Abstract

New asymmetric limb-structured blue light emitting material, composed of anthracene main core, naphthalene units at 9,10-position of anthracene and m-(di(trifluoromethylphenyl)) units at 2,3-positon of anthracene was designed and developed. And non-doped organic light-emitting diodes have been realized. The maximum efficiency of 1.72 cd/A and the quantum efficiency was around 0.67%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kanno, Y. Hamada, and H. Takahashi, “Development of OLED with high stability and luminance efficiency by co-doping methods for full color displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 30–36 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. L. Fisher, K. E. Linton, K. T. Kamtekar, C. Pearson, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, “Efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from an ambipolar fluorescent emitter in a single-active-layer device,” Chem. Mater.23(7), 1640–1642 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. H. Lee, J. K. Park, J. H. Seo, S. W. Park, Y. S. Kim, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Efficient deep-blue and white organic light-emitting diodes based on triphenylsilane-substituted anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.21(35), 13640–13648 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, W. G. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Funct Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. G. Zhen, Y. F. Dai, W. J. Zeng, Z. Ma, Z. K. Chen, and J. Kieffer, “Achieving highly efficient fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes through optimizing molecular structures and device configuration,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(4), 699–707 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. N. Moorthy, P. Venkatakrishnan, P. Natarajan, Z. Lin, and T. J. Chow, “Nondoped pure-blue OLEDs based on amorphous phenylenevinylene-functionalized twisted bimesitylenes,” J. Org. Chem.75(8), 2599–2609 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Wang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C. Yang, “Novel deep blue OLED emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)benzene-centered starburst oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, F. I. Wu, A. K. Dixit, and C. F. Shu, “Stable and efficient white electroluminescent devices based on a single emitting layer of polymer blends,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(12), 1582–1589 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. J. Pu, A. Kamiya, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Arylamino-9,10-diphenylanthracenes for organic light emitting devices,” Org. Electron.11(3), 479–485 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. H. Lee, L. K. Kang, J. Y. Lee, S. Kang, S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, J. Y. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Molecular engineering of blue fluorescent molecules based on silicon end-capped diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for efficient organic light-emitting materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(8), 1345–1358 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Q. Gao, Z. H. Li, P. F. Xia, M. S. Wong, K. W. Cheah, and C. H. Chen, “Efficient deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes: arylamine-substituted oligofluorenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3194–3199 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. W. Park, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Jang, S. K. Lee, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient and stable blue organic light-emitting diode based on an anthracene derivative,” Thin Solid Films516(23), 8381–8385 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. H. Kim, D. C. Shin, S. H. Kim, C. H. Ko, H. S. Yu, Y. S. Chae, and S. K. Kwon, “Novel blue emitting material with high color purity,” Adv. Mater.13(22), 1690–1693 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. K. Kwon, J. J. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit,” Chem. Commun.49(41), 4664–4666 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. T. Park, J. H. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Le, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem.22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, K. N. Byeon, J. S. Kim, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient blue light emitting diode by using anthracene derivative with 3,5-diphenylphenyl wings at 9- and 10-position,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.28(3), 443–446 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. W. Park, P. Kang, H. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and properties of blue-light-emitting anthracene derivative with diphenylamino-fluorene,” Dyes Pigments85(3), 93–98 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, E. W. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, and J. W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem.18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. K. Park, K. H. Lee, S. Kang, J. Y. Lee, J. S. Park, J. H. Seo, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient blue-emitting materials based on 10-naphthylanthracene derivatives for OLEDs,” Org. Electron.11(5), 905–915 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. K. Shin, S. O. Kim, H. T. Park, S. J. Park, H. S. Yu, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of ortho-twisted asymmetric anthracene derivatives for blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Dyes Pigments92(3), 1075–1082 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Kim, S. J. Yoo, E. K. Kim, H. S. Yu, S. C. Shin, S. K. Lee, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “New limb structured blue light emitting materials for OLEDs,” Dyes Pigments95(2), 384–391 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

R. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. K. Kwon, J. J. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit,” Chem. Commun.49(41), 4664–4666 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

H. T. Park, J. H. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Le, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem.22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Shin, S. O. Kim, H. T. Park, S. J. Park, H. S. Yu, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of ortho-twisted asymmetric anthracene derivatives for blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Dyes Pigments92(3), 1075–1082 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Kim, S. J. Yoo, E. K. Kim, H. S. Yu, S. C. Shin, S. K. Lee, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “New limb structured blue light emitting materials for OLEDs,” Dyes Pigments95(2), 384–391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

