer, “Electroluminescent lines in ZnS powder particles I,” J. Electrochem. Soc.109(11), 1043–1049 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Frechette, E. S.

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujiwara, H.

S. Shinoya, T. Koda, K. Era, and H. Fujiwara, “Nature of luminescence transitions in ZnS crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.19(7), 1157–1167 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Glowacki, E. D.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Godin, A.

M. I. Abdalla, A. Godin, A. Brenac, and J.-P. Noblanc, “Electrical conduction and degradation mechanisms in powder ZnS:Mn,Cu direct current electroluminescent devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.28(6), 689–693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Goodnick, S. M.

K. Bhattacharyya, S. M. Goodnick, and J. F. Wager, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys.73(7), 3390–3395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Graz, I.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gutnichenko, K.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Han, I.

J. Y. Kim, M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, S. Song, J. Lee, I. Han, J. B. Yoo, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Electroluminescence enhancement of the phosphor dispersed in a polymer matrix using the tandem structure,” Org. Electron.12(3), 529–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, I. T.

M. J. Kim, D. W. Shin, J.-Y. Kim, S. H. Park, I. T. Han, and J. B. Yoo, “The production of a flexible electroluminescent device on polyethylene terephthalate films using transparent conducting carbon nanotube electrode,” Carbon47(15), 3461–3465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, K.

K. Hirabayashi, H. Kozawaguchi, and B. Tsujiyama, “Study on A-C powder EL phosphor deterioration factors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.130(11), 2259–2263 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, P. H.

P. D. Rack and P. H. Holloway, “The structure, device physics, and material properties of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Mater. Sci. Eng.R21, 171–219 (1997).

Howard, W. E.

W. E. Howard, “The importance of insulator properties in a thin-film electroluminescent device,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.24(7), 903–908 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, G.-T.

K.-I. Park, J. H. Son, G.-T. Hwang, C. K. Jeong, J. Ryu, M. Koo, I. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Byun, Z. L. Wang, and K. J. Lee, “Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater.26(16), 2514–2520 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, K.-C.

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T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
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T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
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S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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J. Y. Kim, H. Kim, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Enhanced electroluminescence performances by controlling the position of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys.112(10), 104515 (2012).
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J. Y. Kim, M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, S. Song, J. Lee, I. Han, J. B. Yoo, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Electroluminescence enhancement of the phosphor dispersed in a polymer matrix using the tandem structure,” Org. Electron.12(3), 529–533 (2011).
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M. J. Kim, D. W. Shin, J.-Y. Kim, S. H. Park, I. T. Han, and J. B. Yoo, “The production of a flexible electroluminescent device on polyethylene terephthalate films using transparent conducting carbon nanotube electrode,” Carbon47(15), 3461–3465 (2009).
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S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
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H. Kobayashi, K. Ohmi, K. Ichino, and T. Kunimoto, “Research on inorganic electroluminescence – present status,” Phys. Status Solidi205(1), 11–14 (2008).
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K. Manzoor, S. R. Vadera, N. Kumar, and T. R. N. Kutty, “Multicolor electroluminescent devices using doped ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 284–286 (2004).
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J. Y. Kim, M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, S. Song, J. Lee, I. Han, J. B. Yoo, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Electroluminescence enhancement of the phosphor dispersed in a polymer matrix using the tandem structure,” Org. Electron.12(3), 529–533 (2011).
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K.-I. Park, J. H. Son, G.-T. Hwang, C. K. Jeong, J. Ryu, M. Koo, I. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Byun, Z. L. Wang, and K. J. Lee, “Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater.26(16), 2514–2520 (2014).
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K.-I. Park, J. H. Son, G.-T. Hwang, C. K. Jeong, J. Ryu, M. Koo, I. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Byun, Z. L. Wang, and K. J. Lee, “Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater.26(16), 2514–2520 (2014).
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S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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Li, Y.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
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S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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K. Manzoor, S. R. Vadera, N. Kumar, and T. R. N. Kutty, “Multicolor electroluminescent devices using doped ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 284–286 (2004).
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S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
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D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
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D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pao, H. A.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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K.-I. Park, J. H. Son, G.-T. Hwang, C. K. Jeong, J. Ryu, M. Koo, I. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Byun, Z. L. Wang, and K. J. Lee, “Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater.26(16), 2514–2520 (2014).
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Park, S. H.

