Abstract

We report an experimental investigation on the effects of fluorine codoping on the radiation response of Ge-doped Optical Fibers (OFs) obtained by three different drawing conditions. The OFs were irradiated with 10 keV X-rays up to 300 Mrad and studied by online Radiation-Induced-Attenuation (RIA) measurements. Confocal Micro-Luminescence (CML) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) were also employed to investigate the permanent radiation-induced-defects. The variation of the Germanium-Lone-Pair-Center (GLPC) and Non-Bridging-Oxygen-Hole-Centers (NBOHC) concentration with the radiation dose is investigated by CML, whereas the ones of the induced Ge(1), Ge(2) and Eʹ centers by EPR. No relevant differences are found in the RIA of the three fibers, as well as in the induced concentrations of Ge(1) and Ge(2) and in the decrease of the GLPC, showing minor relevance of changing the drawing conditions. We found that fluorine codoping does not affect the RIA and that, unexpectedly, the fluorine co-doped zones of the OFs show an enhanced photoluminescence of the radiation induced NBOHC enabling to suggest the presence of both Si and Ge variants. Moreover, an overall increase of the radiation induced Eʹ(Ge) centers is registered in relation to the presence of fluorine showing that this codopant has relevant effects.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen-, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B215(1–2), 187–195 (2004).
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  4. A. Vedda, N. Chiodini, D. Di Martino, M. Fasoli, S. Keffer, A. Lauria, M. Martini, F. Moretti, G. Spinolo, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and G. Brambilla, “Ce3+-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(26), 6356–6538 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of drawing conditions on the properties and radiation sensitivities of pure-silica-core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1726–1732 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Visible to vacuum-UV range optical absorption of oxygen dangling bonds in amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B84(20), 205206 (2011).
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  10. D. L. Griscom, “γ-Ray-induced visible/infrared optical absorption bands in pure and F-doped silica-core fibers: are they due to self-trapped holes?” J. Non-Cryst. Solids349(1–3), 139–147 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV Transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263-264(1–4), 240–250 (2000).
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  12. S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
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  17. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “γ-Rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(8), 1915–1922 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1966–1970 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, and F. M. Gelardi, “Instantaneous diffusion effect on spin-echo decay: Experimental investigation by spectral selective excitation,” Phys. Rev. B64(17), 174423 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Griscom, “Fractal kinetics of radiation-induced point-defect formation and decay in amorphous insulators: Application to color centers in silica-based optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. B64, 174201 (2001).
  23. V. A. Radtsig, “Reactive intermediates on the surface of solids (Si02 and Ge02): A review of studies and prospects for their development,” Chem. Phys. Reports14, 1206–1245 (1995).
  24. D. Griscom, “Trapped-electron centers in pure and doped glassy silica: A review and synthesis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8-9), 1945–1962 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. N. Skuja, “Isoelectronic series of twofold coordinated Si, Ge, and Sn atoms in glassy SiO2: a luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids149(1–2), 77–95 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, “Simultaneous generation of optical absorption bands 5.14 and0.452 eV in 9 SiO2:GeO2 glasses heated under H2 atmosphere,” J. Appl. Phys.68(6), 2713–2718 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Skuja, “The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids179(1), 5–69 (1994).
  28. L. Skuja and A. Naber, “Site-selective luminescence study of defects in gamma-irradiated glassy germanium dioxide,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B116(1–4), 549–553 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge(1), Ge(2) and EʹGe defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids259(1-3), 149–155 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Fujimaki, T. Kasahara, S. Shimoto, N. Miyazaki, S. Tokuhiro, K. S. Seol, and Y. Ohki, “Structural changes induced by KrFexcimer laser photons in H2-loaded Ge-doped SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4682–4687 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. L. Griscom, “On the natures of radiation-induced point defects in GeO2-SiO2 glasses: reevaluation of a 26-year-old ESR and optical data set,” Opt. Mater. Express1(3), 400–412 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  33. T. Wei, M. P. Singh, W. J. Miniscalco, P. I. K. Onorato, and J. A. Wall, “Effect of fluorine doping on radiation hardness of graded index optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE0842, 169–173 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. L. Griscom and M. Mizuguchi, “Determination of the visible range optical absorption spectrumof peroxy radicals in gamma-irradiated fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1–3), 66–77 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Evolution of photo-induced defects in Ge-doped fiber/preform: influence of the drawing,” Opt. Express19(12), 11680–11690 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner, and K. Awazu, “Correlation between oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrFexcimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246(1), 39–45 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J. Nishii, N. Kitamura, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Ultraviolet-radiation-induced chemical reactions through one and two-photon absorption processes in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Opt. Lett.20(10), 1184–1186 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. M. Takahashi, T. Uchino, and T. Yoko, “Correlation between macro- and microstructural changes in ge:sio2 and sio2 glasses under intense ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.85(5), 1089–1092 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  40. H. Imai and H. Hirashima, “Intrinsic- and extrinsict- defect formation in silica glasses by irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids94, 179–202 (1994).