A. L. Fisher, K. E. Linton, K. T. Kamtekar, C. Pearson, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, “Efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from an ambipolar fluorescent emitter in a single-active-layer device,” Chem. Mater.23(7), 1640–1642 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, J. K. Park, J. H. Seo, S. W. Park, Y. S. Kim, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Efficient deep-blue and white organic light-emitting diodes based on triphenylsilane-substituted anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.21(35), 13640–13648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Zhen, Y. F. Dai, W. J. Zeng, Z. Ma, Z. K. Chen, and J. Kieffer, “Achieving highly efficient fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes through optimizing molecular structures and device configuration,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(4), 699–707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Wang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C. Yang, “Novel deep blue OLED emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)benzene-centered starburst oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

J. N. Moorthy, P. Venkatakrishnan, P. Natarajan, Z. Lin, and T. J. Chow, “Nondoped pure-blue OLEDs based on amorphous phenylenevinylene-functionalized twisted bimesitylenes,” J. Org. Chem.75(8), 2599–2609 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Pu, A. Kamiya, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Arylamino-9,10-diphenylanthracenes for organic light emitting devices,” Org. Electron.11(3), 479–485 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, L. K. Kang, J. Y. Lee, S. Kang, S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, J. Y. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Molecular engineering of blue fluorescent molecules based on silicon end-capped diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for efficient organic light-emitting materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(8), 1345–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Park, K. H. Lee, S. Kang, J. Y. Lee, J. S. Park, J. H. Seo, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient blue-emitting materials based on 10-naphthylanthracene derivatives for OLEDs,” Org. Electron.11(5), 905–915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, P. Kang, H. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and properties of blue-light-emitting anthracene derivative with diphenylamino-fluorene,” Dyes Pigments85(3), 93–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, and J. W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem.18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Jang, S. K. Lee, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient and stable blue organic light-emitting diode based on an anthracene derivative,” Thin Solid Films516(23), 8381–8385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, K. N. Byeon, J. S. Kim, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient blue light emitting diode by using anthracene derivative with 3,5-diphenylphenyl wings at 9- and 10-position,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.28(3), 443–446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Gao, Z. H. Li, P. F. Xia, M. S. Wong, K. W. Cheah, and C. H. Chen, “Efficient deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes: arylamine-substituted oligofluorenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3194–3199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, W. G. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Funct Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, E. W. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, F. I. Wu, A. K. Dixit, and C. F. Shu, “Stable and efficient white electroluminescent devices based on a single emitting layer of polymer blends,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(12), 1582–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Kanno, Y. Hamada, and H. Takahashi, “Development of OLED with high stability and luminance efficiency by co-doping methods for full color displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 30–36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. H. Kim, D. C. Shin, S. H. Kim, C. H. Ko, H. S. Yu, Y. S. Chae, and S. K. Kwon, “Novel blue emitting material with high color purity,” Adv. Mater.13(22), 1690–1693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bryce, M. R.

A. L. Fisher, K. E. Linton, K. T. Kamtekar, C. Pearson, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, “Efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from an ambipolar fluorescent emitter in a single-active-layer device,” Chem. Mater.23(7), 1640–1642 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, K. N.

Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, K. N. Byeon, J. S. Kim, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient blue light emitting diode by using anthracene derivative with 3,5-diphenylphenyl wings at 9- and 10-position,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.28(3), 443–446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chae, Y. S.

Y. H. Kim, D. C. Shin, S. H. Kim, C. H. Ko, H. S. Yu, Y. S. Chae, and S. K. Kwon, “Novel blue emitting material with high color purity,” Adv. Mater.13(22), 1690–1693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheah, K. W.

Z. Q. Gao, Z. H. Li, P. F. Xia, M. S. Wong, K. W. Cheah, and C. H. Chen, “Efficient deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes: arylamine-substituted oligofluorenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3194–3199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

Z. Q. Gao, Z. H. Li, P. F. Xia, M. S. Wong, K. W. Cheah, and C. H. Chen, “Efficient deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes: arylamine-substituted oligofluorenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3194–3199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Wang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C. Yang, “Novel deep blue OLED emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)benzene-centered starburst oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. K.

C. G. Zhen, Y. F. Dai, W. J. Zeng, Z. Ma, Z. K. Chen, and J. Kieffer, “Achieving highly efficient fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes through optimizing molecular structures and device configuration,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(4), 699–707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. H.

