Abstract

Development of micro-components for IR integrated optic devices requires the elaboration of IR waveguides. It is shown that amorphous chalcogenide films from the Ge-Se-Te system are well suited to such development. Thermal and optical characteristics of films elaborated by thermal co-evaporation are first measured. The Se-rich (> 60 at. %) region with a Ge content of about 25 at. % comprises films with a vitreous transition temperature, Tg, larger than 400K, a high thermal stability (ΔT > 100K) and a well-controlled refractive index, n, owing to a weak dependence of n with composition in this region. Films in this composition region are then profitably used to develop optical structures, such as straight or S-bend waveguides, spirals, Y-junction or Mach-Zehnder interferometer, by stacking and further etching of the films. The transmission region accessible to these structures lies from telecommunication wavelength up to 16-17 µm. When a higher transmission region is required, the use of pure Ge-Te films is mandatory. A modal filter allowing a light rejection efficiency of 6.10−5 to be a part of a spatial interferometer is then elaborated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

C. Vigreux, A. Piarristeguy, R. Escalier, S. Ménard, M. Barillot, and A. Pradel, “Evidence of a minimum in refractive indexes of amorphous GexTe100−x films: Relevance to the development of infrared waveguides,” Phys Status Solidi A 211(4), 932–937 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zha, P. T. Lin, L. Kimerling, A. Agarwal, and C. B. Arnold, “Inverted-rib chalcogenide waveguides by solution process,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 153–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

P. Jóvári, A. Piarristeguy, R. Escalier, I. Kaban, J. Bednarcik, and A. Pradel, “Short range order and stability of amorphous GexTe100−x alloys (12 ≤ x ≤ 44.6),” J Phys-Condens Matter 25, 195401 (2013).

J. Li, X. Shen, J. Sun, K. Vu, D.-Y. Choi, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Fabrication and characterization of Ge20Sb15Se65 chalcogenide glass rib waveguides for telecommunication wavelengths,” Thin Solid Films 545, 462–465 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, Y. Yu, X. Gai, Z. Yang, S. Debbarma, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for chemical sensing in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29927–29937 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vigreux, M. Vu Thi, R. Escalier, G. Maulion, R. Kribich, and A. Pradel, “Channel waveguides based on thermally co-evaporated Te-Ge-Se films for infrared integrated optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, Y. Gueguen, J.-C. Sangleboeuf, T. Rouxel, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Troles, P. Lucas, and B. Bureau, “Physical properties of the GexSe1-x glasses in the 0<x<0.42 range in correlation with their structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 54–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, L. Li, F. Deng, C. Ni, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of mid-infrared waveguide photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2779–2782 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kasztelanic, I. Kujawa, R. Stepien, K. Harasny, D. Pysz, and R. Buczynski, “Fresnel lens fabrication for broadband IR optics using hot embossing process,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 60, 1–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. B. Lu, E. Thelander, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, B. P. Zhu, and B. Rauschenbach, “Single Pulse Laser-Induced Phase Transitions of PLD-Deposited Ge2Sb2Te5 Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(29), 3621–3627 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

C. Das, M. G. Mahesha, G. M. Rao, and S. Asokan, “Electrical switching and optical studies on amorphous GexSe35-xTe65 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(6), 2278–2282 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. M. Vinod, A. K. Singh, R. Ganesan, and K. S. Sangunni, “Effect of selenium addition on the GeTe phase change memory alloys,” J. Alloy. Comp. 537, 127–132 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. T. Mai, R. Escalier, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Selenium modified Te85Ge15 films elaborated by thermal co-evaporation for infrared applications,” Thin Solid Films 524, 309–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

C. Vigreux, S. D. Sousa, V. Foucan, E. Barthélémy, and A. Pradel, “Deep reactive ion etching of thermally co-evaporated Te–Ge films for IR integrated optics components,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(3), 222–227 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, M. Wang, B. Chen, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Bent channel design in buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide fabricated by field-assisted annealing,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 044602 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, M. Barillot, S. Ménard, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Realization of single-mode telluride rib waveguides for mid-IR applications between 10 and 20 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2922–2924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, S. Ménard, M. Barillot, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Fabrication and testing of all-telluride rib waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 357–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, P. Lucas, X. H. Zhang, and J. Lucas, “Selenium modified GeTe4 based glasses optical fibers for far-infrared sensing,” Opt. Mater. 33(4), 660–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Barthélémy, C. Vigreux, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and A. Pradel, “Telluride films and waveguides for IR integrated optics,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(9), 2890–2894 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. U. Arachchige, R. Soriano, C. D. Malliakas, S. A. Ivanov, and M. C. Kanatzidis, “Amorphous and Crystalline GeTe Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(14), 2737–2743 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

E. Barthélémy, S. Albert, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Effect of composition on the properties of Te-Ge thick films deposited by co-thermal evaporation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(41-42), 2175–2180 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, X. Zhang, M. Barillot, L. Calvez, C. Boussard, B. Bureau, J. Lucas, V. Kirschner, and G. Parent, “Purification of Te75Ga10Ge15 glass for far infrared transmitting optics for space application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1055–1059 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Han, S. Madden, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low loss Chalcogenide glass waveguides by thermal nano-imprint lithography,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19286–19291 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (9)

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl Phys Adv Mater 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Lian, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chatterjee, P. K. Purkait, and D. Garg, “Athermalization of infra-red camera of projectile weapons,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 29(10), 2106–2112 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Kang, D. Lee, H.-M. Kim, S.-W. Nam, M.-H. Kwon, and K.-B. Kim, “Analysis of the electric field induced elemental separation of Ge2Sb2Te5 by transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011904 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Charpentier, B. Bureau, J. Troles, C. Boussard-Plédel, K. M.-L. Pierrès, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared monitoring of underground CO2 storage using chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 31(3), 496–500 (2009).
[Crossref]

