Abstract

Electron beam evaporation (without and with plasma assistance) as well as ion beam sputtering are used to prepare optical mixture coatings for applications in the ultraviolet spectral range. It is demonstrated that intermixing aluminum oxide/ aluminum fluoride materials by these physical vapor deposition techniques results in optical coatings with flexible refractive indices varying between 1.40 and 1.75 in the deep ultraviolet spectral region. At the same time, extinction coefficients vary between less than 1x10−4 and 2x10−3. For evaporated layers, at certain mixture ratios, mechanical stress appears to be close to zero.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

2013

X. Li, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Liu, Y. Hou, L. Lin, K. He, and K. Yi, “Influence of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature on the properties of aluminum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.282, 226–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun.283(7), 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “„Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, “All-optical in-situ analysis of PIAD deposition processes,” Proc. SPIE7101, 71010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, S. Kufert, and S. Bublitz, “Characterization of low losses in optical thin films and materials,” Appl. Opt.47(13), C135–C142 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2002

J. Heber, C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “193 nm laser induced luminescence in oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)75(5), 637–640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1990

1987

R. Lewin, R. P. Howson, and C. A. Bishop, “Optical coatings for large area interference filters,” Vacuum37(3–4), 257–260 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

G. L. Harding, “Production and properties of high rate sputtered low index transparent dielectric materials based on aluminium-oxy-fluoride,” Sol. Energy Mater.12(3), 169–186 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1970

W. Heitmann, “Vacuum evaporated films of aluminum fluoride,” Thin Solid Films5(1), 61–67 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Arntzen, M.

Balasa, I.

Baumgarten, B.

Bischoff, M.

Bishop, C. A.

R. Lewin, R. P. Howson, and C. A. Bishop, “Optical coatings for large area interference filters,” Vacuum37(3–4), 257–260 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bitzer, M.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bridou, F.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun.283(7), 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, S.

Bublitz, S.

Burdack, P.

Chuvilin, A.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Commandré, M.

Cuniot-Ponsard, M.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun.283(7), 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Danz, N.

J. Heber, C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “193 nm laser induced luminescence in oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)75(5), 637–640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Desvignes, J.-M.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun.283(7), 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Douti, D. B.

Ebert, J.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ehlers, H.

Eisenkrämer, F.

Friedrich, K.

M. Bischoff, O. Stenzel, K. Friedrich, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, S. Mewes, and N. Kaiser, “Plasma-assisted deposition of metal fluoride coatings and modeling the extinction coefficient of as-deposited single layers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C232–C238 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “„Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gäbler, D.

M. Bischoff, O. Stenzel, K. Friedrich, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, S. Mewes, and N. Kaiser, “Plasma-assisted deposition of metal fluoride coatings and modeling the extinction coefficient of as-deposited single layers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C232–C238 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, H. Steffen, and A. Ohl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of aluminium oxide and aluminium oxifluoride layers for applications in the ultraviolet spectral range,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1681–1687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gallais, L.

Gottwald, A.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun.283(7), 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grössl, M.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harding, G. L.

G. L. Harding, “Production and properties of high rate sputtered low index transparent dielectric materials based on aluminium-oxy-fluoride,” Sol. Energy Mater.12(3), 169–186 (1985).
[CrossRef]

He, K.

X. Li, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Liu, Y. Hou, L. Lin, K. He, and K. Yi, “Influence of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature on the properties of aluminum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.282, 226–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Heber, J.

J. Heber, C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “193 nm laser induced luminescence in oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)75(5), 637–640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, W.

W. Heitmann, “Vacuum evaporated films of aluminum fluoride,” Thin Solid Films5(1), 61–67 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Held, M.

Hou, Y.

X. Li, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Liu, Y. Hou, L. Lin, K. He, and K. Yi, “Influence of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature on the properties of aluminum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.282, 226–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Howson, R. P.

R. Lewin, R. P. Howson, and C. A. Bishop, “Optical coatings for large area interference filters,” Vacuum37(3–4), 257–260 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jakobs, S.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, M. Schürmann, N. Kaiser, H. Ehlers, M. Mende, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, M. Stolze, M. Held, H. Niederwald, T. Koch, W. Riggers, P. Burdack, G. Mark, R. Schäfer, S. Mewes, M. Bischoff, M. Arntzen, F. Eisenkrämer, M. Lappschies, S. Jakobs, S. Koch, B. Baumgarten, and A. Tünnermann, “Mixed oxide coatings for optics,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C69–C74 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, H. Steffen, and A. Ohl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of aluminium oxide and aluminium oxifluoride layers for applications in the ultraviolet spectral range,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1681–1687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bischoff, O. Stenzel, K. Friedrich, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, S. Mewes, and N. Kaiser, “Plasma-assisted deposition of metal fluoride coatings and modeling the extinction coefficient of as-deposited single layers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C232–C238 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, M. Schürmann, N. Kaiser, H. Ehlers, M. Mende, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, M. Stolze, M. Held, H. Niederwald, T. Koch, W. Riggers, P. Burdack, G. Mark, R. Schäfer, S. Mewes, M. Bischoff, M. Arntzen, F. Eisenkrämer, M. Lappschies, S. Jakobs, S. Koch, B. Baumgarten, and A. Tünnermann, “Mixed oxide coatings for optics,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C69–C74 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “„Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, “All-optical in-situ analysis of PIAD deposition processes,” Proc. SPIE7101, 71010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Heber, C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “193 nm laser induced luminescence in oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)75(5), 637–640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, U.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaless, A.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, M.

