Abstract

In this work, flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (FCUV-LEDs) on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) at 375 nm were grown by an atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (AP-MOCVD). A specialized reactive plasma deposited (RPD) AlN nucleation layer was utilized on the PSS to enhance the quality of the epitaxial layer. By using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, the full-width at half-maximum of the rocking curve shows that the FCUV-LEDs with RPD AlN nucleation layer had better crystalline quality when compared to conventional GaN nucleation samples. From the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image, it can be observed that the tip and incline portion of the pattern was smooth using the RPD AlN nucleation layer. The threading dislocation densities (TDDs) are reduced from 7 × 107 cm−2 to 2.5 × 107 cm−2 at the interface between the u-GaN layers for conventional and AlN PSS devices, respectively. As a result, a much higher light output power was achieved. The improvement of light output power at an injection current of 20 mA was enhanced by 30%. Further photoluminescence measurement and numerical simulation confirm such increase of output power can be attributed to the improvement of material quality and light extraction.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (1)

C. H. Yen, W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, T. K. Ko, S. J. Hon, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Lin, C. Y. Hsieh, B. M. Wang, W. C. Hsu, and Y. S. Wu, “Improved performance of GaN-based LEDs by covering top c-plane of patterned sapphire substrate with oxide layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14(8), J48–J50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Y. C. Chiu, W. R. Liu, C. K. Chang, C. C. Liao, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and T. M. Chen, “Ca2PO4Cl:Eu2+: An intense near-ultraviolet converting blue phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(9), 1755–1758 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, and B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Thermally stable luminescence of KSrPO4:Eu2+ phosphor for white light UV light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1–xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, N. A. Missert, C. C. Mitchell, D. D. Koleske, A. A. Allerma, and C. I. H. Ashby, “Minimizing threading dislocations by redirection during cantilever epitaxial growth of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(15), 2758–2760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, Y. H. Lin, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, H. D. Li, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth235(1-4), 177–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective are epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1204–1206 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Zheleva, O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Dislocation density reduction via lateral epitaxy in selectively grown GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(17), 2472–2474 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, “Defect structure in selectively grown GaN films with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(16), 2259–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaar, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x‐ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwsa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emtting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Lester, F. A. Ponce, M. G. Craford, and D. A. Steigerwald, “High dislocation densities in high-efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(10), 1249–1251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(5), 353 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(5), 353 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Allerma, A. A.

D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, N. A. Missert, C. C. Mitchell, D. D. Koleske, A. A. Allerma, and C. I. H. Ashby, “Minimizing threading dislocations by redirection during cantilever epitaxial growth of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(15), 2758–2760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(5), 353 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ao, J. P.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lin, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, H. D. Li, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth235(1-4), 177–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashby, C. I. H.

D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, N. A. Missert, C. C. Mitchell, D. D. Koleske, A. A. Allerma, and C. I. H. Ashby, “Minimizing threading dislocations by redirection during cantilever epitaxial growth of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(15), 2758–2760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bagkar, N. C.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Thermally stable luminescence of KSrPO4:Eu2+ phosphor for white light UV light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lin, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, H. D. Li, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth235(1-4), 177–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bremser, M. D.

T. S. Zheleva, O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Dislocation density reduction via lateral epitaxy in selectively grown GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(17), 2472–2474 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. J.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. K.

Y. C. Chiu, W. R. Liu, C. K. Chang, C. C. Liao, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and T. M. Chen, “Ca2PO4Cl:Eu2+: An intense near-ultraviolet converting blue phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(9), 1755–1758 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. R.

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes with ex situ sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Display Technol.9(11), 895–899 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yen, W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, T. K. Ko, S. J. Hon, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. T.

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. W.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. M.

Y. C. Chiu, W. R. Liu, C. K. Chang, C. C. Liao, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and T. M. Chen, “Ca2PO4Cl:Eu2+: An intense near-ultraviolet converting blue phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(9), 1755–1758 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. J.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, H. S.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, and B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chi, S. W. S.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.-H.

