Abstract

We study waveguide fabrication in lithium-niobo-phosphate glass, aiming at a practical method of single-stage fabrication of nonlinear integrated-optics devices. We observed chemical transformations or material redistribution during the course of high repetition rate femtosecond laser inscription. We believe that the laser-induced ultrafast heating and cooling followed by elements diffusion on a microscopic scale opens the way toward the engineering non-equilibrium sates of matter and thus can further enhance Refractive Index (RI) contrasts by virtue of changing glass composition in and around the fs tracks.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, eds., 3D Laser Microfabrication. Principles and Applications (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials, SpringerLink : Bücher (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Mezentsev, J. Petrovic, M. Dubov, I. Bennion, J. Dreher, H. Schmitz, R. Grauer, “Femtosecond laser microfabrication of subwavelength structures in photonics,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590B (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Turchin, M. Dubov, J. A. R. Williams, “In situ measurement and reconstruction in three dimensions of femtosecond inscription-induced complex permittivity modification in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2952–2954 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. V. Turchin, M. Dubov, J. Williams, “3D reconstruction of the complex dielectric function of glass during femtosecond laser microfabrication,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 42, 873–886 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Applied Surface Science 255, 9745–9749 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 9443–9458 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, J. Bonse, A. Mermillod-Blondin, H. Zhang, A. Rosenfeld, P. R. Herman, “Low-loss waveguides fabricated in BK7 glass by high repetition rate femtosecond fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2098–2102 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Allsop, M. Dubov, V. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, “Inscription and characterization of waveguides written into borosilicate glass by a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser at 800 nm,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1938–1950 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15, 16800–16807 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Pasquarello, R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Physical Review Letters 80, 5145–5147 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” Journal of Applied Physics 108, 033110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Gross, D.G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T.M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, M.J. Withford, “Femtosecond laser induced structural changes in fluorozirconate glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 574–583 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. Sokolov, Y. Tarlakov, N. Ustinov, N. Valova, A. Pronkin, “Influence of the nature of an alkali cation on the electrical conductivity of vitreous MePO3 (Me = Li, Na, or K),” Glass Physics and Chemistry 29, 305–309 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses (Academic Press Inc., 1994).
  17. C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical and structural properties of annealed PE:LiNbO3 waveguides formed with pyrophosphoric and benzoic acids,” Journal of Applied Physics 73, 3125–3132 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Fernandez, T. Fuji, A. Poppe, A. Frbach, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: a route to high-power femtosecond pulses without external amplification,” Opt. Lett. 291366–1368 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. Brueckner, B. Chichkov, A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 87, 21–27 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Applied Physics Letters 93, 171109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Goldstein, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis (Springer London, Limited, 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, R. Gauvin, “CASINO v 2.42a. A fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Uchino, T. Yoko, “Structure and vibrational properties of alkali phosphate glasses from ab initio molecular orbital calculations,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 263–264, 180–188 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Kartini, T. Y. S. P. Putra, I. Kuntoro, T. Sakuma, K. Basar, O. Kamishima, J. Kawamura, “Recent studies on lithium solid electrolytes (LiI)x(LiPO3)1−x for secondary battery,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 79SA, 54–58 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. K. Mohan, M. R. Reddy, C. Jayasankar, N. Veeraiah, “Spectroscopic and dielectric studies on MnO doped PbO-Nb2O5-P2O5 glass system,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 458, 66–76 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. I. Mazali, L. Barbosa, O. Alves, “Preparation and characterization of new niobophosphate glasses in the Li2O-Nb2O5-CaO-P2O5 system,” Journal of Materials Science 39, 1987–1995 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. R. Rakhimov, V. J. Turney, D. E. Jones, S. N. Dobryakov, Y. A. Borisov, A. I. Prokofev, A. I. Aleksandrov, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and quantum-mechanical analysis of binuclear niobium clusters in lithiumniobium phosphate glasses,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 6017–6021 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1999).
  30. S. C. Abrahams, P. Marsh, “Defect structure dependence on composition in lithium niobate,” Acta Crystallographica Section B 42, 61–68 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

A. V. Turchin, M. Dubov, J. Williams, “3D reconstruction of the complex dielectric function of glass during femtosecond laser microfabrication,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 42, 873–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