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, W. G. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Funct Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, E. W. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chow, T. J.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Venkatakrishnan, P. Natarajan, Z. Lin, and T. J. Chow, “Nondoped pure-blue OLEDs based on amorphous phenylenevinylene-functionalized twisted bimesitylenes,” J. Org. Chem.75(8), 2599–2609 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, H. Y.

H. T. Park, J. H. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Le, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem.22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, C. Y.

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, W. G. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Funct Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, E. W. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y. F.

C. G. Zhen, Y. F. Dai, W. J. Zeng, Z. Ma, Z. K. Chen, and J. Kieffer, “Achieving highly efficient fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes through optimizing molecular structures and device configuration,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(4), 699–707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diau, E. W.

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, E. W. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diau, W. G.

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, W. G. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Funct Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dixit, A. K.

P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, F. I. Wu, A. K. Dixit, and C. F. Shu, “Stable and efficient white electroluminescent devices based on a single emitting layer of polymer blends,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(12), 1582–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A. R.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, A. L.

A. L. Fisher, K. E. Linton, K. T. Kamtekar, C. Pearson, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, “Efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from an ambipolar fluorescent emitter in a single-active-layer device,” Chem. Mater.23(7), 1640–1642 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Foust, D. F.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Q.

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Wang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C. Yang, “Novel deep blue OLED emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)benzene-centered starburst oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Q.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Gao, Z. H. Li, P. F. Xia, M. S. Wong, K. W. Cheah, and C. H. Chen, “Efficient deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes: arylamine-substituted oligofluorenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3194–3199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamada, Y.

H. Kanno, Y. Hamada, and H. Takahashi, “Development of OLED with high stability and luminance efficiency by co-doping methods for full color displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 30–36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanif, M.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, F.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heller, C. M.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Wang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C. Yang, “Novel deep blue OLED emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)benzene-centered starburst oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. H.

J. W. Park, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Jang, S. K. Lee, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient and stable blue organic light-emitting diode based on an anthracene derivative,” Thin Solid Films516(23), 8381–8385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. O.

K. H. Lee, L. K. Kang, J. Y. Lee, S. Kang, S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, J. Y. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Molecular engineering of blue fluorescent molecules based on silicon end-capped diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for efficient organic light-emitting materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(8), 1345–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Joe, Y. K.

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, A.

Y. J. Pu, A. Kamiya, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Arylamino-9,10-diphenylanthracenes for organic light emitting devices,” Org. Electron.11(3), 479–485 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamtekar, K. T.

A. L. Fisher, K. E. Linton, K. T. Kamtekar, C. Pearson, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, “Efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from an ambipolar fluorescent emitter in a single-active-layer device,” Chem. Mater.23(7), 1640–1642 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

H. T. Park, J. H. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Le, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem.22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kang, L. K.

K. H. Lee, L. K. Kang, J. Y. Lee, S. Kang, S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, J. Y. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Molecular engineering of blue fluorescent molecules based on silicon end-capped diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for efficient organic light-emitting materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(8), 1345–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, P.

J. W. Park, P. Kang, H. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and properties of blue-light-emitting anthracene derivative with diphenylamino-fluorene,” Dyes Pigments85(3), 93–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S.

K. H. Lee, L. K. Kang, J. Y. Lee, S. Kang, S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, J. Y. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Molecular engineering of blue fluorescent molecules based on silicon end-capped diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for efficient organic light-emitting materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(8), 1345–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Park, K. H. Lee, S. Kang, J. Y. Lee, J. S. Park, J. H. Seo, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient blue-emitting materials based on 10-naphthylanthracene derivatives for OLEDs,” Org. Electron.11(5), 905–915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kanno, H.

H. Kanno, Y. Hamada, and H. Takahashi, “Development of OLED with high stability and luminance efficiency by co-doping methods for full color displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 30–36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

Y. J. Pu, A. Kamiya, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Arylamino-9,10-diphenylanthracenes for organic light emitting devices,” Org. Electron.11(3), 479–485 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J.

C. G. Zhen, Y. F. Dai, W. J. Zeng, Z. Ma, Z. K. Chen, and J. Kieffer, “Achieving highly efficient fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes through optimizing molecular structures and device configuration,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(4), 699–707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. K.

R. Kim, S. J. Yoo, E. K. Kim, H. S. Yu, S. C. Shin, S. K. Lee, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “New limb structured blue light emitting materials for OLEDs,” Dyes Pigments95(2), 384–391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

R. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. K. Kwon, J. J. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit,” Chem. Commun.49(41), 4664–4666 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. S.

Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, K. N. Byeon, J. S. Kim, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient blue light emitting diode by using anthracene derivative with 3,5-diphenylphenyl wings at 9- and 10-position,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.28(3), 443–446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. U.

