Abstract

(LuxY1-x)3Al5O12:Pr (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) crystals have been grown by the Czochralski method and their scintillation properties have been examined. Compared to the well-respected LuAG:Pr scintillator, which has so extensively been studied in the recent years, the new mixed LuYAG:Pr crystals display markedly higher light yields, regardless of the value of x. In particular, (Lu0.75Y0.25)3Al5O12:0.2%Pr characterized by a yield of 33000 ph/MeV, an energy resolution of 4.4% (at 662 keV), and a density of 6.2 g/cm3, seems to be an ideal candidate to supercede Lu3Al5O12:0.2%Pr (19000 ph/MeV, 4.6%, 6.7 g/cm3) in various applications. The observed enhancement of light output following the partial substitution of lutetium by yttrium is most probably related to some specific differences in distributions of shallow traps in particular materials.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Krasnikov, A. Beitlerova, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Photo- and radioluminescence of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(1), R4–R6 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, A. Chruścińska, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation yield enhancement in LuAG:Pr crystals following thermal annealing,” Opt. Mater.34(12), 1975–1978 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Brylew, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing in air on scintillation properties of LuAG and LuAG:Pr,” Centr. Europ. J. Phys.11(1), 138–142 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Mares, M. Nikl, A. Beitlerova, P. Horodysky, K. Blazek, K. Bartos, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+- and Pr3+-doped LuAG, YAG and mixed LuxY1-xAG garnet crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2120–2125 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Ogino, A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, K. Kamada, and T. Fukuda, “Scintillation characteristics of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth292(2), 239–242 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. T. M. de Haas and P. Dorenbos, “Advances in yield calibration of scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1086–1092 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Gamma ray spectroscopy with a Ø19 x 19 mm3 LaBr3:0.5%Ce3+ scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51, 1289–1296 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Bizarri, J. T. M. de Haas, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “First time measurement of gamma-ray exciteD LaBr3:5%Ce3+ and LaCl3:10%Ce3+ temperature dependent properties,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(5), R41–R43 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Drozdowski and K. Brylew, yet unpublished data on radioluminescence of LuYAG:Pr.
  14. W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, R. Drozdowska, A. J. J. Bos, N. R. J. Poolton, M. Tonelli, and M. Alshourbagy, “Effect of electron traps on scintillation of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56(1), 320–327 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing on light yield, low temperature thermoluminescence, and time profiles of LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals,” Radiat. Meas.56, 80–83 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Drozdowski, T. Łukasiewicz, A. J. Wojtowicz, D. Wiśniewski, and J. Kisielewski, “Thermoluminescence and scintillation of praseodymium activated Y3Al5O12 and LuAlO3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth275(1-2), e709–e714 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. J. Wojtowicz, J. Glodo, W. Drozdowski, and K. R. Przegietka, “Electron traps and scintillation mechanism in YAlO3:Ce and LuAlO3:Ce scintillators,” J. Lumin.79(4), 275–291 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Dorenbos, “Electronic structure and optical properties of the lanthanide activated RE3(Al1-xGax)5O12 (RE = Gd, Y, Lu) garnet compounds,” J. Lumin.134, 310–318 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

K. Brylew, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing in air on scintillation properties of LuAG and LuAG:Pr,” Centr. Europ. J. Phys.11(1), 138–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing on light yield, low temperature thermoluminescence, and time profiles of LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals,” Radiat. Meas.56, 80–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Dorenbos, “Electronic structure and optical properties of the lanthanide activated RE3(Al1-xGax)5O12 (RE = Gd, Y, Lu) garnet compounds,” J. Lumin.134, 310–318 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