E. Kartini, T. Y. S. P. Putra, I. Kuntoro, T. Sakuma, K. Basar, O. Kamishima, J. Kawamura, “Recent studies on lithium solid electrolytes (LiI)x(LiPO3)1−x for secondary battery,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 79SA, 54–58 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” Journal of Applied Physics 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, V. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, “Inscription and characterization of waveguides written into borosilicate glass by a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser at 800 nm,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1938–1950 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Turchin, M. Dubov, J. A. R. Williams, “In situ measurement and reconstruction in three dimensions of femtosecond inscription-induced complex permittivity modification in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2952–2954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Applied Surface Science 255, 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15, 16800–16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, R. Gauvin, “CASINO v 2.42a. A fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mezentsev, J. Petrovic, M. Dubov, I. Bennion, J. Dreher, H. Schmitz, R. Grauer, “Femtosecond laser microfabrication of subwavelength structures in photonics,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590B (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. Brueckner, B. Chichkov, A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 87, 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Mazali, L. Barbosa, O. Alves, “Preparation and characterization of new niobophosphate glasses in the Li2O-Nb2O5-CaO-P2O5 system,” Journal of Materials Science 39, 1987–1995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Fernandez, T. Fuji, A. Poppe, A. Frbach, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: a route to high-power femtosecond pulses without external amplification,” Opt. Lett. 291366–1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

I. Sokolov, Y. Tarlakov, N. Ustinov, N. Valova, A. Pronkin, “Influence of the nature of an alkali cation on the electrical conductivity of vitreous MePO3 (Me = Li, Na, or K),” Glass Physics and Chemistry 29, 305–309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Rakhimov, V. J. Turney, D. E. Jones, S. N. Dobryakov, Y. A. Borisov, A. I. Prokofev, A. I. Aleksandrov, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and quantum-mechanical analysis of binuclear niobium clusters in lithiumniobium phosphate glasses,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 6017–6021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Uchino, T. Yoko, “Structure and vibrational properties of alkali phosphate glasses from ab initio molecular orbital calculations,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 263–264, 180–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Pasquarello, R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Physical Review Letters 80, 5145–5147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical and structural properties of annealed PE:LiNbO3 waveguides formed with pyrophosphoric and benzoic acids,” Journal of Applied Physics 73, 3125–3132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S. C. Abrahams, P. Marsh, “Defect structure dependence on composition in lithium niobate,” Acta Crystallographica Section B 42, 61–68 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abrahams, S. C.

S. C. Abrahams, P. Marsh, “Defect structure dependence on composition in lithium niobate,” Acta Crystallographica Section B 42, 61–68 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aimez, V.

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, R. Gauvin, “CASINO v 2.42a. A fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aleksandrov, A. I.

R. R. Rakhimov, V. J. Turney, D. E. Jones, S. N. Dobryakov, Y. A. Borisov, A. I. Prokofev, A. I. Aleksandrov, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and quantum-mechanical analysis of binuclear niobium clusters in lithiumniobium phosphate glasses,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 6017–6021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

Alves, O.

I. Mazali, L. Barbosa, O. Alves, “Preparation and characterization of new niobophosphate glasses in the Li2O-Nb2O5-CaO-P2O5 system,” Journal of Materials Science 39, 1987–1995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” Journal of Applied Physics 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. Brueckner, B. Chichkov, A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 87, 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Fernandez, T. Fuji, A. Poppe, A. Frbach, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: a route to high-power femtosecond pulses without external amplification,” Opt. Lett. 291366–1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armenise, M. N.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical and structural properties of annealed PE:LiNbO3 waveguides formed with pyrophosphoric and benzoic acids,” Journal of Applied Physics 73, 3125–3132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, R. S.

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, L.

I. Mazali, L. Barbosa, O. Alves, “Preparation and characterization of new niobophosphate glasses in the Li2O-Nb2O5-CaO-P2O5 system,” Journal of Materials Science 39, 1987–1995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Basar, K.

E. Kartini, T. Y. S. P. Putra, I. Kuntoro, T. Sakuma, K. Basar, O. Kamishima, J. Kawamura, “Recent studies on lithium solid electrolytes (LiI)x(LiPO3)1−x for secondary battery,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 79SA, 54–58 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, V. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, “Inscription and characterization of waveguides written into borosilicate glass by a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser at 800 nm,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1938–1950 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mezentsev, J. Petrovic, M. Dubov, I. Bennion, J. Dreher, H. Schmitz, R. Grauer, “Femtosecond laser microfabrication of subwavelength structures in photonics,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

Borisov, Y. A.