J. Y. Kim, M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, S. Song, J. Lee, I. Han, J. B. Yoo, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Electroluminescence enhancement of the phosphor dispersed in a polymer matrix using the tandem structure,” Org. Electron.12(3), 529–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kim, D. W. Shin, J.-Y. Kim, S. H. Park, I. T. Han, and J. B. Yoo, “The production of a flexible electroluminescent device on polyethylene terephthalate films using transparent conducting carbon nanotube electrode,” Carbon47(15), 3461–3465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-I.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, J.

K.-I. Park, J. H. Son, G.-T. Hwang, C. K. Jeong, J. Ryu, M. Koo, I. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Byun, Z. L. Wang, and K. J. Lee, “Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater.26(16), 2514–2520 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sariciftci, N. S.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Satoh, T.

T. Satoh, N. Nakatsuta, K. Tsuruya, Y. Tabata, T. Tamura, Y. Ichikawa, and H. Tango, “Electrical properties of two-sided luminescence powder-distributed inorganic electroluminescence panels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.18(S1), 239–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scharber, M. C.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sekitani, T.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. W.

M. J. Kim, D. W. Shin, J.-Y. Kim, S. H. Park, I. T. Han, and J. B. Yoo, “The production of a flexible electroluminescent device on polyethylene terephthalate films using transparent conducting carbon nanotube electrode,” Carbon47(15), 3461–3465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shinoya, S.

S. Shinoya, T. Koda, K. Era, and H. Fujiwara, “Nature of luminescence transitions in ZnS crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.19(7), 1157–1167 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Someya, T.

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

K.-I. Park, J. H. Son, G.-T. Hwang, C. K. Jeong, J. Ryu, M. Koo, I. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Byun, Z. L. Wang, and K. J. Lee, “Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater.26(16), 2514–2520 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, I.-S.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, S.

J. Y. Kim, M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, S. Song, J. Lee, I. Han, J. B. Yoo, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Electroluminescence enhancement of the phosphor dispersed in a polymer matrix using the tandem structure,” Org. Electron.12(3), 529–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tabata, Y.

T. Satoh, N. Nakatsuta, K. Tsuruya, Y. Tabata, T. Tamura, Y. Ichikawa, and H. Tango, “Electrical properties of two-sided luminescence powder-distributed inorganic electroluminescence panels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.18(S1), 239–242 (2007).
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Tamura, T.

T. Satoh, N. Nakatsuta, K. Tsuruya, Y. Tabata, T. Tamura, Y. Ichikawa, and H. Tango, “Electrical properties of two-sided luminescence powder-distributed inorganic electroluminescence panels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.18(S1), 239–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tango, H.

T. Satoh, N. Nakatsuta, K. Tsuruya, Y. Tabata, T. Tamura, Y. Ichikawa, and H. Tango, “Electrical properties of two-sided luminescence powder-distributed inorganic electroluminescence panels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.18(S1), 239–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsujiyama, B.

K. Hirabayashi, H. Kozawaguchi, and B. Tsujiyama, “Study on A-C powder EL phosphor deterioration factors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.130(11), 2259–2263 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tsuruya, K.

T. Satoh, N. Nakatsuta, K. Tsuruya, Y. Tabata, T. Tamura, Y. Ichikawa, and H. Tango, “Electrical properties of two-sided luminescence powder-distributed inorganic electroluminescence panels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.18(S1), 239–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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K. Manzoor, S. R. Vadera, N. Kumar, and T. R. N. Kutty, “Multicolor electroluminescent devices using doped ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 284–286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vigeland, L.

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viventi, J.

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Bhattacharyya, S. M. Goodnick, and J. F. Wager, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys.73(7), 3390–3395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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K.-I. Park, J. H. Son, G.-T. Hwang, C. K. Jeong, J. Ryu, M. Koo, I. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Byun, Z. L. Wang, and K. J. Lee, “Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater.26(16), 2514–2520 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, J.

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, J. B.

J. Y. Kim, M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, S. Song, J. Lee, I. Han, J. B. Yoo, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Electroluminescence enhancement of the phosphor dispersed in a polymer matrix using the tandem structure,” Org. Electron.12(3), 529–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kim, D. W. Shin, J.-Y. Kim, S. H. Park, I. T. Han, and J. B. Yoo, “The production of a flexible electroluminescent device on polyethylene terephthalate films using transparent conducting carbon nanotube electrode,” Carbon47(15), 3461–3465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-J.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, S. G.