2013 (2)

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, N. Richard, P. Paillet, M. Gaillardin, and M. Raine, “Transient radiation responses of optical fibers: influence of MCVD process parameters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(6), 2894–2901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of drawing conditions on the properties and radiation sensitivities of pure-silica-core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1726–1732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

D. Griscom, “Trapped-electron centers in pure and doped glassy silica: A review and synthesis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8-9), 1945–1962 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge(1), Ge(2) and EʹGe defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Visible to vacuum-UV range optical absorption of oxygen dangling bonds in amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B84(20), 205206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Evolution of photo-induced defects in Ge-doped fiber/preform: influence of the drawing,” Opt. Express19(12), 11680–11690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Griscom, “On the natures of radiation-induced point defects in GeO2-SiO2 glasses: reevaluation of a 26-year-old ESR and optical data set,” Opt. Mater. Express1(3), 400–412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

D. L. Griscom, “γ-Ray-induced visible/infrared optical absorption bands in pure and F-doped silica-core fibers: are they due to self-trapped holes?” J. Non-Cryst. Solids349(1–3), 139–147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “γ-Rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(8), 1915–1922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen-, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B215(1–2), 187–195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Vedda, N. Chiodini, D. Di Martino, M. Fasoli, S. Keffer, A. Lauria, M. Martini, F. Moretti, G. Spinolo, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and G. Brambilla, “Ce3+-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(26), 6356–6538 (2004).

2002 (1)

M. Takahashi, T. Uchino, and T. Yoko, “Correlation between macro- and microstructural changes in ge:sio2 and sio2 glasses under intense ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.85(5), 1089–1092 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, and F. M. Gelardi, “Instantaneous diffusion effect on spin-echo decay: Experimental investigation by spectral selective excitation,” Phys. Rev. B64(17), 174423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Griscom, “Fractal kinetics of radiation-induced point-defect formation and decay in amorphous insulators: Application to color centers in silica-based optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. B64, 174201 (2001).

2000 (1)

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV Transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263-264(1–4), 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids259(1-3), 149–155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, T. Kasahara, S. Shimoto, N. Miyazaki, S. Tokuhiro, K. S. Seol, and Y. Ohki, “Structural changes induced by KrFexcimer laser photons in H2-loaded Ge-doped SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4682–4687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner, and K. Awazu, “Correlation between oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrFexcimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246(1), 39–45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. L. Griscom and M. Mizuguchi, “Determination of the visible range optical absorption spectrumof peroxy radicals in gamma-irradiated fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1–3), 66–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. Skuja and A. Naber, “Site-selective luminescence study of defects in gamma-irradiated glassy germanium dioxide,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B116(1–4), 549–553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

V. A. Radtsig, “Reactive intermediates on the surface of solids (Si02 and Ge02): A review of studies and prospects for their development,” Chem. Phys. Reports14, 1206–1245 (1995).

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishii, N. Kitamura, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Ultraviolet-radiation-induced chemical reactions through one and two-photon absorption processes in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Opt. Lett.20(10), 1184–1186 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

H. Imai and H. Hirashima, “Intrinsic- and extrinsict- defect formation in silica glasses by irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids94, 179–202 (1994).

V. B. Neustruev, “Colour centres in germanosilicate glass and optical fibres,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter6(35), 6901–6936 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, “The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids179(1), 5–69 (1994).