E.-B. Lee, B.-K. Ju, and Y.-T. Kim, “Phase change and electrical characteristics of Ge–Se–Te alloys,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(7-9), 1950–1953 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Sharma and S. C. Katyal, “Effect of substrate temperature on the optical parameters of thermally evaporated Ge-Se-Te thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517(13), 3813–3816 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. H. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge-Te-Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 mu m,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, J. Irudayaraj, and C. G. Pantano, “Detection and fingerprinting of pathogens: Mid-IR biosensor using amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2757–2762 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, “Technology challenges for space interferometry: the option of mid-infrared integrated optics,” Adv. Space Res. 41(12), 1975–1982 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Afifi, N. A. Hegab, H. E. Atyia, and A. S. Farid, “Investigation of DC conductivity and switching phenomenon of Se80Te20−xGex amorphous system,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 10–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. El-Kabany, “Compositional dependence of the optical properties of the amorphous GexTe1−x system,” Physica B 403(18), 2949–2955 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

A. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Pledel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of far-infrared-transmitting te based glasses suitable for carbon dioxide detection and space optics,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. El-Korashy, A. Bakry, M. A. Abdel-Rahim, and M. A. El-Sattar, “Annealing effects on some physical properties of Ge5Se25Te70 chalcogenide glasses,” Physica B 391(2), 266–273 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Sharma and S. C. Katyal, “Thickness dependence of optical parameters for Ge-Se-Te thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4516–4518 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Sharma and S. C. Katyal, “Optical study of Ge10Se90-xTex glassy semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 515(20-21), 7966–7970 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, and J. Lucas, “A family of far-infrared-transmitting glasses in the Ga-Ge-Te system for space applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1847–1852 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

O. Gamulin, M. Ivanda, V. Mitsa, S. Pasic, and M. Balarin, “Spectroscopy studies of structural phase transitions of chalcogenide glass thin films (Ge2S3)x(As2S3)1− x at coordination number 2.67,” Solid State Commun. 135(11-12), 753–758 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. Tsiulyanu, S. Marian, H. D. Liess, and I. Eisele, “Effect of annealing and temperature on the NO2 sensing properties of tellurium based films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 100(3), 380–386 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

X. H. Zhang, Y. Guimond, and Y. Bellec, “Production of complex chalcogenide glass optics by molding for thermal imaging,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 519–523 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Saffarini, H. Schmitt, H. Shanak, J. Nowoczin, and J. Müller, “Optical band gap in relation to the average coordination number in Ge—S—Bi thin films,” Phys Status Solidi B 239(1), 251–256 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Michel, B. Bureau, C. Pouvreau, J. C. Sangleboeuf, C. Boussard-Plédel, T. Jouan, T. Rouxel, J. L. Adam, K. Staubmann, H. Steinner, T. Baumann, A. Katzir, J. Bayona, and W. Konz, “Development of a chalcogenide glass fiber device for in situ pollutant detection,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 434–438 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, “Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67, and rigidity transitions in chalgonide glasses,” C. R. Chim. 5(11), 713–724 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. A. Khan, M. Zulfequar, and M. Husain, “Effects of annealing on crystallization process in amorphous Ge5Se95-xTex thin films,” Physica B 324(1-4), 336–343 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Hocdé, C. Boussard-Pledel, G. Fonteneau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogens based glasses for IR fiber chemical sensors,” Solid State Sci. 3(3), 279–284 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichý, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200(Part 2), 723–727 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Z. Y. Wang, C. J. Tu, Y. M. Li, and Q. Q. Chen, “The Effects Of Sn and Bi Additions On Properties And Structure In Ge-Se-Te Chalcogenide Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191(1-2), 132–137 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

K. Tanaka, “Structural phase transitions in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(2), 1270–1279 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J Phys E 16(12), 1214–1222 (1983).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

S. Bordas, M. Geli, J. Casas-Vazquez, N. Clavaguera, and M. T. Clavaguera-Mora, “Phase diagram of the ternary system Ge-Te-Se,” Thermochim. Acta 37(2), 197–207 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1976 (1)

D. J. Sarrach, J. P. Deneufville, and W. L. Haworth, “Studies Of Aorphous Ge-Se-Te Alloys. 1. Preparation And Calorimetric Observations,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 22(2), 245–267 (1976).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

J. Feinleib, J. Deneufvi, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Rapid Reversible Light-induced Crystallization Of Amorphous Semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(6), 254–257 (1971).

1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys Status Solidi B 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

1950 (1)

T. S. Moss, “A relationship between the refractive index and the infra-red threshold of sensitivity for photoconductors,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B 63(3), 167–176 (1950).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Rahim, M. A.

A. El-Korashy, A. Bakry, M. A. Abdel-Rahim, and M. A. El-Sattar, “Annealing effects on some physical properties of Ge5Se25Te70 chalcogenide glasses,” Physica B 391(2), 266–273 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adam, J. L.

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Charpentier, B. Bureau, J. Troles, C. Boussard-Plédel, K. M.-L. Pierrès, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared monitoring of underground CO2 storage using chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 31(3), 496–500 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Michel, B. Bureau, C. Pouvreau, J. C. Sangleboeuf, C. Boussard-Plédel, T. Jouan, T. Rouxel, J. L. Adam, K. Staubmann, H. Steinner, T. Baumann, A. Katzir, J. Bayona, and W. Konz, “Development of a chalcogenide glass fiber device for in situ pollutant detection,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 434–438 (2003).
[Crossref]

Afifi, M. A.

M. A. Afifi, N. A. Hegab, H. E. Atyia, and A. S. Farid, “Investigation of DC conductivity and switching phenomenon of Se80Te20−xGex amorphous system,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 10–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

Aggarwal, I. D.

Albert, S.

E. Barthélémy, S. Albert, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Effect of composition on the properties of Te-Ge thick films deposited by co-thermal evaporation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(41-42), 2175–2180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anne, M. L.

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arachchige, I. U.

I. U. Arachchige, R. Soriano, C. D. Malliakas, S. A. Ivanov, and M. C. Kanatzidis, “Amorphous and Crystalline GeTe Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(14), 2737–2743 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. B.

Y. Zha, P. T. Lin, L. Kimerling, A. Agarwal, and C. B. Arnold, “Inverted-rib chalcogenide waveguides by solution process,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 153–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Asokan, S.

C. Das, M. G. Mahesha, G. M. Rao, and S. Asokan, “Electrical switching and optical studies on amorphous GexSe35-xTe65 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(6), 2278–2282 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atyia, H. E.