R. R. Rakhimov, V. J. Turney, D. E. Jones, S. N. Dobryakov, Y. A. Borisov, A. I. Prokofev, A. I. Aleksandrov, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and quantum-mechanical analysis of binuclear niobium clusters in lithiumniobium phosphate glasses,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 6017–6021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brueckner, H.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. Brueckner, B. Chichkov, A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 87, 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Car, R.

A. Pasquarello, R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Physical Review Letters 80, 5145–5147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials, SpringerLink : Bücher (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-J.

Chichkov, B.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. Brueckner, B. Chichkov, A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 87, 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ciapurin, I. V.

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cotton, F.

F. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Couture, A. R.

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, R. Gauvin, “CASINO v 2.42a. A fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekker, P.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” Journal of Applied Physics 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dobryakov, S. N.

R. R. Rakhimov, V. J. Turney, D. E. Jones, S. N. Dobryakov, Y. A. Borisov, A. I. Prokofev, A. I. Aleksandrov, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and quantum-mechanical analysis of binuclear niobium clusters in lithiumniobium phosphate glasses,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 6017–6021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, J.

V. Mezentsev, J. Petrovic, M. Dubov, I. Bennion, J. Dreher, H. Schmitz, R. Grauer, “Femtosecond laser microfabrication of subwavelength structures in photonics,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drouin, D.

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, R. Gauvin, “CASINO v 2.42a. A fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubov, M.

A. V. Turchin, M. Dubov, J. Williams, “3D reconstruction of the complex dielectric function of glass during femtosecond laser microfabrication,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 42, 873–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Turchin, M. Dubov, J. A. R. Williams, “In situ measurement and reconstruction in three dimensions of femtosecond inscription-induced complex permittivity modification in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2952–2954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, V. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, “Inscription and characterization of waveguides written into borosilicate glass by a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser at 800 nm,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1938–1950 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mezentsev, J. Petrovic, M. Dubov, I. Bennion, J. Dreher, H. Schmitz, R. Grauer, “Femtosecond laser microfabrication of subwavelength structures in photonics,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590B (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. Brueckner, B. Chichkov, A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 87, 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Fernandez, A.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. Brueckner, B. Chichkov, A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 87, 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Fernandez, T. Fuji, A. Poppe, A. Frbach, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: a route to high-power femtosecond pulses without external amplification,” Opt. Lett. 291366–1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frbach, A.

Fuerbach, A.

Fuji, T.

Gauvin, R.

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, R. Gauvin, “CASINO v 2.42a. A fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glebov, L. B.

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, J.

J. Goldstein, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis (Springer London, Limited, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Graf, R.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. Brueckner, B. Chichkov, A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 87, 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grauer, R.

V. Mezentsev, J. Petrovic, M. Dubov, I. Bennion, J. Dreher, H. Schmitz, R. Grauer, “Femtosecond laser microfabrication of subwavelength structures in photonics,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gross, S.

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Applied Physics Letters 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15, 16800–16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S.

Huang, W.

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jarutis, V.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Applied Surface Science 255, 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jayasankar, C.

N. K. Mohan, M. R. Reddy, C. Jayasankar, N. Veeraiah, “Spectroscopic and dielectric studies on MnO doped PbO-Nb2O5-P2O5 glass system,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 458, 66–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joly, D.

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, R. Gauvin, “CASINO v 2.42a. A fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. E.

R. R. Rakhimov, V. J. Turney, D. E. Jones, S. N. Dobryakov, Y. A. Borisov, A. I. Prokofev, A. I. Aleksandrov, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and quantum-mechanical analysis of binuclear niobium clusters in lithiumniobium phosphate glasses,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 6017–6021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Applied Surface Science 255, 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kamishima, O.

E. Kartini, T. Y. S. P. Putra, I. Kuntoro, T. Sakuma, K. Basar, O. Kamishima, J. Kawamura, “Recent studies on lithium solid electrolytes (LiI)x(LiPO3)1−x for secondary battery,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 79SA, 54–58 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kartini, E.

E. Kartini, T. Y. S. P. Putra, I. Kuntoro, T. Sakuma, K. Basar, O. Kamishima, J. Kawamura, “Recent studies on lithium solid electrolytes (LiI)x(LiPO3)1−x for secondary battery,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 79SA, 54–58 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, J.