1993 (1)

A. A. Abramov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kol’Chenko, S. L. Semjonov, A. G. Shchebunjaev, A. N. Gurjanov, and V. F. Khopin, “Influence of fluorine doping on drawing induced fibre losses,” Electron. Lett.29(22), 1977–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. N. Skuja, “Isoelectronic series of twofold coordinated Si, Ge, and Sn atoms in glassy SiO2: a luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids149(1–2), 77–95 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, “Simultaneous generation of optical absorption bands 5.14 and0.452 eV in 9 SiO2:GeO2 glasses heated under H2 atmosphere,” J. Appl. Phys.68(6), 2713–2718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. Wei, M. P. Singh, W. J. Miniscalco, P. I. K. Onorato, and J. A. Wall, “Effect of fluorine doping on radiation hardness of graded index optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE0842, 169–173 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: Electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.54(7), 3743–3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

W. Primak, “Fast-neutron-induced changes in quartz and vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B110(6), 1240–1254 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, A. A.

A. A. Abramov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kol’Chenko, S. L. Semjonov, A. G. Shchebunjaev, A. N. Gurjanov, and V. F. Khopin, “Influence of fluorine doping on drawing induced fibre losses,” Electron. Lett.29(22), 1977–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Agnello, S.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of drawing conditions on the properties and radiation sensitivities of pure-silica-core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1726–1732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Evolution of photo-induced defects in Ge-doped fiber/preform: influence of the drawing,” Opt. Express19(12), 11680–11690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge(1), Ge(2) and EʹGe defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, and F. M. Gelardi, “Instantaneous diffusion effect on spin-echo decay: Experimental investigation by spectral selective excitation,” Phys. Rev. B64(17), 174423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Albert, J.

M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner, and K. Awazu, “Correlation between oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrFexcimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246(1), 39–45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alessi, A.

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of drawing conditions on the properties and radiation sensitivities of pure-silica-core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1726–1732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, N. Richard, P. Paillet, M. Gaillardin, and M. Raine, “Transient radiation responses of optical fibers: influence of MCVD process parameters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(6), 2894–2901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge(1), Ge(2) and EʹGe defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Evolution of photo-induced defects in Ge-doped fiber/preform: influence of the drawing,” Opt. Express19(12), 11680–11690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Awazu, K.

M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner, and K. Awazu, “Correlation between oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrFexcimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246(1), 39–45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, “Simultaneous generation of optical absorption bands 5.14 and0.452 eV in 9 SiO2:GeO2 glasses heated under H2 atmosphere,” J. Appl. Phys.68(6), 2713–2718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Azais, B.

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen-, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B215(1–2), 187–195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baggio, J.

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bisutti, J.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boscaino, R.

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, and F. M. Gelardi, “Instantaneous diffusion effect on spin-echo decay: Experimental investigation by spectral selective excitation,” Phys. Rev. B64(17), 174423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Boukenter, A.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, N. Richard, P. Paillet, M. Gaillardin, and M. Raine, “Transient radiation responses of optical fibers: influence of MCVD process parameters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(6), 2894–2901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of drawing conditions on the properties and radiation sensitivities of pure-silica-core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1726–1732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Evolution of photo-induced defects in Ge-doped fiber/preform: influence of the drawing,” Opt. Express19(12), 11680–11690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen-, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B215(1–2), 187–195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “γ-Rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(8), 1915–1922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Brambilla, G.

A. Vedda, N. Chiodini, D. Di Martino, M. Fasoli, S. Keffer, A. Lauria, M. Martini, F. Moretti, G. Spinolo, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and G. Brambilla, “Ce3+-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(26), 6356–6538 (2004).

Brebner, J. L.

M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner, and K. Awazu, “Correlation between oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrFexcimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246(1), 39–45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brichard, B.

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bubnov, M. M.

A. A. Abramov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kol’Chenko, S. L. Semjonov, A. G. Shchebunjaev, A. N. Gurjanov, and V. F. Khopin, “Influence of fluorine doping on drawing induced fibre losses,” Electron. Lett.29(22), 1977–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cannas, M.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of drawing conditions on the properties and radiation sensitivities of pure-silica-core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1726–1732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Evolution of photo-induced defects in Ge-doped fiber/preform: influence of the drawing,” Opt. Express19(12), 11680–11690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, and F. M. Gelardi, “Instantaneous diffusion effect on spin-echo decay: Experimental investigation by spectral selective excitation,” Phys. Rev. B64(17), 174423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Carpanese, M.