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y. C.

Y. C. Chiu, W. R. Liu, C. K. Chang, C. C. Liao, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and T. M. Chen, “Ca2PO4Cl:Eu2+: An intense near-ultraviolet converting blue phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(9), 1755–1758 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, and B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chocho, K.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. Y.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. I.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J.-I.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
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Craford, M. G.

S. D. Lester, F. A. Ponce, M. G. Craford, and D. A. Steigerwald, “High dislocation densities in high-efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(10), 1249–1251 (1995).
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Cuong, T. V.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, and B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131107 (2007).
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Davis, R. F.

T. S. Zheleva, O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Dislocation density reduction via lateral epitaxy in selectively grown GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(17), 2472–2474 (1997).
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Deguchi, K.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).
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DenBaar, S. P.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaar, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x‐ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective are epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1204–1206 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deng, D.-M.

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Einfeldt, S.

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S. W.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. H.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Follstaedt, D. M.

D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, N. A. Missert, C. C. Mitchell, D. D. Koleske, A. A. Allerma, and C. I. H. Ashby, “Minimizing threading dislocations by redirection during cantilever epitaxial growth of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(15), 2758–2760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heinke, H.

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heying, B.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaar, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x‐ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hommel, D.

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hon, S. J.

C. H. Yen, W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, T. K. Ko, S. J. Hon, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-H.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, and B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
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D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. Y.

B. W. Lin, C. Y. Hsieh, B. M. Wang, W. C. Hsu, and Y. S. Wu, “Improved performance of GaN-based LEDs by covering top c-plane of patterned sapphire substrate with oxide layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14(8), J48–J50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. H.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. P.

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W. C.

B. W. Lin, C. Y. Hsieh, B. M. Wang, W. C. Hsu, and Y. S. Wu, “Improved performance of GaN-based LEDs by covering top c-plane of patterned sapphire substrate with oxide layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14(8), J48–J50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S. F.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Thermally stable luminescence of KSrPO4:Eu2+ phosphor for white light UV light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hung, C. W.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. M.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
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Iwsa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwsa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emtting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
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Izumi, Y.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lin, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, H. D. Li, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth235(1-4), 177–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. M.

Y. C. Chiu, W. R. Liu, C. K. Chang, C. C. Liao, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and T. M. Chen, “Ca2PO4Cl:Eu2+: An intense near-ultraviolet converting blue phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(9), 1755–1758 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jou, M. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kapolnek, D.

D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective are epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1204–1206 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaar, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x‐ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ke, C. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, B. P.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaar, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x‐ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective are epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1204–1206 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaar, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x‐ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. G.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, and B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, and B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirchner, V.

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. K.

C. H. Yen, W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, T. K. Ko, S. J. Hon, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, N. A. Missert, C. C. Mitchell, D. D. Koleske, A. A. Allerma, and C. I. H. Ashby, “Minimizing threading dislocations by redirection during cantilever epitaxial growth of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(15), 2758–2760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kong, B. H.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, and B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozaki, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kozodoy, P.

D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective are epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1204–1206 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, H.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1–xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes with ex situ sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Display Technol.9(11), 895–899 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yen, W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, T. K. Ko, S. J. Hon, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. M.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K.-M.

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. Y.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. B.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lin, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, H. D. Li, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth235(1-4), 177–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lester, S. D.

S. D. Lester, F. A. Ponce, M. G. Craford, and D. A. Steigerwald, “High dislocation densities in high-efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(10), 1249–1251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. D.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lin, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, H. D. Li, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth235(1-4), 177–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.-C.

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaar, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x‐ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.-Y.

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. C.

Y. C. Chiu, W. R. Liu, C. K. Chang, C. C. Liao, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and T. M. Chen, “Ca2PO4Cl:Eu2+: An intense near-ultraviolet converting blue phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(9), 1755–1758 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B. W.