J. A. Mares, M. Nikl, A. Beitlerova, P. Horodysky, K. Blazek, K. Bartos, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+- and Pr3+-doped LuAG, YAG and mixed LuxY1-xAG garnet crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2120–2125 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, A. Chruścińska, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation yield enhancement in LuAG:Pr crystals following thermal annealing,” Opt. Mater.34(12), 1975–1978 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, R. Drozdowska, A. J. J. Bos, N. R. J. Poolton, M. Tonelli, and M. Alshourbagy, “Effect of electron traps on scintillation of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56(1), 320–327 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. M. de Haas and P. Dorenbos, “Advances in yield calibration of scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. Bizarri, J. T. M. de Haas, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “First time measurement of gamma-ray exciteD LaBr3:5%Ce3+ and LaCl3:10%Ce3+ temperature dependent properties,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(5), R41–R43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ogino, A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, K. Kamada, and T. Fukuda, “Scintillation characteristics of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth292(2), 239–242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Krasnikov, A. Beitlerova, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Photo- and radioluminescence of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(1), R4–R6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, T. Łukasiewicz, A. J. Wojtowicz, D. Wiśniewski, and J. Kisielewski, “Thermoluminescence and scintillation of praseodymium activated Y3Al5O12 and LuAlO3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth275(1-2), e709–e714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Gamma ray spectroscopy with a Ø19 x 19 mm3 LaBr3:0.5%Ce3+ scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51, 1289–1296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. J. Wojtowicz, J. Glodo, W. Drozdowski, and K. R. Przegietka, “Electron traps and scintillation mechanism in YAlO3:Ce and LuAlO3:Ce scintillators,” J. Lumin.79(4), 275–291 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alshourbagy, M.

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, R. Drozdowska, A. J. J. Bos, N. R. J. Poolton, M. Tonelli, and M. Alshourbagy, “Effect of electron traps on scintillation of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56(1), 320–327 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baba, M.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartos, K.

J. A. Mares, M. Nikl, A. Beitlerova, P. Horodysky, K. Blazek, K. Bartos, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+- and Pr3+-doped LuAG, YAG and mixed LuxY1-xAG garnet crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2120–2125 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beitlerova, A.

J. A. Mares, M. Nikl, A. Beitlerova, P. Horodysky, K. Blazek, K. Bartos, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+- and Pr3+-doped LuAG, YAG and mixed LuxY1-xAG garnet crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2120–2125 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Krasnikov, A. Beitlerova, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Photo- and radioluminescence of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(1), R4–R6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bizarri, G.

G. Bizarri, J. T. M. de Haas, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “First time measurement of gamma-ray exciteD LaBr3:5%Ce3+ and LaCl3:10%Ce3+ temperature dependent properties,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(5), R41–R43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blazek, K.

J. A. Mares, M. Nikl, A. Beitlerova, P. Horodysky, K. Blazek, K. Bartos, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+- and Pr3+-doped LuAG, YAG and mixed LuxY1-xAG garnet crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2120–2125 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bos, A. J. J.

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, R. Drozdowska, A. J. J. Bos, N. R. J. Poolton, M. Tonelli, and M. Alshourbagy, “Effect of electron traps on scintillation of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56(1), 320–327 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brylew, K.

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing on light yield, low temperature thermoluminescence, and time profiles of LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals,” Radiat. Meas.56, 80–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Brylew, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing in air on scintillation properties of LuAG and LuAG:Pr,” Centr. Europ. J. Phys.11(1), 138–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, A. Chruścińska, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation yield enhancement in LuAG:Pr crystals following thermal annealing,” Opt. Mater.34(12), 1975–1978 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chruscinska, A.

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, A. Chruścińska, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation yield enhancement in LuAG:Pr crystals following thermal annealing,” Opt. Mater.34(12), 1975–1978 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D’Ambrosio, C.

J. A. Mares, M. Nikl, A. Beitlerova, P. Horodysky, K. Blazek, K. Bartos, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+- and Pr3+-doped LuAG, YAG and mixed LuxY1-xAG garnet crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2120–2125 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Haas, J. T. M.

J. T. M. de Haas and P. Dorenbos, “Advances in yield calibration of scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Bizarri, J. T. M. de Haas, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “First time measurement of gamma-ray exciteD LaBr3:5%Ce3+ and LaCl3:10%Ce3+ temperature dependent properties,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(5), R41–R43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Gamma ray spectroscopy with a Ø19 x 19 mm3 LaBr3:0.5%Ce3+ scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51, 1289–1296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, P.