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge(1), Ge(2) and EʹGe defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Charre, P.

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen-, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B215(1–2), 187–195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiodini, N.

A. Vedda, N. Chiodini, D. Di Martino, M. Fasoli, S. Keffer, A. Lauria, M. Martini, F. Moretti, G. Spinolo, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and G. Brambilla, “Ce3+-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(26), 6356–6538 (2004).

Di Francesca, D.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Di Martino, D.

A. Vedda, N. Chiodini, D. Di Martino, M. Fasoli, S. Keffer, A. Lauria, M. Martini, F. Moretti, G. Spinolo, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and G. Brambilla, “Ce3+-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(26), 6356–6538 (2004).

Dianov, E. M.

A. A. Abramov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kol’Chenko, S. L. Semjonov, A. G. Shchebunjaev, A. N. Gurjanov, and V. F. Khopin, “Influence of fluorine doping on drawing induced fibre losses,” Electron. Lett.29(22), 1977–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, P.

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV Transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263-264(1–4), 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ehrt, D.

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV Transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263-264(1–4), 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Essid, M.

M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner, and K. Awazu, “Correlation between oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrFexcimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids246(1), 39–45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fasoli, M.

A. Vedda, N. Chiodini, D. Di Martino, M. Fasoli, S. Keffer, A. Lauria, M. Martini, F. Moretti, G. Spinolo, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and G. Brambilla, “Ce3+-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(26), 6356–6538 (2004).

Fleming, J. W.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: Electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.54(7), 3743–3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: Electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.54(7), 3743–3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fujimaki, M.

M. Fujimaki, T. Kasahara, S. Shimoto, N. Miyazaki, S. Tokuhiro, K. S. Seol, and Y. Ohki, “Structural changes induced by KrFexcimer laser photons in H2-loaded Ge-doped SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4682–4687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fukumi, K.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaillardin, M.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, N. Richard, P. Paillet, M. Gaillardin, and M. Raine, “Transient radiation responses of optical fibers: influence of MCVD process parameters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(6), 2894–2901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gelardi, F. M.

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge(1), Ge(2) and EʹGe defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, and F. M. Gelardi, “Instantaneous diffusion effect on spin-echo decay: Experimental investigation by spectral selective excitation,” Phys. Rev. B64(17), 174423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giacomazzi, L.

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Girard, S.

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, N. Richard, P. Paillet, M. Gaillardin, and M. Raine, “Transient radiation responses of optical fibers: influence of MCVD process parameters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(6), 2894–2901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of drawing conditions on the properties and radiation sensitivities of pure-silica-core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1726–1732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Evolution of photo-induced defects in Ge-doped fiber/preform: influence of the drawing,” Opt. Express19(12), 11680–11690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen-, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B215(1–2), 187–195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “γ-Rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(8), 1915–1922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Griscom, D.

D. Griscom, “Trapped-electron centers in pure and doped glassy silica: A review and synthesis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8-9), 1945–1962 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Griscom, “Fractal kinetics of radiation-induced point-defect formation and decay in amorphous insulators: Application to color centers in silica-based optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. B64, 174201 (2001).

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom, “On the natures of radiation-induced point defects in GeO2-SiO2 glasses: reevaluation of a 26-year-old ESR and optical data set,” Opt. Mater. Express1(3), 400–412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Griscom, “γ-Ray-induced visible/infrared optical absorption bands in pure and F-doped silica-core fibers: are they due to self-trapped holes?” J. Non-Cryst. Solids349(1–3), 139–147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Griscom and M. Mizuguchi, “Determination of the visible range optical absorption spectrumof peroxy radicals in gamma-irradiated fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1–3), 66–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: Electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.54(7), 3743–3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gurjanov, A. N.

A. A. Abramov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kol’Chenko, S. L. Semjonov, A. G. Shchebunjaev, A. N. Gurjanov, and V. F. Khopin, “Influence of fluorine doping on drawing induced fibre losses,” Electron. Lett.29(22), 1977–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gusarov, A.

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Visible to vacuum-UV range optical absorption of oxygen dangling bonds in amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B84(20), 205206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirashima, H.

H. Imai and H. Hirashima, “Intrinsic- and extrinsict- defect formation in silica glasses by irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids94, 179–202 (1994).

Hosono, H.