E. Kartini, T. Y. S. P. Putra, I. Kuntoro, T. Sakuma, K. Basar, O. Kamishima, J. Kawamura, “Recent studies on lithium solid electrolytes (LiI)x(LiPO3)1−x for secondary battery,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 79SA, 54–58 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Applied Physics Letters 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, S.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Applied Surface Science 255, 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Kuneva, M.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical and structural properties of annealed PE:LiNbO3 waveguides formed with pyrophosphoric and benzoic acids,” Journal of Applied Physics 73, 3125–3132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuntoro, I.

E. Kartini, T. Y. S. P. Putra, I. Kuntoro, T. Sakuma, K. Basar, O. Kamishima, J. Kawamura, “Recent studies on lithium solid electrolytes (LiI)x(LiPO3)1−x for secondary battery,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 79SA, 54–58 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D.G.

Lay, P. A.

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 9443–9458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Little, D. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” Journal of Applied Physics 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, P.

S. C. Abrahams, P. Marsh, “Defect structure dependence on composition in lithium niobate,” Acta Crystallographica Section B 42, 61–68 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” Journal of Applied Physics 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mazali, I.

I. Mazali, L. Barbosa, O. Alves, “Preparation and characterization of new niobophosphate glasses in the Li2O-Nb2O5-CaO-P2O5 system,” Journal of Materials Science 39, 1987–1995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

Mezentsev, V.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, V. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, “Inscription and characterization of waveguides written into borosilicate glass by a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser at 800 nm,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1938–1950 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mezentsev, J. Petrovic, M. Dubov, I. Bennion, J. Dreher, H. Schmitz, R. Grauer, “Femtosecond laser microfabrication of subwavelength structures in photonics,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Applied Surface Science 255, 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Applied Physics Letters 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15, 16800–16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizeikis, V.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Applied Surface Science 255, 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, N. K.

N. K. Mohan, M. R. Reddy, C. Jayasankar, N. Veeraiah, “Spectroscopic and dielectric studies on MnO doped PbO-Nb2O5-P2O5 glass system,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 458, 66–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T.M.

Ng, M. L.

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials, SpringerLink : Bücher (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Pasquarello, A.

A. Pasquarello, R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Physical Review Letters 80, 5145–5147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, V. M. N.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical and structural properties of annealed PE:LiNbO3 waveguides formed with pyrophosphoric and benzoic acids,” Journal of Applied Physics 73, 3125–3132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Petrovic, J.

V. Mezentsev, J. Petrovic, M. Dubov, I. Bennion, J. Dreher, H. Schmitz, R. Grauer, “Femtosecond laser microfabrication of subwavelength structures in photonics,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pokrovskii, L.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical and structural properties of annealed PE:LiNbO3 waveguides formed with pyrophosphoric and benzoic acids,” Journal of Applied Physics 73, 3125–3132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poppe, A.

Prokofev, A. I.

R. R. Rakhimov, V. J. Turney, D. E. Jones, S. N. Dobryakov, Y. A. Borisov, A. I. Prokofev, A. I. Aleksandrov, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and quantum-mechanical analysis of binuclear niobium clusters in lithiumniobium phosphate glasses,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 6017–6021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pronkin, A.

I. Sokolov, Y. Tarlakov, N. Ustinov, N. Valova, A. Pronkin, “Influence of the nature of an alkali cation on the electrical conductivity of vitreous MePO3 (Me = Li, Na, or K),” Glass Physics and Chemistry 29, 305–309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Putra, T. Y. S. P.

E. Kartini, T. Y. S. P. Putra, I. Kuntoro, T. Sakuma, K. Basar, O. Kamishima, J. Kawamura, “Recent studies on lithium solid electrolytes (LiI)x(LiPO3)1−x for secondary battery,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 79SA, 54–58 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rakhimov, R. R.

R. R. Rakhimov, V. J. Turney, D. E. Jones, S. N. Dobryakov, Y. A. Borisov, A. I. Prokofev, A. I. Aleksandrov, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and quantum-mechanical analysis of binuclear niobium clusters in lithiumniobium phosphate glasses,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 6017–6021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials, SpringerLink : Bücher (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, M. R.

N. K. Mohan, M. R. Reddy, C. Jayasankar, N. Veeraiah, “Spectroscopic and dielectric studies on MnO doped PbO-Nb2O5-P2O5 glass system,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 458, 66–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

Saito, A.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Applied Surface Science 255, 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakakura, M.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Applied Physics Letters 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15, 16800–16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakuma, T.