P. Dorenbos, “Electronic structure and optical properties of the lanthanide activated RE3(Al1-xGax)5O12 (RE = Gd, Y, Lu) garnet compounds,” J. Lumin.134, 310–318 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, R. Drozdowska, A. J. J. Bos, N. R. J. Poolton, M. Tonelli, and M. Alshourbagy, “Effect of electron traps on scintillation of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56(1), 320–327 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. T. M. de Haas and P. Dorenbos, “Advances in yield calibration of scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Bizarri, J. T. M. de Haas, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “First time measurement of gamma-ray exciteD LaBr3:5%Ce3+ and LaCl3:10%Ce3+ temperature dependent properties,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(5), R41–R43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Gamma ray spectroscopy with a Ø19 x 19 mm3 LaBr3:0.5%Ce3+ scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51, 1289–1296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, T. R.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Drozdowska, R.

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, R. Drozdowska, A. J. J. Bos, N. R. J. Poolton, M. Tonelli, and M. Alshourbagy, “Effect of electron traps on scintillation of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56(1), 320–327 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drozdowski, W.

K. Brylew, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing in air on scintillation properties of LuAG and LuAG:Pr,” Centr. Europ. J. Phys.11(1), 138–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing on light yield, low temperature thermoluminescence, and time profiles of LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals,” Radiat. Meas.56, 80–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, A. Chruścińska, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation yield enhancement in LuAG:Pr crystals following thermal annealing,” Opt. Mater.34(12), 1975–1978 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, R. Drozdowska, A. J. J. Bos, N. R. J. Poolton, M. Tonelli, and M. Alshourbagy, “Effect of electron traps on scintillation of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56(1), 320–327 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, T. Łukasiewicz, A. J. Wojtowicz, D. Wiśniewski, and J. Kisielewski, “Thermoluminescence and scintillation of praseodymium activated Y3Al5O12 and LuAlO3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth275(1-2), e709–e714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Wojtowicz, J. Glodo, W. Drozdowski, and K. R. Przegietka, “Electron traps and scintillation mechanism in YAlO3:Ce and LuAlO3:Ce scintillators,” J. Lumin.79(4), 275–291 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, Y.

K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fukabori, A.

K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

H. Ogino, A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, K. Kamada, and T. Fukuda, “Scintillation characteristics of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth292(2), 239–242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Krasnikov, A. Beitlerova, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Photo- and radioluminescence of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(1), R4–R6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glodo, J.

A. J. Wojtowicz, J. Glodo, W. Drozdowski, and K. R. Przegietka, “Electron traps and scintillation mechanism in YAlO3:Ce and LuAlO3:Ce scintillators,” J. Lumin.79(4), 275–291 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horodysky, P.

J. A. Mares, M. Nikl, A. Beitlerova, P. Horodysky, K. Blazek, K. Bartos, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+- and Pr3+-doped LuAG, YAG and mixed LuxY1-xAG garnet crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2120–2125 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, H.

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, K.

K. Brylew, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing in air on scintillation properties of LuAG and LuAG:Pr,” Centr. Europ. J. Phys.11(1), 138–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing on light yield, low temperature thermoluminescence, and time profiles of LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals,” Radiat. Meas.56, 80–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, A. Chruścińska, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation yield enhancement in LuAG:Pr crystals following thermal annealing,” Opt. Mater.34(12), 1975–1978 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ogino, A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, K. Kamada, and T. Fukuda, “Scintillation characteristics of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth292(2), 239–242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, J.

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kato, J.

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, N.

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kisielewski, J.

W. Drozdowski, T. Łukasiewicz, A. J. Wojtowicz, D. Wiśniewski, and J. Kisielewski, “Thermoluminescence and scintillation of praseodymium activated Y3Al5O12 and LuAlO3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth275(1-2), e709–e714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krasnikov, A.

M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Krasnikov, A. Beitlerova, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Photo- and radioluminescence of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(1), R4–R6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, K.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lukasiewicz, T.

W. Drozdowski, T. Łukasiewicz, A. J. Wojtowicz, D. Wiśniewski, and J. Kisielewski, “Thermoluminescence and scintillation of praseodymium activated Y3Al5O12 and LuAlO3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth275(1-2), e709–e714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mares, J. A.

J. A. Mares, M. Nikl, A. Beitlerova, P. Horodysky, K. Blazek, K. Bartos, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+- and Pr3+-doped LuAG, YAG and mixed LuxY1-xAG garnet crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2120–2125 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, H.