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Visible to vacuum-UV range optical absorption of oxygen dangling bonds in amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B84(20), 205206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, N. Kitamura, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Ultraviolet-radiation-induced chemical reactions through one and two-photon absorption processes in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Opt. Lett.20(10), 1184–1186 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, H.

H. Imai and H. Hirashima, “Intrinsic- and extrinsict- defect formation in silica glasses by irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids94, 179–202 (1994).

Kajihara, K.

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Visible to vacuum-UV range optical absorption of oxygen dangling bonds in amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B84(20), 205206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, T.

M. Fujimaki, T. Kasahara, S. Shimoto, N. Miyazaki, S. Tokuhiro, K. S. Seol, and Y. Ohki, “Structural changes induced by KrFexcimer laser photons in H2-loaded Ge-doped SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4682–4687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawamoto, Y.

M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids259(1-3), 149–155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawazoe, H.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishii, N. Kitamura, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Ultraviolet-radiation-induced chemical reactions through one and two-photon absorption processes in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Opt. Lett.20(10), 1184–1186 (1995).
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K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, “Simultaneous generation of optical absorption bands 5.14 and0.452 eV in 9 SiO2:GeO2 glasses heated under H2 atmosphere,” J. Appl. Phys.68(6), 2713–2718 (1990).
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A. Vedda, N. Chiodini, D. Di Martino, M. Fasoli, S. Keffer, A. Lauria, M. Martini, F. Moretti, G. Spinolo, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and G. Brambilla, “Ce3+-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(26), 6356–6538 (2004).

Keurinck, J.

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen-, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B215(1–2), 187–195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “γ-Rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(8), 1915–1922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khopin, V. F.

A. A. Abramov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kol’Chenko, S. L. Semjonov, A. G. Shchebunjaev, A. N. Gurjanov, and V. F. Khopin, “Influence of fluorine doping on drawing induced fibre losses,” Electron. Lett.29(22), 1977–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, N.

Kol’Chenko, L. A.

A. A. Abramov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kol’Chenko, S. L. Semjonov, A. G. Shchebunjaev, A. N. Gurjanov, and V. F. Khopin, “Influence of fluorine doping on drawing induced fibre losses,” Electron. Lett.29(22), 1977–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuhnhenn, J.

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
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A. Vedda, N. Chiodini, D. Di Martino, M. Fasoli, S. Keffer, A. Lauria, M. Martini, F. Moretti, G. Spinolo, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and G. Brambilla, “Ce3+-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(26), 6356–6538 (2004).

Leon, M.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
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D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: Electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.54(7), 3743–3762 (1983).
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S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Marcandella, C.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, N. Richard, P. Paillet, M. Gaillardin, and M. Raine, “Transient radiation responses of optical fibers: influence of MCVD process parameters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(6), 2894–2901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Martini, M.

A. Vedda, N. Chiodini, D. Di Martino, M. Fasoli, S. Keffer, A. Lauria, M. Martini, F. Moretti, G. Spinolo, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and G. Brambilla, “Ce3+-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(26), 6356–6538 (2004).

Martin-Samos, L.

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Messina, G.

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge(1), Ge(2) and EʹGe defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
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Meunier, J.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “γ-Rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(8), 1915–1922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J.-P.

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen-, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B215(1–2), 187–195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

T. Wei, M. P. Singh, W. J. Miniscalco, P. I. K. Onorato, and J. A. Wall, “Effect of fluorine doping on radiation hardness of graded index optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE0842, 169–173 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, N.

M. Fujimaki, T. Kasahara, S. Shimoto, N. Miyazaki, S. Tokuhiro, K. S. Seol, and Y. Ohki, “Structural changes induced by KrFexcimer laser photons in H2-loaded Ge-doped SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4682–4687 (1999).
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D. L. Griscom and M. Mizuguchi, “Determination of the visible range optical absorption spectrumof peroxy radicals in gamma-irradiated fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1–3), 66–77 (1998).
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S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
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A. Vedda, N. Chiodini, D. Di Martino, M. Fasoli, S. Keffer, A. Lauria, M. Martini, F. Moretti, G. Spinolo, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and G. Brambilla, “Ce3+-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(26), 6356–6538 (2004).

Naber, A.