M. A. Afifi, N. A. Hegab, H. E. Atyia, and A. S. Farid, “Investigation of DC conductivity and switching phenomenon of Se80Te20−xGex amorphous system,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 10–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bakry, A.

A. El-Korashy, A. Bakry, M. A. Abdel-Rahim, and M. A. El-Sattar, “Annealing effects on some physical properties of Ge5Se25Te70 chalcogenide glasses,” Physica B 391(2), 266–273 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balarin, M.

O. Gamulin, M. Ivanda, V. Mitsa, S. Pasic, and M. Balarin, “Spectroscopy studies of structural phase transitions of chalcogenide glass thin films (Ge2S3)x(As2S3)1− x at coordination number 2.67,” Solid State Commun. 135(11-12), 753–758 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barillot, M.

C. Vigreux, A. Piarristeguy, R. Escalier, S. Ménard, M. Barillot, and A. Pradel, “Evidence of a minimum in refractive indexes of amorphous GexTe100−x films: Relevance to the development of infrared waveguides,” Phys Status Solidi A 211(4), 932–937 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Barthélémy, C. Vigreux, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and A. Pradel, “Telluride films and waveguides for IR integrated optics,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(9), 2890–2894 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, M. Barillot, S. Ménard, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Realization of single-mode telluride rib waveguides for mid-IR applications between 10 and 20 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2922–2924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, S. Ménard, M. Barillot, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Fabrication and testing of all-telluride rib waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 357–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, X. Zhang, M. Barillot, L. Calvez, C. Boussard, B. Bureau, J. Lucas, V. Kirschner, and G. Parent, “Purification of Te75Ga10Ge15 glass for far infrared transmitting optics for space application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1055–1059 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barthélémy, E.

C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, M. Barillot, S. Ménard, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Realization of single-mode telluride rib waveguides for mid-IR applications between 10 and 20 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2922–2924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, S. Ménard, M. Barillot, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Fabrication and testing of all-telluride rib waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 357–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Barthélémy, C. Vigreux, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and A. Pradel, “Telluride films and waveguides for IR integrated optics,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(9), 2890–2894 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Vigreux, S. D. Sousa, V. Foucan, E. Barthélémy, and A. Pradel, “Deep reactive ion etching of thermally co-evaporated Te–Ge films for IR integrated optics components,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(3), 222–227 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Barthélémy, S. Albert, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Effect of composition on the properties of Te-Ge thick films deposited by co-thermal evaporation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(41-42), 2175–2180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bastard, L.

Baumann, T.

K. Michel, B. Bureau, C. Pouvreau, J. C. Sangleboeuf, C. Boussard-Plédel, T. Jouan, T. Rouxel, J. L. Adam, K. Staubmann, H. Steinner, T. Baumann, A. Katzir, J. Bayona, and W. Konz, “Development of a chalcogenide glass fiber device for in situ pollutant detection,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 434–438 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bayona, J.

K. Michel, B. Bureau, C. Pouvreau, J. C. Sangleboeuf, C. Boussard-Plédel, T. Jouan, T. Rouxel, J. L. Adam, K. Staubmann, H. Steinner, T. Baumann, A. Katzir, J. Bayona, and W. Konz, “Development of a chalcogenide glass fiber device for in situ pollutant detection,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 434–438 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bednarcik, J.

P. Jóvári, A. Piarristeguy, R. Escalier, I. Kaban, J. Bednarcik, and A. Pradel, “Short range order and stability of amorphous GexTe100−x alloys (12 ≤ x ≤ 44.6),” J Phys-Condens Matter 25, 195401 (2013).

Bellec, Y.

X. H. Zhang, Y. Guimond, and Y. Bellec, “Production of complex chalcogenide glass optics by molding for thermal imaging,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 519–523 (2003).
[Crossref]

Benson, T. M.

Boesewetter, D. E.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boolchand, P.

P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, “Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67, and rigidity transitions in chalgonide glasses,” C. R. Chim. 5(11), 713–724 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bordas, S.

S. Bordas, M. Geli, J. Casas-Vazquez, N. Clavaguera, and M. T. Clavaguera-Mora, “Phase diagram of the ternary system Ge-Te-Se,” Thermochim. Acta 37(2), 197–207 (1980).
[Crossref]

Boussard, C.

S. Zhang, X. Zhang, M. Barillot, L. Calvez, C. Boussard, B. Bureau, J. Lucas, V. Kirschner, and G. Parent, “Purification of Te75Ga10Ge15 glass for far infrared transmitting optics for space application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1055–1059 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boussard-Pledel, C.

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, P. Lucas, X. H. Zhang, and J. Lucas, “Selenium modified GeTe4 based glasses optical fibers for far-infrared sensing,” Opt. Mater. 33(4), 660–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. H. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge-Te-Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 mu m,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Pledel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of far-infrared-transmitting te based glasses suitable for carbon dioxide detection and space optics,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, and J. Lucas, “A family of far-infrared-transmitting glasses in the Ga-Ge-Te system for space applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1847–1852 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Hocdé, C. Boussard-Pledel, G. Fonteneau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogens based glasses for IR fiber chemical sensors,” Solid State Sci. 3(3), 279–284 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boussard-Plédel, C.

G. Yang, Y. Gueguen, J.-C. Sangleboeuf, T. Rouxel, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Troles, P. Lucas, and B. Bureau, “Physical properties of the GexSe1-x glasses in the 0<x<0.42 range in correlation with their structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 54–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Charpentier, B. Bureau, J. Troles, C. Boussard-Plédel, K. M.-L. Pierrès, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared monitoring of underground CO2 storage using chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 31(3), 496–500 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Michel, B. Bureau, C. Pouvreau, J. C. Sangleboeuf, C. Boussard-Plédel, T. Jouan, T. Rouxel, J. L. Adam, K. Staubmann, H. Steinner, T. Baumann, A. Katzir, J. Bayona, and W. Konz, “Development of a chalcogenide glass fiber device for in situ pollutant detection,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 434–438 (2003).
[Crossref]

Broquin, J. E.

Broquin, J.-E.