B. W. Lin, C. Y. Hsieh, B. M. Wang, W. C. Hsu, and Y. S. Wu, “Improved performance of GaN-based LEDs by covering top c-plane of patterned sapphire substrate with oxide layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14(8), J48–J50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Thermally stable luminescence of KSrPO4:Eu2+ phosphor for white light UV light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-C.

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D.-W.

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. C.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lin, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, H. D. Li, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth235(1-4), 177–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-S.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. M.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. H.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R. S.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Thermally stable luminescence of KSrPO4:Eu2+ phosphor for white light UV light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. R.

Y. C. Chiu, W. R. Liu, C. K. Chang, C. C. Liao, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and T. M. Chen, “Ca2PO4Cl:Eu2+: An intense near-ultraviolet converting blue phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(9), 1755–1758 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. M.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-C.

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. D.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, K.-J.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective are epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1204–1206 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Missert, N. A.

D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, N. A. Missert, C. C. Mitchell, D. D. Koleske, A. A. Allerma, and C. I. H. Ashby, “Minimizing threading dislocations by redirection during cantilever epitaxial growth of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(15), 2758–2760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, C. C.

D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, N. A. Missert, C. C. Mitchell, D. D. Koleske, A. A. Allerma, and C. I. H. Ashby, “Minimizing threading dislocations by redirection during cantilever epitaxial growth of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(15), 2758–2760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.-I.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwsa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emtting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, M.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1–xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwsa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emtting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nam, O.-H.

T. S. Zheleva, O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Dislocation density reduction via lateral epitaxy in selectively grown GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(17), 2472–2474 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Narita, J.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ou, S. L.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, F. A.

S. D. Lester, F. A. Ponce, M. G. Craford, and D. A. Steigerwald, “High dislocation densities in high-efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(10), 1249–1251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Provencio, P. P.

D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, N. A. Missert, C. C. Mitchell, D. D. Koleske, A. A. Allerma, and C. I. H. Ashby, “Minimizing threading dislocations by redirection during cantilever epitaxial growth of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(15), 2758–2760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Y. D.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, A.

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, “Defect structure in selectively grown GaN films with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(16), 2259–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, S.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lin, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, H. D. Li, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth235(1-4), 177–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, C.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1–xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, N.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(5), 353 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwsa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emtting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. C.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.-L.

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, K. C.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shu, G.-W.

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaar, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x‐ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

S. D. Lester, F. A. Ponce, M. G. Craford, and D. A. Steigerwald, “High dislocation densities in high-efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(10), 1249–1251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E. K.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, and B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sunakawa, H.

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, “Defect structure in selectively grown GaN films with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(16), 2259–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1–xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamada, Y.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1–xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. S.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Thermally stable luminescence of KSrPO4:Eu2+ phosphor for white light UV light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, Y.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(5), 353 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. A.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, P. M.

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ueki, Y.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1–xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Umemoto, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, R. D.

D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective are epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1204–1206 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Usui, A.

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, “Defect structure in selectively grown GaN films with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(16), 2259–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vetury, R.

D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective are epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1204–1206 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B. M.

B. W. Lin, C. Y. Hsieh, B. M. Wang, W. C. Hsu, and Y. S. Wu, “Improved performance of GaN-based LEDs by covering top c-plane of patterned sapphire substrate with oxide layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14(8), J48–J50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. K.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes with ex situ sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Display Technol.9(11), 895–899 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yen, W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, T. K. Ko, S. J. Hon, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lin, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, H. D. Li, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth235(1-4), 177–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. C.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1–xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wen, K. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. H.

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaar, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x‐ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. S.