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

R. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. K. Kwon, J. J. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit,” Chem. Commun.49(41), 4664–4666 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, R.

R. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. K. Kwon, J. J. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit,” Chem. Commun.49(41), 4664–4666 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kim, S. J. Yoo, E. K. Kim, H. S. Yu, S. C. Shin, S. K. Lee, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “New limb structured blue light emitting materials for OLEDs,” Dyes Pigments95(2), 384–391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Y. H. Kim, D. C. Shin, S. H. Kim, C. H. Ko, H. S. Yu, Y. S. Chae, and S. K. Kwon, “Novel blue emitting material with high color purity,” Adv. Mater.13(22), 1690–1693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, and J. W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem.18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. O.

M. K. Shin, S. O. Kim, H. T. Park, S. J. Park, H. S. Yu, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of ortho-twisted asymmetric anthracene derivatives for blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Dyes Pigments92(3), 1075–1082 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

R. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. K. Kwon, J. J. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit,” Chem. Commun.49(41), 4664–4666 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kim, S. J. Yoo, E. K. Kim, H. S. Yu, S. C. Shin, S. K. Lee, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “New limb structured blue light emitting materials for OLEDs,” Dyes Pigments95(2), 384–391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Shin, S. O. Kim, H. T. Park, S. J. Park, H. S. Yu, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of ortho-twisted asymmetric anthracene derivatives for blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Dyes Pigments92(3), 1075–1082 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Park, J. H. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Le, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem.22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, P. Kang, H. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and properties of blue-light-emitting anthracene derivative with diphenylamino-fluorene,” Dyes Pigments85(3), 93–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Jang, S. K. Lee, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient and stable blue organic light-emitting diode based on an anthracene derivative,” Thin Solid Films516(23), 8381–8385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, K. N. Byeon, J. S. Kim, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient blue light emitting diode by using anthracene derivative with 3,5-diphenylphenyl wings at 9- and 10-position,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.28(3), 443–446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, D. C. Shin, S. H. Kim, C. H. Ko, H. S. Yu, Y. S. Chae, and S. K. Kwon, “Novel blue emitting material with high color purity,” Adv. Mater.13(22), 1690–1693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. K.

K. H. Lee, J. K. Park, J. H. Seo, S. W. Park, Y. S. Kim, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Efficient deep-blue and white organic light-emitting diodes based on triphenylsilane-substituted anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.21(35), 13640–13648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Park, K. H. Lee, S. Kang, J. Y. Lee, J. S. Park, J. H. Seo, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient blue-emitting materials based on 10-naphthylanthracene derivatives for OLEDs,” Org. Electron.11(5), 905–915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

K. H. Lee, J. K. Park, J. H. Seo, S. W. Park, Y. S. Kim, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Efficient deep-blue and white organic light-emitting diodes based on triphenylsilane-substituted anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.21(35), 13640–13648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, M.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, C. H.

Y. H. Kim, D. C. Shin, S. H. Kim, C. H. Ko, H. S. Yu, Y. S. Chae, and S. K. Kwon, “Novel blue emitting material with high color purity,” Adv. Mater.13(22), 1690–1693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. K.

R. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. K. Kwon, J. J. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit,” Chem. Commun.49(41), 4664–4666 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kim, S. J. Yoo, E. K. Kim, H. S. Yu, S. C. Shin, S. K. Lee, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “New limb structured blue light emitting materials for OLEDs,” Dyes Pigments95(2), 384–391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Park, J. H. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Le, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem.22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Shin, S. O. Kim, H. T. Park, S. J. Park, H. S. Yu, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of ortho-twisted asymmetric anthracene derivatives for blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Dyes Pigments92(3), 1075–1082 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, P. Kang, H. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and properties of blue-light-emitting anthracene derivative with diphenylamino-fluorene,” Dyes Pigments85(3), 93–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Jang, S. K. Lee, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient and stable blue organic light-emitting diode based on an anthracene derivative,” Thin Solid Films516(23), 8381–8385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, K. N. Byeon, J. S. Kim, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient blue light emitting diode by using anthracene derivative with 3,5-diphenylphenyl wings at 9- and 10-position,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.28(3), 443–446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, D. C. Shin, S. H. Kim, C. H. Ko, H. S. Yu, Y. S. Chae, and S. K. Kwon, “Novel blue emitting material with high color purity,” Adv. Mater.13(22), 1690–1693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Le, J. I.

H. T. Park, J. H. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Le, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem.22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. B.