Koch, S.

Koch, T.

Kolitsch, A.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kroth, U.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun.283(7), 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kufert, S.

Lappschies, M.

Lee, C. C.

Lewin, R.

R. Lewin, R. P. Howson, and C. A. Bishop, “Optical coatings for large area interference filters,” Vacuum37(3–4), 257–260 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Liu, Y. Hou, L. Lin, K. He, and K. Yi, “Influence of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature on the properties of aluminum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.282, 226–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

X. Li, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Liu, Y. Hou, L. Lin, K. He, and K. Yi, “Influence of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature on the properties of aluminum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.282, 226–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

X. Li, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Liu, Y. Hou, L. Lin, K. He, and K. Yi, “Influence of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature on the properties of aluminum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.282, 226–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. C.

Mark, G.

Mende, M.

Mewes, S.

Mühlig, C.

C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, S. Kufert, and S. Bublitz, “Characterization of low losses in optical thin films and materials,” Appl. Opt.47(13), C135–C142 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heber, C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “193 nm laser induced luminescence in oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)75(5), 637–640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Munnik, F.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakahira, K.

Niederwald, H.

Ohl, A.

O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, H. Steffen, and A. Ohl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of aluminium oxide and aluminium oxifluoride layers for applications in the ultraviolet spectral range,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1681–1687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun.283(7), 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riggers, W.

Ristau, D.

Schäfer, R.

Schürmann, M.

Spann, J. F.

Steffen, H.

O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, H. Steffen, and A. Ohl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of aluminium oxide and aluminium oxifluoride layers for applications in the ultraviolet spectral range,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1681–1687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, O.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, M. Schürmann, N. Kaiser, H. Ehlers, M. Mende, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, M. Stolze, M. Held, H. Niederwald, T. Koch, W. Riggers, P. Burdack, G. Mark, R. Schäfer, S. Mewes, M. Bischoff, M. Arntzen, F. Eisenkrämer, M. Lappschies, S. Jakobs, S. Koch, B. Baumgarten, and A. Tünnermann, “Mixed oxide coatings for optics,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C69–C74 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, H. Steffen, and A. Ohl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of aluminium oxide and aluminium oxifluoride layers for applications in the ultraviolet spectral range,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1681–1687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bischoff, O. Stenzel, K. Friedrich, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, S. Mewes, and N. Kaiser, “Plasma-assisted deposition of metal fluoride coatings and modeling the extinction coefficient of as-deposited single layers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C232–C238 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “„Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, “All-optical in-situ analysis of PIAD deposition processes,” Proc. SPIE7101, 71010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stolze, M.

Sun, J.

X. Li, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Liu, Y. Hou, L. Lin, K. He, and K. Yi, “Influence of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature on the properties of aluminum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.282, 226–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

Thielsch, R.

J. Heber, C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “193 nm laser induced luminescence in oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)75(5), 637–640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torr, D. G.

Torr, M. R.

Treichel, O.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Triebel, W.

C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, S. Kufert, and S. Bublitz, “Characterization of low losses in optical thin films and materials,” Appl. Opt.47(13), C135–C142 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heber, C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “193 nm laser induced luminescence in oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)75(5), 637–640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Vergöhl, M.

Vinnichenko, M.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilbrandt, S.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, M. Schürmann, N. Kaiser, H. Ehlers, M. Mende, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, M. Stolze, M. Held, H. Niederwald, T. Koch, W. Riggers, P. Burdack, G. Mark, R. Schäfer, S. Mewes, M. Bischoff, M. Arntzen, F. Eisenkrämer, M. Lappschies, S. Jakobs, S. Koch, B. Baumgarten, and A. Tünnermann, “Mixed oxide coatings for optics,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C69–C74 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bischoff, O. Stenzel, K. Friedrich, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, S. Mewes, and N. Kaiser, “Plasma-assisted deposition of metal fluoride coatings and modeling the extinction coefficient of as-deposited single layers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C232–C238 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, H. Steffen, and A. Ohl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of aluminium oxide and aluminium oxifluoride layers for applications in the ultraviolet spectral range,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1681–1687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “„Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, “All-optical in-situ analysis of PIAD deposition processes,” Proc. SPIE7101, 71010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wunderlich, B.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wüthrich, S.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yi, K.