B. W. Lin, C. Y. Hsieh, B. M. Wang, W. C. Hsu, and Y. S. Wu, “Improved performance of GaN-based LEDs by covering top c-plane of patterned sapphire substrate with oxide layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14(8), J48–J50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1–xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. Y.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes with ex situ sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Display Technol.9(11), 895–899 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yen, W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, T. K. Ko, S. J. Hon, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, Y. T.

Y. C. Chiu, W. R. Liu, C. K. Chang, C. C. Liao, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and T. M. Chen, “Ca2PO4Cl:Eu2+: An intense near-ultraviolet converting blue phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(9), 1755–1758 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yen, C. H.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes with ex situ sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Display Technol.9(11), 895–899 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yen, W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, T. K. Ko, S. J. Hon, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zan, H. W.

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheleva, T. S.

T. S. Zheleva, O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Dislocation density reduction via lateral epitaxy in selectively grown GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(17), 2472–2474 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

P. M. Tu, C. Y. Chang, S. C. Huang, C. H. Chiu, J. R. Chang, W. T. Chang, D. S. Wuu, H. W. Zan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and C. P. Hsu, “Investigation of efficiency droop for InGaN-based UV light-emitting diodes with InAlGaN barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(21), 211107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Thermally stable luminescence of KSrPO4:Eu2+ phosphor for white light UV light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer structures grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Lester, F. A. Ponce, M. G. Craford, and D. A. Steigerwald, “High dislocation densities in high-efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(10), 1249–1251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective are epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1204–1206 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Zheleva, O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Dislocation density reduction via lateral epitaxy in selectively grown GaN structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(17), 2472–2474 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, N. A. Missert, C. C. Mitchell, D. D. Koleske, A. A. Allerma, and C. I. H. Ashby, “Minimizing threading dislocations by redirection during cantilever epitaxial growth of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(15), 2758–2760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(21), 211103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, “Defect structure in selectively grown GaN films with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(16), 2259–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C.-H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, and B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Heying, X. H. Wu, S. Keller, Y. Li, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, S. P. DenBaar, and J. S. Speck, “Role of threading dislocation structure on the x‐ray diffraction peak widths in epitaxial GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 643–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(5), 353 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1–xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

B. W. Lin, C. Y. Hsieh, B. M. Wang, W. C. Hsu, and Y. S. Wu, “Improved performance of GaN-based LEDs by covering top c-plane of patterned sapphire substrate with oxide layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14(8), J48–J50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-H. Chiu, C.-C. Lin, D.-M. Deng, D.-W. Lin, J.-C. Li, Z.-Y. Li, G.-W. Shu, T.-C. Lu, J.-L. Shen, H.-C. Kuo, and K.-M. Lau, “Optical and electrical properties of GaN-based light emitting diodes grown on micro and nano-scale patterned Si substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(7), 899–906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. H. Yen, W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, C. K. Wang, T. K. Ko, S. J. Hon, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on chemical wet etching patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

T. Wang, Y. H. Lin, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, H. D. Li, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth235(1-4), 177–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Y. C. Chiu, W. R. Liu, C. K. Chang, C. C. Liao, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and T. M. Chen, “Ca2PO4Cl:Eu2+: An intense near-ultraviolet converting blue phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(9), 1755–1758 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwsa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emtting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Fullwave 6.1, RSoft Design Group Inc., Ossining, NY, 2008.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the FCUV-LEDs with different nucleation layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray rocking curves for samples with the GaN nucleation layer and with the RPD AlN nucleation layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bright field cross-section TEM images of the (a) UV-LEDs with GaN nucleation layer. (b) UV-LEDs with RPD AlN nucleation layer, g = 0002. “S” indicates screw dislocation and “M” indicates mix dislocation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative internal quantum efficiency as a function of excitation power for two samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Electro-luminescence (EL) spectrum under 20 mA injection current of both samples. (b) Light output of both samples.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

EQE as a function of current for two samples.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) 3D-FDTD of the calculated electric-field distribution for both samples. (b) Monitor light output power as functions of the simulation time for both samples.

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