C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, S. Ménard, M. Barillot, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Fabrication and testing of all-telluride rib waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 357–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, “Technology challenges for space interferometry: the option of mid-infrared integrated optics,” Adv. Space Res. 41(12), 1975–1982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Buczynski, R.

R. Kasztelanic, I. Kujawa, R. Stepien, K. Harasny, D. Pysz, and R. Buczynski, “Fresnel lens fabrication for broadband IR optics using hot embossing process,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 60, 1–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bulla, D.

Bulla, D. A. P.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl Phys Adv Mater 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bureau, B.

G. Yang, Y. Gueguen, J.-C. Sangleboeuf, T. Rouxel, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Troles, P. Lucas, and B. Bureau, “Physical properties of the GexSe1-x glasses in the 0<x<0.42 range in correlation with their structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 54–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, P. Lucas, X. H. Zhang, and J. Lucas, “Selenium modified GeTe4 based glasses optical fibers for far-infrared sensing,” Opt. Mater. 33(4), 660–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, X. Zhang, M. Barillot, L. Calvez, C. Boussard, B. Bureau, J. Lucas, V. Kirschner, and G. Parent, “Purification of Te75Ga10Ge15 glass for far infrared transmitting optics for space application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1055–1059 (2010).
[Crossref]

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S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. H. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge-Te-Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 mu m,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
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A. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Pledel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of far-infrared-transmitting te based glasses suitable for carbon dioxide detection and space optics,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
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P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
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P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
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M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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A. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Pledel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of far-infrared-transmitting te based glasses suitable for carbon dioxide detection and space optics,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
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C. Vigreux, M. Vu Thi, R. Escalier, G. Maulion, R. Kribich, and A. Pradel, “Channel waveguides based on thermally co-evaporated Te-Ge-Se films for infrared integrated optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 205–208 (2013).
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P. Jóvári, A. Piarristeguy, R. Escalier, I. Kaban, J. Bednarcik, and A. Pradel, “Short range order and stability of amorphous GexTe100−x alloys (12 ≤ x ≤ 44.6),” J Phys-Condens Matter 25, 195401 (2013).

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S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. H. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge-Te-Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 mu m,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
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S. Bordas, M. Geli, J. Casas-Vazquez, N. Clavaguera, and M. T. Clavaguera-Mora, “Phase diagram of the ternary system Ge-Te-Se,” Thermochim. Acta 37(2), 197–207 (1980).
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S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. H. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge-Te-Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 mu m,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
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P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, “Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67, and rigidity transitions in chalgonide glasses,” C. R. Chim. 5(11), 713–724 (2002).
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H. B. Lu, E. Thelander, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, B. P. Zhu, and B. Rauschenbach, “Single Pulse Laser-Induced Phase Transitions of PLD-Deposited Ge2Sb2Te5 Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(29), 3621–3627 (2013).
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M. A. Afifi, N. A. Hegab, H. E. Atyia, and A. S. Farid, “Investigation of DC conductivity and switching phenomenon of Se80Te20−xGex amorphous system,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 10–17 (2008).
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S. Hocdé, C. Boussard-Pledel, G. Fonteneau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogens based glasses for IR fiber chemical sensors,” Solid State Sci. 3(3), 279–284 (2001).
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M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, J. Irudayaraj, and C. G. Pantano, “Detection and fingerprinting of pathogens: Mid-IR biosensor using amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2757–2762 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
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O. Gamulin, M. Ivanda, V. Mitsa, S. Pasic, and M. Balarin, “Spectroscopy studies of structural phase transitions of chalcogenide glass thin films (Ge2S3)x(As2S3)1− x at coordination number 2.67,” Solid State Commun. 135(11-12), 753–758 (2005).
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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, J. Irudayaraj, and C. G. Pantano, “Detection and fingerprinting of pathogens: Mid-IR biosensor using amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2757–2762 (2008).
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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
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P. Jóvári, A. Piarristeguy, R. Escalier, I. Kaban, J. Bednarcik, and A. Pradel, “Short range order and stability of amorphous GexTe100−x alloys (12 ≤ x ≤ 44.6),” J Phys-Condens Matter 25, 195401 (2013).

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V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
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P. Jóvári, A. Piarristeguy, R. Escalier, I. Kaban, J. Bednarcik, and A. Pradel, “Short range order and stability of amorphous GexTe100−x alloys (12 ≤ x ≤ 44.6),” J Phys-Condens Matter 25, 195401 (2013).

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I. U. Arachchige, R. Soriano, C. D. Malliakas, S. A. Ivanov, and M. C. Kanatzidis, “Amorphous and Crystalline GeTe Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(14), 2737–2743 (2011).
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D. Kang, D. Lee, H.-M. Kim, S.-W. Nam, M.-H. Kwon, and K.-B. Kim, “Analysis of the electric field induced elemental separation of Ge2Sb2Te5 by transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011904 (2009).
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Kasztelanic, R.

R. Kasztelanic, I. Kujawa, R. Stepien, K. Harasny, D. Pysz, and R. Buczynski, “Fresnel lens fabrication for broadband IR optics using hot embossing process,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 60, 1–6 (2013).
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Katsufuji, T.

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P. Sharma and S. C. Katyal, “Effect of substrate temperature on the optical parameters of thermally evaporated Ge-Se-Te thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517(13), 3813–3816 (2009).
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P. Sharma and S. C. Katyal, “Optical study of Ge10Se90-xTex glassy semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 515(20-21), 7966–7970 (2007).
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P. Sharma and S. C. Katyal, “Thickness dependence of optical parameters for Ge-Se-Te thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4516–4518 (2007).
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Katzir, A.

K. Michel, B. Bureau, C. Pouvreau, J. C. Sangleboeuf, C. Boussard-Plédel, T. Jouan, T. Rouxel, J. L. Adam, K. Staubmann, H. Steinner, T. Baumann, A. Katzir, J. Bayona, and W. Konz, “Development of a chalcogenide glass fiber device for in situ pollutant detection,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 434–438 (2003).
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M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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Kern, P.

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, “Technology challenges for space interferometry: the option of mid-infrared integrated optics,” Adv. Space Res. 41(12), 1975–1982 (2008).
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S. A. Khan, M. Zulfequar, and M. Husain, “Effects of annealing on crystallization process in amorphous Ge5Se95-xTex thin films,” Physica B 324(1-4), 336–343 (2002).
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Kim, H.-M.

