Abstract

New measurements of the index of refraction for free-standing samples of gallium nitride are reported. A simple dispersive prism technique is used to obtain the birefringent indices from 500 to 5100 nm, covering most of the transparency range of this wide band gap semiconductor. Millimeter thick samples prepared by both ammonothermal growth and hydride vapor phase epitaxy are found to have nearly identical refractive indices. The observed dispersion fits well to a two-pole Sellmeier equation with an estimated overall accuracy of ± 0.002. Our results are found to be in good agreement with previous visible and near-IR measurements on thin-film GaN samples, however we observed significantly less dispersion in the mid-IR. Moderate heating of the samples also provided a new determination of dn/dT.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Optical dispersion and phase matching in gallium nitride and aluminum nitride

Steven R. Bowman, Christopher G. Brown, and Benjamin Taczak
Opt. Mater. Express 8(4) 1091-1099 (2018)

Gallium nitride nanorod arrays as low-refractive-index transparent media in the entire visible spectral region

Hung-Ying Chen, Hon-Way Lin, Chen-Ying Wu, Wei-Chun Chen, Jyh-Shin Chen, and Shangjr Gwo
Opt. Express 16(11) 8106-8116 (2008)

Accurate measurement of quadratic nonlinear-optical coefficients of gallium nitride

Makoto Abe, Hiroaki Sato, Ichiro Shoji, Jun Suda, Masashi Yoshimura, Yasuo Kitaoka, Yusuke Mori, and Takashi Kondo
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(10) 2026-2034 (2010)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Ehrntraut, E. Meissner, and M. Bockowski, Technology of Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidlberg, 2010), Chap. 1.
  2. L. Liu and J. H. Edgar, “Substrates for gallium nitride epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 37(3), 61–127 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. I. Yonenaga, T. Hoshi, and A. Usui, “High-temperature hardness of bulk single-crystal gallium nitride—in comparison with other wide-gap materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(49), 10319–10323 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Ma, K. F. Adeni, C. Zeng, Y. Jin, K. Dandu, Y. Saripalli, M. Johnson, and D. Barlage, “Comparison of Different GaN Etching Techniques,” in Proceedings of Compound Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2006), pp.105 – 108.
  6. C. Lee, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, J. R. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, H. Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Selective Chemical Etch of Gallium Nitride by Phosphoric Acid,” JVST A 30, 040602 (2012).
  7. N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Ehrntraut, E. Meissner, and M. Bockowski, Technology of Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidlberg, 2010), Chap. 7.
  9. R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. MacDonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, Third Edition Volume IV: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2009), YAG Dispersion.
  11. A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second –harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 67–69 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).
  14. S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Yu, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, T. Soga, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Polarized reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of the optical anisotropy of gallium nitride on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1029–L1031 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN Refractive Indices,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 188, 793–797 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, J. R. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, H. Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Selective Chemical Etch of Gallium Nitride by Phosphoric Acid,” JVST A 30, 040602 (2012).

2008 (2)

R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second –harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).

2002 (1)

L. Liu and J. H. Edgar, “Substrates for gallium nitride epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 37(3), 61–127 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN Refractive Indices,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

I. Yonenaga, T. Hoshi, and A. Usui, “High-temperature hardness of bulk single-crystal gallium nitride—in comparison with other wide-gap materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(49), 10319–10323 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Yu, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, T. Soga, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Polarized reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of the optical anisotropy of gallium nitride on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1029–L1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bergmann, M. J.

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, M.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second –harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bobea, M.

M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brault, J.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Casey, H. C.

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, A.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second –harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Davydov, A. V.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).

de Micheli, M.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).

Dmitriev, A. V.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).

Doradzin, R.

R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Doradzinski, R.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dwilin, R.

R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dwilinski, R.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eddy, C. R.

C. Lee, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, J. R. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, H. Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Selective Chemical Etch of Gallium Nitride by Phosphoric Acid,” JVST A 30, 040602 (2012).

Edgar, J. H.

L. Liu and J. H. Edgar, “Substrates for gallium nitride epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 37(3), 61–127 (2002).
[Crossref]

Egawa, T.

G. Yu, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, T. Soga, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Polarized reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of the optical anisotropy of gallium nitride on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1029–L1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Everitt, H. O.

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN Refractive Indices,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z. C.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[Crossref]

Freitas, J. R.

C. Lee, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, J. R. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, H. Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Selective Chemical Etch of Gallium Nitride by Phosphoric Acid,” JVST A 30, 040602 (2012).

Garczyn, J.

R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gerhold, M.

M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, J. Y.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, H.

R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

He, X. H.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hite, J. K.

C. Lee, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, J. R. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, H. Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Selective Chemical Etch of Gallium Nitride by Phosphoric Acid,” JVST A 30, 040602 (2012).

Hoffman, M. P.

M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoshi, T.

I. Yonenaga, T. Hoshi, and A. Usui, “High-temperature hardness of bulk single-crystal gallium nitride—in comparison with other wide-gap materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(49), 10319–10323 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, H.

G. Yu, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, T. Soga, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Polarized reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of the optical anisotropy of gallium nitride on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1029–L1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jimbo, T.

G. Yu, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, T. Soga, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Polarized reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of the optical anisotropy of gallium nitride on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1029–L1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kanbara, Y.

R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).

Kim, H. Y.

C. Lee, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, J. R. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, H. Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Selective Chemical Etch of Gallium Nitride by Phosphoric Acid,” JVST A 30, 040602 (2012).

Kim, J.

C. Lee, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, J. R. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, H. Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Selective Chemical Etch of Gallium Nitride by Phosphoric Acid,” JVST A 30, 040602 (2012).