E. Kartini, T. Y. S. P. Putra, I. Kuntoro, T. Sakuma, K. Basar, O. Kamishima, J. Kawamura, “Recent studies on lithium solid electrolytes (LiI)x(LiPO3)1−x for secondary battery,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 79SA, 54–58 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Savatinova, I.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical and structural properties of annealed PE:LiNbO3 waveguides formed with pyrophosphoric and benzoic acids,” Journal of Applied Physics 73, 3125–3132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, H.

V. Mezentsev, J. Petrovic, M. Dubov, I. Bennion, J. Dreher, H. Schmitz, R. Grauer, “Femtosecond laser microfabrication of subwavelength structures in photonics,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Applied Physics Letters 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15, 16800–16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnov, V. I.

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, I.

I. Sokolov, Y. Tarlakov, N. Ustinov, N. Valova, A. Pronkin, “Influence of the nature of an alkali cation on the electrical conductivity of vitreous MePO3 (Me = Li, Na, or K),” Glass Physics and Chemistry 29, 305–309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stickley, C. M.

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Surovtsev, N. V.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Applied Surface Science 255, 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tarlakov, Y.

I. Sokolov, Y. Tarlakov, N. Ustinov, N. Valova, A. Pronkin, “Influence of the nature of an alkali cation on the electrical conductivity of vitreous MePO3 (Me = Li, Na, or K),” Glass Physics and Chemistry 29, 305–309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tastet, X.

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, R. Gauvin, “CASINO v 2.42a. A fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terazima, M.

Terpugov, N.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical and structural properties of annealed PE:LiNbO3 waveguides formed with pyrophosphoric and benzoic acids,” Journal of Applied Physics 73, 3125–3132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tonchev, S.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical and structural properties of annealed PE:LiNbO3 waveguides formed with pyrophosphoric and benzoic acids,” Journal of Applied Physics 73, 3125–3132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Turchin, A. V.

A. V. Turchin, M. Dubov, J. Williams, “3D reconstruction of the complex dielectric function of glass during femtosecond laser microfabrication,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 42, 873–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Turchin, M. Dubov, J. A. R. Williams, “In situ measurement and reconstruction in three dimensions of femtosecond inscription-induced complex permittivity modification in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2952–2954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turney, V. J.

R. R. Rakhimov, V. J. Turney, D. E. Jones, S. N. Dobryakov, Y. A. Borisov, A. I. Prokofev, A. I. Aleksandrov, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and quantum-mechanical analysis of binuclear niobium clusters in lithiumniobium phosphate glasses,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 6017–6021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, T.

T. Uchino, T. Yoko, “Structure and vibrational properties of alkali phosphate glasses from ab initio molecular orbital calculations,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 263–264, 180–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ustinov, N.

I. Sokolov, Y. Tarlakov, N. Ustinov, N. Valova, A. Pronkin, “Influence of the nature of an alkali cation on the electrical conductivity of vitreous MePO3 (Me = Li, Na, or K),” Glass Physics and Chemistry 29, 305–309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Valova, N.

I. Sokolov, Y. Tarlakov, N. Ustinov, N. Valova, A. Pronkin, “Influence of the nature of an alkali cation on the electrical conductivity of vitreous MePO3 (Me = Li, Na, or K),” Glass Physics and Chemistry 29, 305–309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varshneya, A. K.

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses (Academic Press Inc., 1994).

Veeraiah, N.

N. K. Mohan, M. R. Reddy, C. Jayasankar, N. Veeraiah, “Spectroscopic and dielectric studies on MnO doped PbO-Nb2O5-P2O5 glass system,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 458, 66–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, G.

F. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Williams, J.

A. V. Turchin, M. Dubov, J. Williams, “3D reconstruction of the complex dielectric function of glass during femtosecond laser microfabrication,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 42, 873–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

Withford, M. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” Journal of Applied Physics 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M.J.

Xu, Z.

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Applied Physics Letters 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

T. Uchino, T. Yoko, “Structure and vibrational properties of alkali phosphate glasses from ab initio molecular orbital calculations,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 263–264, 180–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhu, X.