D. Kang, D. Lee, H.-M. Kim, S.-W. Nam, M.-H. Kwon, and K.-B. Kim, “Analysis of the electric field induced elemental separation of Ge2Sb2Te5 by transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011904 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-B.

D. Kang, D. Lee, H.-M. Kim, S.-W. Nam, M.-H. Kwon, and K.-B. Kim, “Analysis of the electric field induced elemental separation of Ge2Sb2Te5 by transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011904 (2009).
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Kim, Y.-T.

E.-B. Lee, B.-K. Ju, and Y.-T. Kim, “Phase change and electrical characteristics of Ge–Se–Te alloys,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(7-9), 1950–1953 (2009).
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Kimerling, L.

Y. Zha, P. T. Lin, L. Kimerling, A. Agarwal, and C. B. Arnold, “Inverted-rib chalcogenide waveguides by solution process,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 153–157 (2014).
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Kimerling, L. C.

Kirschner, V.

S. Zhang, X. Zhang, M. Barillot, L. Calvez, C. Boussard, B. Bureau, J. Lucas, V. Kirschner, and G. Parent, “Purification of Te75Ga10Ge15 glass for far infrared transmitting optics for space application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1055–1059 (2010).
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L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, “Technology challenges for space interferometry: the option of mid-infrared integrated optics,” Adv. Space Res. 41(12), 1975–1982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Knystautas, E. J.

Kohoutek, T.

Konz, W.

K. Michel, B. Bureau, C. Pouvreau, J. C. Sangleboeuf, C. Boussard-Plédel, T. Jouan, T. Rouxel, J. L. Adam, K. Staubmann, H. Steinner, T. Baumann, A. Katzir, J. Bayona, and W. Konz, “Development of a chalcogenide glass fiber device for in situ pollutant detection,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 434–438 (2003).
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Kozacik, S.

Kribich, R.

C. Vigreux, M. Vu Thi, R. Escalier, G. Maulion, R. Kribich, and A. Pradel, “Channel waveguides based on thermally co-evaporated Te-Ge-Se films for infrared integrated optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kujawa, I.

R. Kasztelanic, I. Kujawa, R. Stepien, K. Harasny, D. Pysz, and R. Buczynski, “Fresnel lens fabrication for broadband IR optics using hot embossing process,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 60, 1–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kwon, M.-H.

D. Kang, D. Lee, H.-M. Kim, S.-W. Nam, M.-H. Kwon, and K.-B. Kim, “Analysis of the electric field induced elemental separation of Ge2Sb2Te5 by transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011904 (2009).
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Labadie, L.

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, “Technology challenges for space interferometry: the option of mid-infrared integrated optics,” Adv. Space Res. 41(12), 1975–1982 (2008).
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Labeye, P.

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, “Technology challenges for space interferometry: the option of mid-infrared integrated optics,” Adv. Space Res. 41(12), 1975–1982 (2008).
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Le Coq, D.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
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Le Person, J.

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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LeCoarer, E.

L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, “Technology challenges for space interferometry: the option of mid-infrared integrated optics,” Adv. Space Res. 41(12), 1975–1982 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

D. Kang, D. Lee, H.-M. Kim, S.-W. Nam, M.-H. Kwon, and K.-B. Kim, “Analysis of the electric field induced elemental separation of Ge2Sb2Te5 by transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011904 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, E.-B.

E.-B. Lee, B.-K. Ju, and Y.-T. Kim, “Phase change and electrical characteristics of Ge–Se–Te alloys,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(7-9), 1950–1953 (2009).
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Lenz, G.

Lhermite, H.

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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Li, J.

J. Li, X. Shen, J. Sun, K. Vu, D.-Y. Choi, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Fabrication and characterization of Ge20Sb15Se65 chalcogenide glass rib waveguides for telecommunication wavelengths,” Thin Solid Films 545, 462–465 (2013).
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Li, Y. M.

Z. Y. Wang, C. J. Tu, Y. M. Li, and Q. Q. Chen, “The Effects Of Sn and Bi Additions On Properties And Structure In Ge-Se-Te Chalcogenide Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191(1-2), 132–137 (1995).
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Liess, H. D.

D. Tsiulyanu, S. Marian, H. D. Liess, and I. Eisele, “Effect of annealing and temperature on the NO2 sensing properties of tellurium based films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 100(3), 380–386 (2004).
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Lin, H.

Lin, P. T.

Lines, M. E.

Liu, K.

R. Zhao, M. Wang, B. Chen, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Bent channel design in buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide fabricated by field-assisted annealing,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 044602 (2011).
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M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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H. B. Lu, E. Thelander, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, B. P. Zhu, and B. Rauschenbach, “Single Pulse Laser-Induced Phase Transitions of PLD-Deposited Ge2Sb2Te5 Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(29), 3621–3627 (2013).
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Lucas, J.

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, P. Lucas, X. H. Zhang, and J. Lucas, “Selenium modified GeTe4 based glasses optical fibers for far-infrared sensing,” Opt. Mater. 33(4), 660–663 (2011).
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S. Zhang, X. Zhang, M. Barillot, L. Calvez, C. Boussard, B. Bureau, J. Lucas, V. Kirschner, and G. Parent, “Purification of Te75Ga10Ge15 glass for far infrared transmitting optics for space application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1055–1059 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. H. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge-Te-Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 mu m,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
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A. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Pledel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of far-infrared-transmitting te based glasses suitable for carbon dioxide detection and space optics,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
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S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, and J. Lucas, “A family of far-infrared-transmitting glasses in the Ga-Ge-Te system for space applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1847–1852 (2006).
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S. Hocdé, C. Boussard-Pledel, G. Fonteneau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogens based glasses for IR fiber chemical sensors,” Solid State Sci. 3(3), 279–284 (2001).
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Lucas, P.