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miura, T.

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, M.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamori, T.

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nikl, M.

K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Mares, M. Nikl, A. Beitlerova, P. Horodysky, K. Blazek, K. Bartos, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+- and Pr3+-doped LuAG, YAG and mixed LuxY1-xAG garnet crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2120–2125 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Ogino, A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, K. Kamada, and T. Fukuda, “Scintillation characteristics of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth292(2), 239–242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Krasnikov, A. Beitlerova, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Photo- and radioluminescence of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(1), R4–R6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ogino, H.

H. Ogino, A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, K. Kamada, and T. Fukuda, “Scintillation characteristics of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth292(2), 239–242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Krasnikov, A. Beitlerova, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Photo- and radioluminescence of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(1), R4–R6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohuchi, N.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Owens, A.

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pejchal, J.

K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poolton, N. R. J.

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, R. Drozdowska, A. J. J. Bos, N. R. J. Poolton, M. Tonelli, and M. Alshourbagy, “Effect of electron traps on scintillation of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56(1), 320–327 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Przegietka, K. R.

A. J. Wojtowicz, J. Glodo, W. Drozdowski, and K. R. Przegietka, “Electron traps and scintillation mechanism in YAlO3:Ce and LuAlO3:Ce scintillators,” J. Lumin.79(4), 275–291 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sato, G.

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, R. Drozdowska, A. J. J. Bos, N. R. J. Poolton, M. Tonelli, and M. Alshourbagy, “Effect of electron traps on scintillation of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56(1), 320–327 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, K.

K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Usuki, Y.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Eijk, C. W. E.

G. Bizarri, J. T. M. de Haas, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “First time measurement of gamma-ray exciteD LaBr3:5%Ce3+ and LaCl3:10%Ce3+ temperature dependent properties,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(5), R41–R43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Gamma ray spectroscopy with a Ø19 x 19 mm3 LaBr3:0.5%Ce3+ scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51, 1289–1296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wisniewski, D.

W. Drozdowski, T. Łukasiewicz, A. J. Wojtowicz, D. Wiśniewski, and J. Kisielewski, “Thermoluminescence and scintillation of praseodymium activated Y3Al5O12 and LuAlO3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth275(1-2), e709–e714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Witkowski, M. E.

K. Brylew, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing in air on scintillation properties of LuAG and LuAG:Pr,” Centr. Europ. J. Phys.11(1), 138–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing on light yield, low temperature thermoluminescence, and time profiles of LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals,” Radiat. Meas.56, 80–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wojtowicz, A. J.

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing on light yield, low temperature thermoluminescence, and time profiles of LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals,” Radiat. Meas.56, 80–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, T. Łukasiewicz, A. J. Wojtowicz, D. Wiśniewski, and J. Kisielewski, “Thermoluminescence and scintillation of praseodymium activated Y3Al5O12 and LuAlO3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth275(1-2), e709–e714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Wojtowicz, J. Glodo, W. Drozdowski, and K. R. Przegietka, “Electron traps and scintillation mechanism in YAlO3:Ce and LuAlO3:Ce scintillators,” J. Lumin.79(4), 275–291 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamaji, A.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, K.

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yanagida, T.

K. Brylew, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing in air on scintillation properties of LuAG and LuAG:Pr,” Centr. Europ. J. Phys.11(1), 138–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing on light yield, low temperature thermoluminescence, and time profiles of LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals,” Radiat. Meas.56, 80–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, A. Chruścińska, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation yield enhancement in LuAG:Pr crystals following thermal annealing,” Opt. Mater.34(12), 1975–1978 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, Y.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, A.