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ziling, C.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical and structural properties of annealed PE:LiNbO3 waveguides formed with pyrophosphoric and benzoic acids,” Journal of Applied Physics 73, 3125–3132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallographica Section B (1)

S. C. Abrahams, P. Marsh, “Defect structure dependence on composition in lithium niobate,” Acta Crystallographica Section B 42, 61–68 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics (1)

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. Brueckner, B. Chichkov, A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 87, 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics Letters (1)

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Applied Physics Letters 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Applied Surface Science (1)

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Applied Surface Science 255, 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glass Physics and Chemistry (1)

I. Sokolov, Y. Tarlakov, N. Ustinov, N. Valova, A. Pronkin, “Influence of the nature of an alkali cation on the electrical conductivity of vitreous MePO3 (Me = Li, Na, or K),” Glass Physics and Chemistry 29, 305–309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Alloys and Compounds (1)

N. K. Mohan, M. R. Reddy, C. Jayasankar, N. Veeraiah, “Spectroscopic and dielectric studies on MnO doped PbO-Nb2O5-P2O5 glass system,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 458, 66–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Applied Physics (2)

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical and structural properties of annealed PE:LiNbO3 waveguides formed with pyrophosphoric and benzoic acids,” Journal of Applied Physics 73, 3125–3132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” Journal of Applied Physics 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Materials Science (1)

I. Mazali, L. Barbosa, O. Alves, “Preparation and characterization of new niobophosphate glasses in the Li2O-Nb2O5-CaO-P2O5 system,” Journal of Materials Science 39, 1987–1995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (1)

T. Uchino, T. Yoko, “Structure and vibrational properties of alkali phosphate glasses from ab initio molecular orbital calculations,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 263–264, 180–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan (1)

E. Kartini, T. Y. S. P. Putra, I. Kuntoro, T. Sakuma, K. Basar, O. Kamishima, J. Kawamura, “Recent studies on lithium solid electrolytes (LiI)x(LiPO3)1−x for secondary battery,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 79SA, 54–58 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optical and Quantum Electronics (1)

A. V. Turchin, M. Dubov, J. Williams, “3D reconstruction of the complex dielectric function of glass during femtosecond laser microfabrication,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 42, 873–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Optical Materials (1)

J. Li, Z. Sun, X. Zhu, H. Zeng, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, J. Lin, W. Huang, R. S. Armstrong, P. A. Lay, “Optical bistability for ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glasses,” Optical Materials 25, 401–405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Physical Review Letters (1)

A. Pasquarello, R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Physical Review Letters 80, 5145–5147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. B. Glebov, V. I. Smirnov, C. M. Stickley, I. V. Ciapurin, “New approach to robust optics for HEL systems,” Proc. SPIE 4724, 101–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Mezentsev, J. Petrovic, M. Dubov, I. Bennion, J. Dreher, H. Schmitz, R. Grauer, “Femtosecond laser microfabrication of subwavelength structures in photonics,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scanning (1)

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, R. Gauvin, “CASINO v 2.42a. A fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The Journal of Chemical Physics (1)

R. R. Rakhimov, V. J. Turney, D. E. Jones, S. N. Dobryakov, Y. A. Borisov, A. I. Prokofev, A. I. Aleksandrov, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and quantum-mechanical analysis of binuclear niobium clusters in lithiumniobium phosphate glasses,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 6017–6021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

F. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1999).

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses (Academic Press Inc., 1994).

J. Goldstein, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis (Springer London, Limited, 2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Misawa, S. Juodkazis, eds., 3D Laser Microfabrication. Principles and Applications (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials, SpringerLink : Bücher (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for inscription with high-repetition rate fs laser and its photo.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscopic view of the WGs in 0.5Li2O-0.1Nb2O5-0.4P2O5 glass at 10 (first two tracks from the left) and 20 mm/sec (next two tracks) inscription speed (a). Note the ’wings’ on a reconstructed RI profile are more pronounced at a lower speed (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured Raman spectrum (a), of unmodified 0 · 5 Li2O–0 · 1 Nb2O5–0 · 4 P2O5 glass; Intensity of the 760 cm−1 (Nb–O) and 910 cm−1 (–P–O–P–) bands as a function of position along the cross-section of the waveguide (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM image (a) and concentration profile of Li and Nb components obtained in scan regime along axis X (b) and axis Y (c). The scanning directions are marked by corresponding arrows.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scheme of the laser-induced processes developing in the studied glass: thermal diffusion (a), space-charge field (b), concentration diffusion and migration in internal electric field (c), resulted SEM material contrast (d).

Metrics