G. Yang, Y. Gueguen, J.-C. Sangleboeuf, T. Rouxel, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Troles, P. Lucas, and B. Bureau, “Physical properties of the GexSe1-x glasses in the 0<x<0.42 range in correlation with their structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 54–59 (2013).
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S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, P. Lucas, X. H. Zhang, and J. Lucas, “Selenium modified GeTe4 based glasses optical fibers for far-infrared sensing,” Opt. Mater. 33(4), 660–663 (2011).
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A. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Pledel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of far-infrared-transmitting te based glasses suitable for carbon dioxide detection and space optics,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
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Luther-Davies, B.

P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, Y. Yu, X. Gai, Z. Yang, S. Debbarma, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for chemical sensing in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29927–29937 (2013).
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J. Li, X. Shen, J. Sun, K. Vu, D.-Y. Choi, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Fabrication and characterization of Ge20Sb15Se65 chalcogenide glass rib waveguides for telecommunication wavelengths,” Thin Solid Films 545, 462–465 (2013).
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T. Han, S. Madden, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low loss Chalcogenide glass waveguides by thermal nano-imprint lithography,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19286–19291 (2010).
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D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl Phys Adv Mater 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
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Ma, P.

Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl Phys Adv Mater 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
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Madhusoodanan, K. N.

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
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Mahesha, M. G.

C. Das, M. G. Mahesha, G. M. Rao, and S. Asokan, “Electrical switching and optical studies on amorphous GexSe35-xTe65 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(6), 2278–2282 (2012).
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Mai, V. T.

V. T. Mai, R. Escalier, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Selenium modified Te85Ge15 films elaborated by thermal co-evaporation for infrared applications,” Thin Solid Films 524, 309–315 (2012).
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Malliakas, C. D.

I. U. Arachchige, R. Soriano, C. D. Malliakas, S. A. Ivanov, and M. C. Kanatzidis, “Amorphous and Crystalline GeTe Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(14), 2737–2743 (2011).
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Marian, S.

D. Tsiulyanu, S. Marian, H. D. Liess, and I. Eisele, “Effect of annealing and temperature on the NO2 sensing properties of tellurium based films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 100(3), 380–386 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maulion, G.

C. Vigreux, M. Vu Thi, R. Escalier, G. Maulion, R. Kribich, and A. Pradel, “Channel waveguides based on thermally co-evaporated Te-Ge-Se films for infrared integrated optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 205–208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maurugeon, S.

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, P. Lucas, X. H. Zhang, and J. Lucas, “Selenium modified GeTe4 based glasses optical fibers for far-infrared sensing,” Opt. Mater. 33(4), 660–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. H. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge-Te-Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 mu m,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ménard, S.

Meneghini, C.

Michel, K.

K. Michel, B. Bureau, C. Pouvreau, J. C. Sangleboeuf, C. Boussard-Plédel, T. Jouan, T. Rouxel, J. L. Adam, K. Staubmann, H. Steinner, T. Baumann, A. Katzir, J. Bayona, and W. Konz, “Development of a chalcogenide glass fiber device for in situ pollutant detection,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 434–438 (2003).
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Mitsa, V.

O. Gamulin, M. Ivanda, V. Mitsa, S. Pasic, and M. Balarin, “Spectroscopy studies of structural phase transitions of chalcogenide glass thin films (Ge2S3)x(As2S3)1− x at coordination number 2.67,” Solid State Commun. 135(11-12), 753–758 (2005).
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Moreac, A.

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
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Moss, S. C.

J. Feinleib, J. Deneufvi, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Rapid Reversible Light-induced Crystallization Of Amorphous Semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(6), 254–257 (1971).

Moss, T. S.

T. S. Moss, “A relationship between the refractive index and the infra-red threshold of sensitivity for photoconductors,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B 63(3), 167–176 (1950).
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Müller, J.

G. Saffarini, H. Schmitt, H. Shanak, J. Nowoczin, and J. Müller, “Optical band gap in relation to the average coordination number in Ge—S—Bi thin films,” Phys Status Solidi B 239(1), 251–256 (2003).
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Murakowski, M.

Musgraves, J. D.

Nagels, P.

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichý, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200(Part 2), 723–727 (1996).
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Nam, S.-W.

D. Kang, D. Lee, H.-M. Kim, S.-W. Nam, M.-H. Kwon, and K.-B. Kim, “Analysis of the electric field induced elemental separation of Ge2Sb2Te5 by transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011904 (2009).
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Nazabal, V.

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nemec, P.

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
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Ni, C.

Nie, Q.

J. Li, X. Shen, J. Sun, K. Vu, D.-Y. Choi, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Fabrication and characterization of Ge20Sb15Se65 chalcogenide glass rib waveguides for telecommunication wavelengths,” Thin Solid Films 545, 462–465 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nowoczin, J.

G. Saffarini, H. Schmitt, H. Shanak, J. Nowoczin, and J. Müller, “Optical band gap in relation to the average coordination number in Ge—S—Bi thin films,” Phys Status Solidi B 239(1), 251–256 (2003).
[Crossref]

Orava, J.

Ovshinsky, S. R.

J. Feinleib, J. Deneufvi, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Rapid Reversible Light-induced Crystallization Of Amorphous Semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(6), 254–257 (1971).

Pan, W. J.

Pantano, C. G.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, J. Irudayaraj, and C. G. Pantano, “Detection and fingerprinting of pathogens: Mid-IR biosensor using amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2757–2762 (2008).
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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
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Parent, G.

E. Barthélémy, C. Vigreux, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and A. Pradel, “Telluride films and waveguides for IR integrated optics,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(9), 2890–2894 (2011).
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C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, M. Barillot, S. Ménard, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Realization of single-mode telluride rib waveguides for mid-IR applications between 10 and 20 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2922–2924 (2011).
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C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, S. Ménard, M. Barillot, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Fabrication and testing of all-telluride rib waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 357–364 (2011).
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S. Zhang, X. Zhang, M. Barillot, L. Calvez, C. Boussard, B. Bureau, J. Lucas, V. Kirschner, and G. Parent, “Purification of Te75Ga10Ge15 glass for far infrared transmitting optics for space application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1055–1059 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pasic, S.

O. Gamulin, M. Ivanda, V. Mitsa, S. Pasic, and M. Balarin, “Spectroscopy studies of structural phase transitions of chalcogenide glass thin films (Ge2S3)x(As2S3)1− x at coordination number 2.67,” Solid State Commun. 135(11-12), 753–758 (2005).
[Crossref]

Philip, J.