L. Skuja and A. Naber, “Site-selective luminescence study of defects in gamma-irradiated glassy germanium dioxide,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B116(1–4), 549–553 (1996).
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D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV Transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263-264(1–4), 240–250 (2000).
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V. B. Neustruev, “Colour centres in germanosilicate glass and optical fibres,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter6(35), 6901–6936 (1994).
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Nikl, M.

A. Vedda, N. Chiodini, D. Di Martino, M. Fasoli, S. Keffer, A. Lauria, M. Martini, F. Moretti, G. Spinolo, M. Nikl, N. Solovieva, and G. Brambilla, “Ce3+-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(26), 6356–6538 (2004).

Nishii, J.

M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids259(1-3), 149–155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishii, N. Kitamura, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Ultraviolet-radiation-induced chemical reactions through one and two-photon absorption processes in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Opt. Lett.20(10), 1184–1186 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohki, Y.

M. Fujimaki, T. Kasahara, S. Shimoto, N. Miyazaki, S. Tokuhiro, K. S. Seol, and Y. Ohki, “Structural changes induced by KrFexcimer laser photons in H2-loaded Ge-doped SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4682–4687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Onorato, P. I. K.

T. Wei, M. P. Singh, W. J. Miniscalco, P. I. K. Onorato, and J. A. Wall, “Effect of fluorine doping on radiation hardness of graded index optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE0842, 169–173 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Origlio, G.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ouerdane, Y.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, N. Richard, P. Paillet, M. Gaillardin, and M. Raine, “Transient radiation responses of optical fibers: influence of MCVD process parameters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(6), 2894–2901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of drawing conditions on the properties and radiation sensitivities of pure-silica-core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1726–1732 (2012).
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A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Evolution of photo-induced defects in Ge-doped fiber/preform: influence of the drawing,” Opt. Express19(12), 11680–11690 (2011).
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A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “X-ray irradiation effects on a multistep Ge-doped silica fiber produced using different drawing conditions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8–9), 1966–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen-, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B215(1–2), 187–195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “γ-Rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(8), 1915–1922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Paillet, P.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, N. Richard, P. Paillet, M. Gaillardin, and M. Raine, “Transient radiation responses of optical fibers: influence of MCVD process parameters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(6), 2894–2901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Perisse, J.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
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V. A. Radtsig, “Reactive intermediates on the surface of solids (Si02 and Ge02): A review of studies and prospects for their development,” Chem. Phys. Reports14, 1206–1245 (1995).

Raine, M.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, N. Richard, P. Paillet, M. Gaillardin, and M. Raine, “Transient radiation responses of optical fibers: influence of MCVD process parameters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(6), 2894–2901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richard, N.

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Morana, J. Perisse, D. Di Francesca, P. Paillet, J.-R. Mace, A. Boukenter, M. Leon, M. Gaillardin, N. Richard, M. Raine, S. Agnello, M. Cannas, and Y. Ouerdane, “Combined high dose and temperature radiation effects on multimode silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.60(6), 4305–4313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, N. Richard, P. Paillet, M. Gaillardin, and M. Raine, “Transient radiation responses of optical fibers: influence of MCVD process parameters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(6), 2894–2901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, N. Richard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, L. Martin-Samos, P. Paillet, J.-P. Meunier, J. Baggio, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers-ii: coupling ab initio simulations and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3508–3514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on silica-based preforms and optical fibers—i: experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(6), 3473–3482 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Richard, S. Girard, L. Martin-Samos, L. Giacomazzi, D. Di Francesca, C. Marcandella, A. Alessi, P. Paillet, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled theoretical and experimental studies for the radiation hardening of silica-based optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (to be published).

Semjonov, S. L.

A. A. Abramov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kol’Chenko, S. L. Semjonov, A. G. Shchebunjaev, A. N. Gurjanov, and V. F. Khopin, “Influence of fluorine doping on drawing induced fibre losses,” Electron. Lett.29(22), 1977–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Seol, K. S.

M. Fujimaki, T. Kasahara, S. Shimoto, N. Miyazaki, S. Tokuhiro, K. S. Seol, and Y. Ohki, “Structural changes induced by KrFexcimer laser photons in H2-loaded Ge-doped SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4682–4687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shchebunjaev, A. G.