X. Li, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Liu, Y. Hou, L. Lin, K. He, and K. Yi, “Influence of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature on the properties of aluminum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.282, 226–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

X. Li, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Liu, Y. Hou, L. Lin, K. He, and K. Yi, “Influence of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature on the properties of aluminum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.282, 226–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zukic, M.

Appl. Opt.

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. 1: Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt.29(28), 4284–4292 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, S. Kufert, and S. Bublitz, “Characterization of low losses in optical thin films and materials,” Appl. Opt.47(13), C135–C142 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Characterization of AlF3 thin films at 193 nm by thermal evaporation,” Appl. Opt.44(34), 7333–7338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bischoff, O. Stenzel, K. Friedrich, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, S. Mewes, and N. Kaiser, “Plasma-assisted deposition of metal fluoride coatings and modeling the extinction coefficient of as-deposited single layers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C232–C238 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, M. Schürmann, N. Kaiser, H. Ehlers, M. Mende, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, M. Stolze, M. Held, H. Niederwald, T. Koch, W. Riggers, P. Burdack, G. Mark, R. Schäfer, S. Mewes, M. Bischoff, M. Arntzen, F. Eisenkrämer, M. Lappschies, S. Jakobs, S. Koch, B. Baumgarten, and A. Tünnermann, “Mixed oxide coatings for optics,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C69–C74 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mende, I. Balasa, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, D. B. Douti, L. Gallais, and M. Commandré, “Relation of optical properties and femtosecond laser damage resistance for Al2O3/AlF3 and Al2O3/SiO2 composite coatings,” Appl. Opt.53(4), A383–A391 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. (Berl.)

J. Heber, C. Mühlig, W. Triebel, N. Danz, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, “193 nm laser induced luminescence in oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)75(5), 637–640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

X. Li, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Liu, Y. Hou, L. Lin, K. He, and K. Yi, “Influence of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature on the properties of aluminum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.282, 226–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun.283(7), 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

O. Stenzel, D. Gäbler, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, H. Steffen, and A. Ohl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of aluminium oxide and aluminium oxifluoride layers for applications in the ultraviolet spectral range,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1681–1687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, “All-optical in-situ analysis of PIAD deposition processes,” Proc. SPIE7101, 71010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the porosity,” Thin Solid Films517(21), 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “„Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Thielsch, “Optical Coatings for the DUV/VUV,” in: Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser and H. K. Pulker, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

C. Zaczek, A. Pazidis, and H. Feldermann, in Optical Interference Coatings Topical Meeting, 2007 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America 2007), FA1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Estimation of element composition for samples from composition series 1 – 4, as obtained from EDX measurements

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Visualization of the data points from Fig. 1 in a ternary diagram. On the left: How to read the diagram; on the right: position of experimental points

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical constants of samples from composition series 1-4 at a wavelength of 250 nm, as a function of the intended alumina filling factor. Pure fluoride layers showed no detectable losses, their k-values could therefore not be presented in the logarithmic ordinate scaling in the diagram on the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical constants (k vs n) of the samples from this study compared to relevant literature data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mechanical stress of samples from composition series 1 – 4 as a function of the intended alumina filling factor. Positive stress values correspond to compressive stress, and negative to tensile.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Section of the ternary diagram of Fig. 2 on the right. Dashed lines indicate decreasing O-content with constant fluorine content and increasing Al-content. The color code corresponds to the extinction coefficient value observed at 250 nm.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Definition of types of mixture prepared by EBE/PIAD in each composition series. Iem marks the electron beam evaporators emission current

Tables Icon

Table 2 Definition of mixture coating for reproducibility investigations

Tables Icon

Table 3 Results of reproducibility investigations

Tables Icon

Table 4 Results of porosity estimations according to relations (4)

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N raw,Mo,voltage + N raw,Al,voltage + N raw,O,voltage + N raw,F,voltage =1
N corrected,O =1 N raw,Mo,16 ( N raw,Al,10 + N raw,F,10 ) N raw,Mo,10 ( N raw,Al,16 + N raw,F,16 ) N raw,Mo,16 N raw,Mo,10 N corrected,Al = N raw,Mo,16 N raw,Al,10 N raw,Mo,10 N raw,Al,16 N raw,Mo,16 N raw,Mo,10 N corrected,F =1 N corrected,Al N corrected,O
shift 1 67 j=1 67 [ T atm ( ν j ) T vac ( ν j ) ] 2 ; ν j =[ 10000+250( j1 ) ] cm 1
1.extremecase: n mixture 2 =p n solid 2 +(1p) n pore 2 2.extremecase: n mixture 2 =p n solid 2 +(1p) n pore 2

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