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
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Piarristeguy, A.

C. Vigreux, A. Piarristeguy, R. Escalier, S. Ménard, M. Barillot, and A. Pradel, “Evidence of a minimum in refractive indexes of amorphous GexTe100−x films: Relevance to the development of infrared waveguides,” Phys Status Solidi A 211(4), 932–937 (2014).
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P. Jóvári, A. Piarristeguy, R. Escalier, I. Kaban, J. Bednarcik, and A. Pradel, “Short range order and stability of amorphous GexTe100−x alloys (12 ≤ x ≤ 44.6),” J Phys-Condens Matter 25, 195401 (2013).

Pierrès, K. M.-L.

F. Charpentier, B. Bureau, J. Troles, C. Boussard-Plédel, K. M.-L. Pierrès, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared monitoring of underground CO2 storage using chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 31(3), 496–500 (2009).
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Pouvreau, C.

K. Michel, B. Bureau, C. Pouvreau, J. C. Sangleboeuf, C. Boussard-Plédel, T. Jouan, T. Rouxel, J. L. Adam, K. Staubmann, H. Steinner, T. Baumann, A. Katzir, J. Bayona, and W. Konz, “Development of a chalcogenide glass fiber device for in situ pollutant detection,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 434–438 (2003).
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Pradel, A.

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[Crossref]

C. Vigreux, M. Vu Thi, R. Escalier, G. Maulion, R. Kribich, and A. Pradel, “Channel waveguides based on thermally co-evaporated Te-Ge-Se films for infrared integrated optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 205–208 (2013).
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P. Jóvári, A. Piarristeguy, R. Escalier, I. Kaban, J. Bednarcik, and A. Pradel, “Short range order and stability of amorphous GexTe100−x alloys (12 ≤ x ≤ 44.6),” J Phys-Condens Matter 25, 195401 (2013).

V. T. Mai, R. Escalier, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Selenium modified Te85Ge15 films elaborated by thermal co-evaporation for infrared applications,” Thin Solid Films 524, 309–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Vigreux, S. D. Sousa, V. Foucan, E. Barthélémy, and A. Pradel, “Deep reactive ion etching of thermally co-evaporated Te–Ge films for IR integrated optics components,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(3), 222–227 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Barthélémy, C. Vigreux, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and A. Pradel, “Telluride films and waveguides for IR integrated optics,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(9), 2890–2894 (2011).
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C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, M. Barillot, S. Ménard, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Realization of single-mode telluride rib waveguides for mid-IR applications between 10 and 20 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2922–2924 (2011).
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C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, S. Ménard, M. Barillot, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Fabrication and testing of all-telluride rib waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 357–364 (2011).
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E. Barthélémy, S. Albert, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Effect of composition on the properties of Te-Ge thick films deposited by co-thermal evaporation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(41-42), 2175–2180 (2010).
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L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, “Technology challenges for space interferometry: the option of mid-infrared integrated optics,” Adv. Space Res. 41(12), 1975–1982 (2008).
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P. Boolchand, D. G. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, “Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67, and rigidity transitions in chalgonide glasses,” C. R. Chim. 5(11), 713–724 (2002).
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D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl Phys Adv Mater 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
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G. Yang, Y. Gueguen, J.-C. Sangleboeuf, T. Rouxel, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Troles, P. Lucas, and B. Bureau, “Physical properties of the GexSe1-x glasses in the 0<x<0.42 range in correlation with their structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 54–59 (2013).
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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, R. Song, J. V. Ryan, J. Irudayaraj, Y. J. Ding, and C. G. Pantano, “Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 584–588 (2006).
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E. Sleeckx, L. Tichý, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200(Part 2), 723–727 (1996).
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G. Yang, Y. Gueguen, J.-C. Sangleboeuf, T. Rouxel, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Troles, P. Lucas, and B. Bureau, “Physical properties of the GexSe1-x glasses in the 0<x<0.42 range in correlation with their structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 54–59 (2013).
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F. Charpentier, B. Bureau, J. Troles, C. Boussard-Plédel, K. M.-L. Pierrès, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared monitoring of underground CO2 storage using chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. 31(3), 496–500 (2009).
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C. Vigreux, M. Vu Thi, R. Escalier, G. Maulion, R. Kribich, and A. Pradel, “Channel waveguides based on thermally co-evaporated Te-Ge-Se films for infrared integrated optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 205–208 (2013).
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V. T. Mai, R. Escalier, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Selenium modified Te85Ge15 films elaborated by thermal co-evaporation for infrared applications,” Thin Solid Films 524, 309–315 (2012).
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C. Vigreux, S. D. Sousa, V. Foucan, E. Barthélémy, and A. Pradel, “Deep reactive ion etching of thermally co-evaporated Te–Ge films for IR integrated optics components,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(3), 222–227 (2011).
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E. Barthélémy, C. Vigreux, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and A. Pradel, “Telluride films and waveguides for IR integrated optics,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(9), 2890–2894 (2011).
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C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, S. Ménard, M. Barillot, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Fabrication and testing of all-telluride rib waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 357–364 (2011).
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C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, M. Barillot, S. Ménard, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Realization of single-mode telluride rib waveguides for mid-IR applications between 10 and 20 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2922–2924 (2011).
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E. Barthélémy, S. Albert, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Effect of composition on the properties of Te-Ge thick films deposited by co-thermal evaporation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(41-42), 2175–2180 (2010).
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L. Labadie, P. Kern, P. Labeye, E. LeCoarer, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Kirschner, “Technology challenges for space interferometry: the option of mid-infrared integrated optics,” Adv. Space Res. 41(12), 1975–1982 (2008).
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E. M. Vinod, A. K. Singh, R. Ganesan, and K. S. Sangunni, “Effect of selenium addition on the GeTe phase change memory alloys,” J. Alloy. Comp. 537, 127–132 (2012).
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C. Vigreux, M. Vu Thi, R. Escalier, G. Maulion, R. Kribich, and A. Pradel, “Channel waveguides based on thermally co-evaporated Te-Ge-Se films for infrared integrated optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 205–208 (2013).
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R. Zhao, M. Wang, B. Chen, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Bent channel design in buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide fabricated by field-assisted annealing,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 044602 (2011).
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Zhu, B. P.