A. A. Abramov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kol’Chenko, S. L. Semjonov, A. G. Shchebunjaev, A. N. Gurjanov, and V. F. Khopin, “Influence of fluorine doping on drawing induced fibre losses,” Electron. Lett.29(22), 1977–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shigemura, H.

M. Takahashi, H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and T. Yoko, “Photochemical reactions of Ge-related defects in 10GeO2 · 90SiO2 glass prepared by sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids259(1-3), 149–155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimoto, S.

M. Fujimaki, T. Kasahara, S. Shimoto, N. Miyazaki, S. Tokuhiro, K. S. Seol, and Y. Ohki, “Structural changes induced by KrFexcimer laser photons in H2-loaded Ge-doped SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4682–4687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M. P.

T. Wei, M. P. Singh, W. J. Miniscalco, P. I. K. Onorato, and J. A. Wall, “Effect of fluorine doping on radiation hardness of graded index optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE0842, 169–173 (1987).
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L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Visible to vacuum-UV range optical absorption of oxygen dangling bonds in amorphous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B84(20), 205206 (2011).
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L. Skuja and A. Naber, “Site-selective luminescence study of defects in gamma-irradiated glassy germanium dioxide,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B116(1–4), 549–553 (1996).
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L. Skuja, “The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids179(1), 5–69 (1994).

Skuja, L. N.

L. N. Skuja, “Isoelectronic series of twofold coordinated Si, Ge, and Sn atoms in glassy SiO2: a luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids149(1–2), 77–95 (1992).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radial distribution of germanium, fluorine and chlorine concentrations obtained by Electron Microprobe Analysis of GeFD3. The reported profile coincides for the used fibers GeFDi.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RIA at 360 nm for the fibers GeDi and GeFDi. The dose rate is 5krad/s and the maximum dose reached is 100 Mrad. In the two insets the ratio of the full spectra GeD1/GeD2, GeD3/GeD2 and GeFD1/GeFD2, GeFD3/GeD2 are also shown for two different doses: 200 krad and 100 Mrad. The straight dashed line is a guide to the eye describing the linear law.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recovery at 360 nm of the six OFs after a total irradiation dose of 100 Mrad. In the inset the same kinetics are normalized to their maximum value in order to compare their recovery rates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical photoluminescence spectrum of the core of an irradiated GeFDi OF excited at 325 nm. The two bands located around 400 nm ad 650 nm are assigned to GLPC and NBOHC defects, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative concentration variation of GLPC (as determined through the 400 nm CML band) as a function of the dose. The first point represents the pristine fiber. In the inset the cartographies at three different doses are shown for GeFD2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative concentration variation of NBOHC (as determined through the 650 nm CML band) as a function of the dose. The first point represents the pristine fiber. In the inset the cartographies at three different doses are shown for GeFD2. The blue dashed line represents the square root of the dose curve.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized cartographies of NBOHC luminescence in GeD2 (from ref [20].) and GeFD2 (present work) 100 Mrad irradiated fibers. The normalization has been done dividing by the respective PL values at the center of the OF core.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

EPR spectra normalized by mass and spectrometer parameters of the GeFDi samples for three different doses: a) pristine (nIRR), showing 100% E’-Ge signal, b) 2 Mrad, showing ~34% Ge(1), ~54% Ge(2) and ~12% Eʹ(Ge), c) showing 300 Mrad, showing, ~17% Ge(1), ~23% Ge(2), ~58% Eʹ(Ge) (a ~2% of signal of Eʹ(Si) has been taken into account).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

EPR signal comparison between GeD2 and GeFD2 at the same radiation dose of 2 Mrad. Spectra are normalized by the double integral.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Absolute concentration curves of paramagnetic defects as a function of the total dose obtained by spectral decomposition of the EPR signals. Both the results on GeD2 and GeFD2 are here plotted for comparison.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectral position cartography of the maximum of the NBOHC emission band in the GeFD2 OF irradiated at the maximum dose, 300 Mrad. In the inset the normalized NBOHC PL recorded at three different distances from the center of the fiber are shown: 12 µm ([Ge] = 8wt.%, [F] = 0.02wt.%), 27 µm ([Ge] = 7.8wt.%, [F] = 1wt.%), 39 µm ([Ge] = 0wt.%, [F] = 0wt.%). For each spectrum the low energy tail of the GLPC emission band (400 nm) of a pristine GeFD2 fiber was subtracted.

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