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

H. T. Park, J. H. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Le, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem.22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, and J. W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem.18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

J. K. Park, K. H. Lee, S. Kang, J. Y. Lee, J. S. Park, J. H. Seo, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient blue-emitting materials based on 10-naphthylanthracene derivatives for OLEDs,” Org. Electron.11(5), 905–915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, L. K. Kang, J. Y. Lee, S. Kang, S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, J. Y. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Molecular engineering of blue fluorescent molecules based on silicon end-capped diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for efficient organic light-emitting materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(8), 1345–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, L. K. Kang, J. Y. Lee, S. Kang, S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, J. Y. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Molecular engineering of blue fluorescent molecules based on silicon end-capped diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for efficient organic light-emitting materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(8), 1345–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Lee, J. K. Park, J. H. Seo, S. W. Park, Y. S. Kim, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Efficient deep-blue and white organic light-emitting diodes based on triphenylsilane-substituted anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.21(35), 13640–13648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Park, K. H. Lee, S. Kang, J. Y. Lee, J. S. Park, J. H. Seo, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient blue-emitting materials based on 10-naphthylanthracene derivatives for OLEDs,” Org. Electron.11(5), 905–915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, L. K. Kang, J. Y. Lee, S. Kang, S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, J. Y. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Molecular engineering of blue fluorescent molecules based on silicon end-capped diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for efficient organic light-emitting materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(8), 1345–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

R. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. K. Kwon, J. J. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit,” Chem. Commun.49(41), 4664–4666 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, K. N. Byeon, J. S. Kim, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient blue light emitting diode by using anthracene derivative with 3,5-diphenylphenyl wings at 9- and 10-position,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.28(3), 443–446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. K.

R. Kim, S. J. Yoo, E. K. Kim, H. S. Yu, S. C. Shin, S. K. Lee, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “New limb structured blue light emitting materials for OLEDs,” Dyes Pigments95(2), 384–391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Jang, S. K. Lee, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient and stable blue organic light-emitting diode based on an anthracene derivative,” Thin Solid Films516(23), 8381–8385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

R. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. K. Kwon, J. J. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit,” Chem. Commun.49(41), 4664–4666 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. H.

Z. Q. Gao, Z. H. Li, P. F. Xia, M. S. Wong, K. W. Cheah, and C. H. Chen, “Efficient deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes: arylamine-substituted oligofluorenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3194–3199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Venkatakrishnan, P. Natarajan, Z. Lin, and T. J. Chow, “Nondoped pure-blue OLEDs based on amorphous phenylenevinylene-functionalized twisted bimesitylenes,” J. Org. Chem.75(8), 2599–2609 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linton, K. E.

A. L. Fisher, K. E. Linton, K. T. Kamtekar, C. Pearson, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, “Efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from an ambipolar fluorescent emitter in a single-active-layer device,” Chem. Mater.23(7), 1640–1642 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Wang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C. Yang, “Novel deep blue OLED emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)benzene-centered starburst oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D.

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Wang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C. Yang, “Novel deep blue OLED emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)benzene-centered starburst oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, and J. W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem.18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

C. G. Zhen, Y. F. Dai, W. J. Zeng, Z. Ma, Z. K. Chen, and J. Kieffer, “Achieving highly efficient fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes through optimizing molecular structures and device configuration,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(4), 699–707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moorthy, J. N.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Venkatakrishnan, P. Natarajan, Z. Lin, and T. J. Chow, “Nondoped pure-blue OLEDs based on amorphous phenylenevinylene-functionalized twisted bimesitylenes,” J. Org. Chem.75(8), 2599–2609 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakayama, K.

Y. J. Pu, A. Kamiya, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Arylamino-9,10-diphenylanthracenes for organic light emitting devices,” Org. Electron.11(3), 479–485 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, P.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Venkatakrishnan, P. Natarajan, Z. Lin, and T. J. Chow, “Nondoped pure-blue OLEDs based on amorphous phenylenevinylene-functionalized twisted bimesitylenes,” J. Org. Chem.75(8), 2599–2609 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, H. Y.

J. W. Park, P. Kang, H. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and properties of blue-light-emitting anthracene derivative with diphenylamino-fluorene,” Dyes Pigments85(3), 93–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ou, X. M.

C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. G.

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

J. W. Park, P. Kang, H. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and properties of blue-light-emitting anthracene derivative with diphenylamino-fluorene,” Dyes Pigments85(3), 93–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. T.