H. B. Lu, E. Thelander, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, B. P. Zhu, and B. Rauschenbach, “Single Pulse Laser-Induced Phase Transitions of PLD-Deposited Ge2Sb2Te5 Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(29), 3621–3627 (2013).
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Zimmermann, J.

Zou, Y.

Zulfequar, M.

S. A. Khan, M. Zulfequar, and M. Husain, “Effects of annealing on crystallization process in amorphous Ge5Se95-xTex thin films,” Physica B 324(1-4), 336–343 (2002).
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ACS Photonics (1)

Y. Zha, P. T. Lin, L. Kimerling, A. Agarwal, and C. B. Arnold, “Inverted-rib chalcogenide waveguides by solution process,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 153–157 (2014).
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H. B. Lu, E. Thelander, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, B. P. Zhu, and B. Rauschenbach, “Single Pulse Laser-Induced Phase Transitions of PLD-Deposited Ge2Sb2Te5 Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(29), 3621–3627 (2013).
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S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, and J. Lucas, “A family of far-infrared-transmitting glasses in the Ga-Ge-Te system for space applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1847–1852 (2006).
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S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, X. H. Zhang, W. Geliesen, and J. Lucas, “Te-rich Ge-Te-Se glass for the CO2 infrared detection at 15 mu m,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37-42), 2074–2078 (2009).
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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, J. Irudayaraj, and C. G. Pantano, “Detection and fingerprinting of pathogens: Mid-IR biosensor using amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2757–2762 (2008).
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P. Sharma and S. C. Katyal, “Thickness dependence of optical parameters for Ge-Se-Te thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4516–4518 (2007).
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Microelectron. Eng. (2)

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C. Vigreux, S. D. Sousa, V. Foucan, E. Barthélémy, and A. Pradel, “Deep reactive ion etching of thermally co-evaporated Te–Ge films for IR integrated optics components,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(3), 222–227 (2011).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Zhao, M. Wang, B. Chen, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Bent channel design in buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide fabricated by field-assisted annealing,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 044602 (2011).
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Opt. Express (2)

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S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, C. Boussard-Pledel, A. J. Faber, P. Lucas, X. H. Zhang, and J. Lucas, “Selenium modified GeTe4 based glasses optical fibers for far-infrared sensing,” Opt. Mater. 33(4), 660–663 (2011).
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Physica B (3)

S. A. Khan, M. Zulfequar, and M. Husain, “Effects of annealing on crystallization process in amorphous Ge5Se95-xTex thin films,” Physica B 324(1-4), 336–343 (2002).
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A. El-Korashy, A. Bakry, M. A. Abdel-Rahim, and M. A. El-Sattar, “Annealing effects on some physical properties of Ge5Se25Te70 chalcogenide glasses,” Physica B 391(2), 266–273 (2007).
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V. T. Mai, R. Escalier, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Selenium modified Te85Ge15 films elaborated by thermal co-evaporation for infrared applications,” Thin Solid Films 524, 309–315 (2012).
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P. Sharma and S. C. Katyal, “Effect of substrate temperature on the optical parameters of thermally evaporated Ge-Se-Te thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517(13), 3813–3816 (2009).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DSC curves of several Ge-Se-Te films deposited by thermal co-evaporation. Each characteristic temperature is indicated, together with its measurement procedure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Vitreous transition temperatures Tg1 and possible isotherms. The yellow zone with small dots shows the domain where two Tg were observed. b) Criterion of stability ΔT of the films in the Ge-Se-Te system. The blue shaded zone corresponds to films with ΔT > 100 K, and the hatched zone delimits films which do not present any crystallization peak in their DSC curve. The yellow zone with small dots corresponds to films with two Tg. The red segment shows the liquid-liquid miscibility gap existing in the GeSe2-Te pseudo-binary system according to Bordas et al. [41] and the red dashed area shows the limit of the liquid-liquid miscibility gap in the Ge-Se-Te system according to Borisova [42].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Evolution of the optical band gap Eg in the Ge-Se-Te 3D-ternary diagram. b) Corresponding projection diagram. The black squares show the films that were investigated, and which the Eg 2D-tendency versus composition was extrapolated from.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Evolution of the refractive index at 1.55 µm in the Ge-Se-Te 3D-ternary diagram. b) Corresponding projection diagram. The black squares show the films that were investigated, and which the n 2D-tendency versus composition was extrapolated from.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) SEM picture of a 10-µm wide rib waveguide. b) Near-field image at λ = 1.55 µm at the output of a 10 µm-width rib waveguide and corresponding simulated image. c) Near-field image at λ = 1.55 µm at the output of a 6 µm-width rib waveguide and corresponding simulated image. d) Total optical losses at λ = 1.55 µm versus the waveguide length for a 6-µm wide rib waveguide characterized by an initial length of 3.2 cm. The slope of the simulated dotted line, corresponding to propagation losses, is 1.1 dB.cm−1. The intercept of about 15.3 dB gives an order of magnitude of the coupling losses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Optical image of a series of 8 S-bend waveguides of 6-µm in width. r stands for the radius of curvature. For each S-bend waveguide, a distance of 0.25 mm was applied between the two straight branches. b) Bending losses versus the curve radius. The error on the loss values is included in the thickness of the black squares. Inset: schematic diagram of S-bend channel waveguide configuration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Optical image of a spiral; b) SEM picture of a Y-junction; c) optical image of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer; d, e and f) 1.55 µm near-field images at the output of a spiral, a Y-junction and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a) Modal filtering bench design; b) transmission spectrum of a [10 – 20 µm] rib waveguide; c) and d) SEM images of the [6 – 11 µm] rib waveguide tested as a modal filter.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Compositions of the thermally co-evaporated Ge-Se-Te films, along with their characteristic temperatures (Tg, Tx, Tm) and their criterion of stability (ΔT = Tx1Tg1). “N.O.” means that the corresponding characteristic temperatures were not observed. “N.A.” means that due to a lack of matter, DSC analysis was not performed.

Equations (2)

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n ( λ ) = A + B λ 2
n 4 E g =K

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