Kirste, R.

M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kucharski, R.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kudrawiec, R.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, J. R. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, H. Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Selective Chemical Etch of Gallium Nitride by Phosphoric Acid,” JVST A 30, 040602 (2012).

Leroux, M.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

L. Liu and J. H. Edgar, “Substrates for gallium nitride epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 37(3), 61–127 (2002).
[Crossref]

Massies, J.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mastro, M. A.

C. Lee, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, J. R. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, H. Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Selective Chemical Etch of Gallium Nitride by Phosphoric Acid,” JVST A 30, 040602 (2012).

Minakuchi, H.

R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).

Misiewicz, J.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mita, S.

M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Molnar, R. J.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN Refractive Indices,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

Motyka, M.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muth, J. F.

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ng, H. M.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second –harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN Refractive Indices,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Park, S. S.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pezzagna, S.

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Puchalski, A.

R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rigler, M.

M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Robins, L. H.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).

Rudzinski, M.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sanford, N. A.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).

Schurman, M.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, A.

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).

Shih, Y. H.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sierzputowski, L. P.

R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sitar, Z.

M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soga, T.

G. Yu, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, T. Soga, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Polarized reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of the optical anisotropy of gallium nitride on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1029–L1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Stall, R. A.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tsvetkov, D. V.

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).

Umeno, M.

G. Yu, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, T. Soga, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Polarized reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of the optical anisotropy of gallium nitride on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1029–L1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Usui, A.

I. Yonenaga, T. Hoshi, and A. Usui, “High-temperature hardness of bulk single-crystal gallium nitride—in comparison with other wide-gap materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(49), 10319–10323 (2000).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, J.

G. Yu, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, T. Soga, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Polarized reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of the optical anisotropy of gallium nitride on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1029–L1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Webb-Wood, G.

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN Refractive Indices,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

Weimann, N. G.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second –harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Welna, M.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yagi, K.

R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yonenaga, I.

I. Yonenaga, T. Hoshi, and A. Usui, “High-temperature hardness of bulk single-crystal gallium nitride—in comparison with other wide-gap materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(49), 10319–10323 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, T. Soga, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Polarized reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of the optical anisotropy of gallium nitride on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1029–L1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yun, F.

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN Refractive Indices,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zajac, M.

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zgonik, M.

M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. Y.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second –harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. J. Bergmann, Ü. Özgür, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary indices fir AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Rigler, M. Zgonik, M. P. Hoffman, R. Kirste, M. Bobea, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, S. Mita, and M. Gerhold, “Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN waveguides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

M. Welna, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, R. Kucharski, M. Zając, M. Rudziński, J. Misiewicz, R. Doradziński, and R. Dwiliński, “Transparency of GaN substrates in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 47(3), 347–350 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 053512 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1-xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).

S. Pezzagna, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J. Massies, and M. de Micheli, “Refractive indices and elasto-optic coefficients of GaN studied by optical waveguiding,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123112 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

R. Dwilin, R. Doradzin, J. Garczyn, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

I. Yonenaga, T. Hoshi, and A. Usui, “High-temperature hardness of bulk single-crystal gallium nitride—in comparison with other wide-gap materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(49), 10319–10323 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Yu, H. Ishikawa, T. Egawa, T. Soga, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Polarized reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of the optical anisotropy of gallium nitride on sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1029–L1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

JVST A (1)

C. Lee, J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, J. R. Freitas, C. R. Eddy, H. Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Selective Chemical Etch of Gallium Nitride by Phosphoric Acid,” JVST A 30, 040602 (2012).

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

L. Liu and J. H. Edgar, “Substrates for gallium nitride epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 37(3), 61–127 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. (1)

G. Webb-Wood, Ü. Özgür, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Measurement of AlxGa1-xN Refractive Indices,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 188, 793–797 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

D. Ehrntraut, E. Meissner, and M. Bockowski, Technology of Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidlberg, 2010), Chap. 1.

L. Ma, K. F. Adeni, C. Zeng, Y. Jin, K. Dandu, Y. Saripalli, M. Johnson, and D. Barlage, “Comparison of Different GaN Etching Techniques,” in Proceedings of Compound Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2006), pp.105 – 108.

M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. MacDonald, V. Mahajan, and E. Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, Third Edition Volume IV: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2009), YAG Dispersion.

D. Ehrntraut, E. Meissner, and M. Bockowski, Technology of Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidlberg, 2010), Chap. 7.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Room temperature transmission of a semi-insulating GaN m-plane wafer 0.91 mm thick. Dotted line shows the calculated Fresnel losses based on the reported Sellmeier equations.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the experimental setup used to measure the chromatic dispersion of bulk GaN crystal. Inset shows orientation of GaN prism and directions of ordinary, Eo, and extraordinary, Ee, polarizations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Room temperature measurements of the refractive index of bulk GaN. Error bars and Metricon calibration points are discussed in the text. The solid curves are the best fit two-term Sellmeier Eqs. (2) and (3).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of visible and near-IR Sellmeier fits of the extraordinary and ordinary refractive index of GaN.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of mid-IR Sellmeier fits of the extraordinary and ordinary refractive index of GaN.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n( λ bp )= sin( α w + θ bp ) sin( α w ) .
n e ( λ )= 1+( 4.347 λ 2 λ 2 ( 0.1781 ) 2 )+( 2.964 λ 2 λ 2 ( 15.23 ) 2 )
n o ( λ )= 1+( 4.199 λ 2 λ 2 (0.1753) 2 )+( 3.625 λ 2 λ 2 (17.05) 2 )

Metrics