H. T. Park, J. H. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Le, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem.22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Shin, S. O. Kim, H. T. Park, S. J. Park, H. S. Yu, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of ortho-twisted asymmetric anthracene derivatives for blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Dyes Pigments92(3), 1075–1082 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. K.

K. H. Lee, J. K. Park, J. H. Seo, S. W. Park, Y. S. Kim, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Efficient deep-blue and white organic light-emitting diodes based on triphenylsilane-substituted anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.21(35), 13640–13648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Park, K. H. Lee, S. Kang, J. Y. Lee, J. S. Park, J. H. Seo, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient blue-emitting materials based on 10-naphthylanthracene derivatives for OLEDs,” Org. Electron.11(5), 905–915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

J. K. Park, K. H. Lee, S. Kang, J. Y. Lee, J. S. Park, J. H. Seo, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient blue-emitting materials based on 10-naphthylanthracene derivatives for OLEDs,” Org. Electron.11(5), 905–915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

J. W. Park, P. Kang, H. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and properties of blue-light-emitting anthracene derivative with diphenylamino-fluorene,” Dyes Pigments85(3), 93–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, and J. W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem.18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Jang, S. K. Lee, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient and stable blue organic light-emitting diode based on an anthracene derivative,” Thin Solid Films516(23), 8381–8385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

M. K. Shin, S. O. Kim, H. T. Park, S. J. Park, H. S. Yu, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of ortho-twisted asymmetric anthracene derivatives for blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Dyes Pigments92(3), 1075–1082 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. W.

K. H. Lee, J. K. Park, J. H. Seo, S. W. Park, Y. S. Kim, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Efficient deep-blue and white organic light-emitting diodes based on triphenylsilane-substituted anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.21(35), 13640–13648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, C.

A. L. Fisher, K. E. Linton, K. T. Kamtekar, C. Pearson, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, “Efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from an ambipolar fluorescent emitter in a single-active-layer device,” Chem. Mater.23(7), 1640–1642 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petty, M. C.

A. L. Fisher, K. E. Linton, K. T. Kamtekar, C. Pearson, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, “Efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from an ambipolar fluorescent emitter in a single-active-layer device,” Chem. Mater.23(7), 1640–1642 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pu, Y. J.

Y. J. Pu, A. Kamiya, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Arylamino-9,10-diphenylanthracenes for organic light emitting devices,” Org. Electron.11(3), 479–485 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. H.

K. H. Lee, J. K. Park, J. H. Seo, S. W. Park, Y. S. Kim, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Efficient deep-blue and white organic light-emitting diodes based on triphenylsilane-substituted anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.21(35), 13640–13648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Park, K. H. Lee, S. Kang, J. Y. Lee, J. S. Park, J. H. Seo, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient blue-emitting materials based on 10-naphthylanthracene derivatives for OLEDs,” Org. Electron.11(5), 905–915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shiang, J. J.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shih, P. I.

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, W. G. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Funct Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, E. W. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, F. I. Wu, A. K. Dixit, and C. F. Shu, “Stable and efficient white electroluminescent devices based on a single emitting layer of polymer blends,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(12), 1582–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. C.

Y. H. Kim, D. C. Shin, S. H. Kim, C. H. Ko, H. S. Yu, Y. S. Chae, and S. K. Kwon, “Novel blue emitting material with high color purity,” Adv. Mater.13(22), 1690–1693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. S.

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shin, M. K.

M. K. Shin, S. O. Kim, H. T. Park, S. J. Park, H. S. Yu, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of ortho-twisted asymmetric anthracene derivatives for blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Dyes Pigments92(3), 1075–1082 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. C.

R. Kim, S. J. Yoo, E. K. Kim, H. S. Yu, S. C. Shin, S. K. Lee, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “New limb structured blue light emitting materials for OLEDs,” Dyes Pigments95(2), 384–391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Jang, S. K. Lee, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient and stable blue organic light-emitting diode based on an anthracene derivative,” Thin Solid Films516(23), 8381–8385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, K. N. Byeon, J. S. Kim, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient blue light emitting diode by using anthracene derivative with 3,5-diphenylphenyl wings at 9- and 10-position,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.28(3), 443–446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C. F.

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, E. W. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, W. G. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Funct Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, F. I. Wu, A. K. Dixit, and C. F. Shu, “Stable and efficient white electroluminescent devices based on a single emitting layer of polymer blends,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(12), 1582–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Kanno, Y. Hamada, and H. Takahashi, “Development of OLED with high stability and luminance efficiency by co-doping methods for full color displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 30–36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tian, L.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, Y. H.