J. Y. Kim, H. Kim, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Enhanced electroluminescence performances by controlling the position of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys.112(10), 104515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, S. Song, J. Lee, I. Han, J. B. Yoo, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Electroluminescence enhancement of the phosphor dispersed in a polymer matrix using the tandem structure,” Org. Electron.12(3), 529–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zakin, M. R.

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Manzoor, S. R. Vadera, N. Kumar, and T. R. N. Kutty, “Multicolor electroluminescent devices using doped ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 284–286 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

Carbon (1)

M. J. Kim, D. W. Shin, J.-Y. Kim, S. H. Park, I. T. Han, and J. B. Yoo, “The production of a flexible electroluminescent device on polyethylene terephthalate films using transparent conducting carbon nanotube electrode,” Carbon47(15), 3461–3465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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K. Bhattacharyya, S. M. Goodnick, and J. F. Wager, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys.73(7), 3390–3395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Bringuier, “Impact excitation in ZnS-type electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys.70(8), 4505–4512 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, H. Kim, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Enhanced electroluminescence performances by controlling the position of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys.112(10), 104515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

T. Satoh, N. Nakatsuta, K. Tsuruya, Y. Tabata, T. Tamura, Y. Ichikawa, and H. Tango, “Electrical properties of two-sided luminescence powder-distributed inorganic electroluminescence panels,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.18(S1), 239–242 (2007).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

D.-H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y.-S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics7(10), 811–816 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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J. Y. Kim, M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, S. Song, J. Lee, I. Han, J. B. Yoo, D. Jung, and S. G. Yu, “Electroluminescence enhancement of the phosphor dispersed in a polymer matrix using the tandem structure,” Org. Electron.12(3), 529–533 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the hybrid structure EL (HSEL) device fabrication process. The hybrid phosphor layer is cured by UV irradiation after the mixture of the ZnS:Cu phosphor particles and the polymer binder is dispensed between two transparent electrodes on a flexible PET or a glass substrate. The light is emitted through both the top and bottom surfaces upon applying ac voltage between two electrodes. (b) Light emission from a flexible HSEL device prepared on transparent plastic substrates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM cross-section images of the HSEL devices prepared by (a) thermal and (b) UV-curing of the mixture of phosphor powder and polymer binder. Both of the samples are prepared on ITO coated PET substrates. In the emissive layer, ZnS:Cu phosphor particles are dispersed within a polymer matrix. A defect line and a pinhole created after thermal curing are shown in (a). The top inset in (b) displays a dielectric layer formed after UV-curing. The bottom insets exhibit the optical images of the operating HSEL device. (c) Luminance vs. applied voltage (10 kHz) of HSEL devices prepared by different processes (i.e. screen-printing, thermal curing, and UV-curing)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Luminance vs. applied ac voltage (10 kHz) for different wt% ratios of the phosphor and polymer binder. The inset illustrates the dependence of the luminance on the phosphor contents at 10 kHz and 170 V. (b) Luminance vs. applied ac voltage for different frequencies. The mixing ratio of ZnS:Cu phosphor and polymer binder is 70:30 wt%. The inset shows the surface topography of the HSEL device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Luminance vs. applied ac voltage (10 kHz) for HSEL devices with different formulations of the emitting layer. The weight ratio between the phosphor and BTO particles is varied while the content of the polymer binder is fixed at 30 wt%. The open and solid symbols correspond to the samples without and with BTO dispersion treatment respectively. (b) SEM cross-section images of the UV-cured mixture of BTO powder and polymer binder without (left) and with (right) dispersion treatment. The mixing ratio of BTO powder and polymer binder is 1:2 by weight. The circled regions indicate BTO nanoparticles dispersed in the polymer matrix.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Luminance vs. applied ac voltage (10 kHz) for the HSEL devices with different formulations of the emitting layer. The weight ratio between the polymer binder and the BTO powder is varied while the content of the phosphor is fixed at 70 wt%. (b) Luminance of HSEL devices vs. oxide-polymer composite with different mixing ratio (wt%). The devices are operated under the same condition at 10 kHz and 170 V. The average luminance of a HSEL device with the highest oxide content was up to 211 cd/m2, which is approximately a 280% increase compared to the HSEL device with the reference polymer binder without oxide nanoparticles. The inset displays the optical image of the operating HSEL device with a maximum luminance of 232 cd/m2.

Equations (2)

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ZnS+2 H 2 OS O 2 +Zn+2 H 2 .
E p = ε d ε d L p + ε p L d V

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