K. Brylew, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing in air on scintillation properties of LuAG and LuAG:Pr,” Centr. Europ. J. Phys.11(1), 138–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing on light yield, low temperature thermoluminescence, and time profiles of LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals,” Radiat. Meas.56, 80–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, A. Chruścińska, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation yield enhancement in LuAG:Pr crystals following thermal annealing,” Opt. Mater.34(12), 1975–1978 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ogino, A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, K. Kamada, and T. Fukuda, “Scintillation characteristics of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth292(2), 239–242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Krasnikov, A. Beitlerova, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Photo- and radioluminescence of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(1), R4–R6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Centr. Europ. J. Phys. (1)

K. Brylew, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing in air on scintillation properties of LuAG and LuAG:Pr,” Centr. Europ. J. Phys.11(1), 138–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (6)

J. A. Mares, M. Nikl, A. Beitlerova, P. Horodysky, K. Blazek, K. Bartos, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+- and Pr3+-doped LuAG, YAG and mixed LuxY1-xAG garnet crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2120–2125 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, J. Pejchal, M. Nikl, T. Endo, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujimoto, A. Fukabori, and A. Yoshikawa, “Improvement of scintillation properties in Pr doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator by Ga and Y substitutions,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.59(5), 2130–2134 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, R. Drozdowska, A. Owens, K. Kamada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Usuki, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation properties of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2420–2424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. M. de Haas and P. Dorenbos, “Advances in yield calibration of scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dorenbos, J. T. M. de Haas, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Gamma ray spectroscopy with a Ø19 x 19 mm3 LaBr3:0.5%Ce3+ scintillator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51, 1289–1296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, R. Drozdowska, A. J. J. Bos, N. R. J. Poolton, M. Tonelli, and M. Alshourbagy, “Effect of electron traps on scintillation of praseodymium activated Lu3Al5O12,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56(1), 320–327 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

W. Drozdowski, T. Łukasiewicz, A. J. Wojtowicz, D. Wiśniewski, and J. Kisielewski, “Thermoluminescence and scintillation of praseodymium activated Y3Al5O12 and LuAlO3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth275(1-2), e709–e714 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ogino, A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, K. Kamada, and T. Fukuda, “Scintillation characteristics of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth292(2), 239–242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (2)

A. J. Wojtowicz, J. Glodo, W. Drozdowski, and K. R. Przegietka, “Electron traps and scintillation mechanism in YAlO3:Ce and LuAlO3:Ce scintillators,” J. Lumin.79(4), 275–291 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Dorenbos, “Electronic structure and optical properties of the lanthanide activated RE3(Al1-xGax)5O12 (RE = Gd, Y, Lu) garnet compounds,” J. Lumin.134, 310–318 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instr. Meth. A (1)

J. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, and K. Kamada, “Development of a large-area monolithic 4x4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A638(1), 83–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (2)

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, A. Chruścińska, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Scintillation yield enhancement in LuAG:Pr crystals following thermal annealing,” Opt. Mater.34(12), 1975–1978 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida, K. Kamada, Y. Yokota, J. Pejchal, A. Yamaji, Y. Usuki, S. Yamamoto, M. Miyake, K. Kumagai, K. Sasaki, T. R. dos Santos, M. Baba, M. Ito, M. Takeda, N. Ohuchi, and M. Nikl, “Positron emission mammography using Pr:LuAG scintillator – fusion of optical material study and systems engineering,” Opt. Mater.32(10), 1294–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Krasnikov, A. Beitlerova, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Photo- and radioluminescence of Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(1), R4–R6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Bizarri, J. T. M. de Haas, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “First time measurement of gamma-ray exciteD LaBr3:5%Ce3+ and LaCl3:10%Ce3+ temperature dependent properties,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(5), R41–R43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Meas. (1)

W. Drozdowski, K. Brylew, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, K. Kamada, T. Yanagida, and A. Yoshikawa, “Effect of thermal annealing on light yield, low temperature thermoluminescence, and time profiles of LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals,” Radiat. Meas.56, 80–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. Drozdowski and K. Brylew, yet unpublished data on radioluminescence of LuYAG:Pr.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

137Cs pulse height spectra of (Lu0.75Y0.25)3Al5O12:Pr and Lu3Al5O12:Pr.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scintillation yields of (Lu0.75Y0.25)3Al5O12:Pr and Lu3Al5O12:Pr (normalized to unity at their maxima) as functions of temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Glow curves of (Lu0.75Y0.25)3Al5O12:Pr and Lu3Al5O12:Pr, recorded at a heating rate of 0.14 K/s following a 10 min X-ray irradiation.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The basic properties of the studied crystals

Tables Icon

Table 2 The RT values of photoelectron yield and energy resolution (at 662 keV) of the examined samples

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