P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, F. I. Wu, A. K. Dixit, and C. F. Shu, “Stable and efficient white electroluminescent devices based on a single emitting layer of polymer blends,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(12), 1582–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Slyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Venkatakrishnan, P.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Venkatakrishnan, P. Natarajan, Z. Lin, and T. J. Chow, “Nondoped pure-blue OLEDs based on amorphous phenylenevinylene-functionalized twisted bimesitylenes,” J. Org. Chem.75(8), 2599–2609 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Wang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C. Yang, “Novel deep blue OLED emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)benzene-centered starburst oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. Q.

C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. S.

Z. Q. Gao, Z. H. Li, P. F. Xia, M. S. Wong, K. W. Cheah, and C. H. Chen, “Efficient deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes: arylamine-substituted oligofluorenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3194–3199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F. I.

P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, F. I. Wu, A. K. Dixit, and C. F. Shu, “Stable and efficient white electroluminescent devices based on a single emitting layer of polymer blends,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(12), 1582–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, P. F.

Z. Q. Gao, Z. H. Li, P. F. Xia, M. S. Wong, K. W. Cheah, and C. H. Chen, “Efficient deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes: arylamine-substituted oligofluorenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3194–3199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, and J. W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem.18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Wang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C. Yang, “Novel deep blue OLED emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)benzene-centered starburst oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. H.

J. W. Park, P. Kang, H. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and properties of blue-light-emitting anthracene derivative with diphenylamino-fluorene,” Dyes Pigments85(3), 93–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Y.

C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J.

R. Kim, S. J. Yoo, E. K. Kim, H. S. Yu, S. C. Shin, S. K. Lee, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “New limb structured blue light emitting materials for OLEDs,” Dyes Pigments95(2), 384–391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yook, K. S.

K. H. Lee, L. K. Kang, J. Y. Lee, S. Kang, S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, J. Y. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Molecular engineering of blue fluorescent molecules based on silicon end-capped diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for efficient organic light-emitting materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(8), 1345–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. S.

K. H. Lee, J. K. Park, J. H. Seo, S. W. Park, Y. S. Kim, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Efficient deep-blue and white organic light-emitting diodes based on triphenylsilane-substituted anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.21(35), 13640–13648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Park, K. H. Lee, S. Kang, J. Y. Lee, J. S. Park, J. H. Seo, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient blue-emitting materials based on 10-naphthylanthracene derivatives for OLEDs,” Org. Electron.11(5), 905–915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, L. K. Kang, J. Y. Lee, S. Kang, S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, J. Y. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Molecular engineering of blue fluorescent molecules based on silicon end-capped diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for efficient organic light-emitting materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(8), 1345–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. S.

R. Kim, S. J. Yoo, E. K. Kim, H. S. Yu, S. C. Shin, S. K. Lee, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “New limb structured blue light emitting materials for OLEDs,” Dyes Pigments95(2), 384–391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Shin, S. O. Kim, H. T. Park, S. J. Park, H. S. Yu, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of ortho-twisted asymmetric anthracene derivatives for blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Dyes Pigments92(3), 1075–1082 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, D. C. Shin, S. H. Kim, C. H. Ko, H. S. Yu, Y. S. Chae, and S. K. Kwon, “Novel blue emitting material with high color purity,” Adv. Mater.13(22), 1690–1693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, W. J.

C. G. Zhen, Y. F. Dai, W. J. Zeng, Z. Ma, Z. K. Chen, and J. Kieffer, “Achieving highly efficient fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes through optimizing molecular structures and device configuration,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(4), 699–707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. J.

C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W. M.

C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhen, C. G.

C. G. Zhen, Y. F. Dai, W. J. Zeng, Z. Ma, Z. K. Chen, and J. Kieffer, “Achieving highly efficient fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes through optimizing molecular structures and device configuration,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(4), 699–707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, S.

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Wang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C. Yang, “Novel deep blue OLED emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)benzene-centered starburst oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (5)

C. G. Zhen, Y. F. Dai, W. J. Zeng, Z. Ma, Z. K. Chen, and J. Kieffer, “Achieving highly efficient fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes through optimizing molecular structures and device configuration,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(4), 699–707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, F. I. Wu, A. K. Dixit, and C. F. Shu, “Stable and efficient white electroluminescent devices based on a single emitting layer of polymer blends,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(12), 1582–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, L. K. Kang, J. Y. Lee, S. Kang, S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, J. Y. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Molecular engineering of blue fluorescent molecules based on silicon end-capped diphenylaminofluorene derivatives for efficient organic light-emitting materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(8), 1345–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Gao, Z. H. Li, P. F. Xia, M. S. Wong, K. W. Cheah, and C. H. Chen, “Efficient deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes: arylamine-substituted oligofluorenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3194–3199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, E. W. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. H. Kim, D. C. Shin, S. H. Kim, C. H. Ko, H. S. Yu, Y. S. Chae, and S. K. Kwon, “Novel blue emitting material with high color purity,” Adv. Mater.13(22), 1690–1693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. (1)

Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, K. N. Byeon, J. S. Kim, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient blue light emitting diode by using anthracene derivative with 3,5-diphenylphenyl wings at 9- and 10-position,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.28(3), 443–446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (1)

R. Kim, S. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. K. Kwon, J. J. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit,” Chem. Commun.49(41), 4664–4666 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (1)

A. L. Fisher, K. E. Linton, K. T. Kamtekar, C. Pearson, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, “Efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from an ambipolar fluorescent emitter in a single-active-layer device,” Chem. Mater.23(7), 1640–1642 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dyes Pigments (3)

J. W. Park, P. Kang, H. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and properties of blue-light-emitting anthracene derivative with diphenylamino-fluorene,” Dyes Pigments85(3), 93–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Shin, S. O. Kim, H. T. Park, S. J. Park, H. S. Yu, Y. H. Kim, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of ortho-twisted asymmetric anthracene derivatives for blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Dyes Pigments92(3), 1075–1082 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Kim, S. J. Yoo, E. K. Kim, H. S. Yu, S. C. Shin, S. K. Lee, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “New limb structured blue light emitting materials for OLEDs,” Dyes Pigments95(2), 384–391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Funct Mater. (1)

P. I. Shih, C. Y. Chuang, C. H. Chien, W. G. Diau, and C. F. Shu, “Highly efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes based on an anthrancene derivative end-capped with tetraphenylethylene groups,” Funct Mater.17(16), 3141–3146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Kanno, Y. Hamada, and H. Takahashi, “Development of OLED with high stability and luminance efficiency by co-doping methods for full color displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 30–36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (4)

K. H. Lee, J. K. Park, J. H. Seo, S. W. Park, Y. S. Kim, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Efficient deep-blue and white organic light-emitting diodes based on triphenylsilane-substituted anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.21(35), 13640–13648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Zhang, W. M. Zhao, Z. Q. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Ye, X. M. Ou, X. H. Zhang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Highly efficient non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem.20(8), 1560–1566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Park, J. H. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Le, S. K. Kwon, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem.22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, and J. W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem.18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Org. Chem. (1)

J. N. Moorthy, P. Venkatakrishnan, P. Natarajan, Z. Lin, and T. J. Chow, “Nondoped pure-blue OLEDs based on amorphous phenylenevinylene-functionalized twisted bimesitylenes,” J. Org. Chem.75(8), 2599–2609 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

H. Huang, Q. Fu, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, L. Wang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C. Yang, “Novel deep blue OLED emitters with 1,3,5-Tri(anthracen-10-yl)benzene-centered starburst oligofluorenes,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(11), 4872–4878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. He, L. Tian, W. Xie, M. Li, Q. Gao, M. Hanif, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, B. Yang, Y. Ma, S. Liu, and J. Shen, “Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting devices based on improved guest/host combination,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(31), 12024–12029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (2)

Y. J. Pu, A. Kamiya, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Arylamino-9,10-diphenylanthracenes for organic light emitting devices,” Org. Electron.11(3), 479–485 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Park, K. H. Lee, S. Kang, J. Y. Lee, J. S. Park, J. H. Seo, Y. K. Kim, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient blue-emitting materials based on 10-naphthylanthracene derivatives for OLEDs,” Org. Electron.11(5), 905–915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synth. Met. (2)

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kim, H. B. Lee, J. S. Shin, Y. H. Kim, Y. K. Joe, H. Y. Oh, C. G. Park, and S. K. Kwon, “Synthesis and characterization of new blue light emitting material with tetraphenylsilyl,” Synth. Met.150(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. W. Park, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Jang, S. K. Lee, S. C. Shin, and S. K. Kwon, “Efficient and stable blue organic light-emitting diode based on an anthracene derivative,” Thin Solid Films516(23), 8381–8385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Synthetic Scheme of mFADN.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HOMO and LUMO states by using DFT calculation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TGA and DSC thermograms of mFADN.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

UV-visible and PL spectra of mFADN.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Current density-voltage-luminance characteristics (left) and efficiency curves (right).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

EL spectra of devices.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The optical, thermal and electrical properties of mFADN and mMADN

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