Abstract

In a KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflector, light rays are bent by a space charge formed by electrons that are injected through an electrode and captured by crystal defects. For complete device control, it is important to evaluate the space charge. We propose an optical method for measuring charge density distributions that utilizes the electrooptic (EO) effect of the material. With this method, electron accumulation caused by a screening effect was commonly observed near the cathode. The electron accumulation region extended toward the anode as the applied voltage and permittivity increased. This method can be applied to any EO materials that exhibit space charge distributions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1−xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.37(1), 388–398 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, and M. Ohmi, “High-speed optical coherence tomography system using a 200-kHz swept light source with a KTN deflector,” Opt. Photon. J.03(02), 190–193 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Leyva, A. Agranat, and A. Yariv, “Determination of the physical parameters controlling the photorefractive effect in KTa1-xNbxO3:Cu, V,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B8(3), 701–707 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. E. F. Bonner, Dearborn, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Growth of potassium tantalate niobate single crystals for optical application,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull.44, 9–11 (1965).
  10. S. Triebwasser, “Study of ferroelectric transition of solid-solution single crystals of KNbO3- KTaO3,” Phys. Rev.114(1), 63–70 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, and A. Jayaraman, “Electron scattering in perovskite-oxide ferroelectric semiconductors,” Phys. Rev.180(2), 547–556 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

2013

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, and M. Ohmi, “High-speed optical coherence tomography system using a 200-kHz swept light source with a KTN deflector,” Opt. Photon. J.03(02), 190–193 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 111501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1−xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1991

1985

1969

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, and A. Jayaraman, “Electron scattering in perovskite-oxide ferroelectric semiconductors,” Phys. Rev.180(2), 547–556 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

E. F. Bonner, Dearborn, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Growth of potassium tantalate niobate single crystals for optical application,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull.44, 9–11 (1965).

1964

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1959

S. Triebwasser, “Study of ferroelectric transition of solid-solution single crystals of KNbO3- KTaO3,” Phys. Rev.114(1), 63–70 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Agranat, A.

Bhushan, B.

Bonner, E. F.

E. F. Bonner, Dearborn, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Growth of potassium tantalate niobate single crystals for optical application,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull.44, 9–11 (1965).

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Dearborn,

E. F. Bonner, Dearborn, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Growth of potassium tantalate niobate single crystals for optical application,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull.44, 9–11 (1965).

DiDomenico, M.

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, and A. Jayaraman, “Electron scattering in perovskite-oxide ferroelectric semiconductors,” Phys. Rev.180(2), 547–556 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fujiura, K.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 111501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1−xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geusic, J. E.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Haruna, M.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Imai, T.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 111501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jayaraman, A.

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, and A. Jayaraman, “Electron scattering in perovskite-oxide ferroelectric semiconductors,” Phys. Rev.180(2), 547–556 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 111501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, J.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, and M. Ohmi, “High-speed optical coherence tomography system using a 200-kHz swept light source with a KTN deflector,” Opt. Photon. J.03(02), 190–193 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Koliopoulos, C. L.

Kurtz, S. K.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

Miyazu, J.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 111501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1−xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1−xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohmi, M.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, and M. Ohmi, “High-speed optical coherence tomography system using a 200-kHz swept light source with a KTN deflector,” Opt. Photon. J.03(02), 190–193 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Okabe, Y.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, and M. Ohmi, “High-speed optical coherence tomography system using a 200-kHz swept light source with a KTN deflector,” Opt. Photon. J.03(02), 190–193 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, and M. Ohmi, “High-speed optical coherence tomography system using a 200-kHz swept light source with a KTN deflector,” Opt. Photon. J.03(02), 190–193 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, and M. Ohmi, “High-speed optical coherence tomography system using a 200-kHz swept light source with a KTN deflector,” Opt. Photon. J.03(02), 190–193 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 111501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sasaura, M.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 111501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1−xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, Y.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, J. G.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, S.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, and M. Ohmi, “High-speed optical coherence tomography system using a 200-kHz swept light source with a KTN deflector,” Opt. Photon. J.03(02), 190–193 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 111501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Triebwasser, S.

S. Triebwasser, “Study of ferroelectric transition of solid-solution single crystals of KNbO3- KTaO3,” Phys. Rev.114(1), 63–70 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, M.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, and M. Ohmi, “High-speed optical coherence tomography system using a 200-kHz swept light source with a KTN deflector,” Opt. Photon. J.03(02), 190–193 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Uitert, L. G.

E. F. Bonner, Dearborn, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Growth of potassium tantalate niobate single crystals for optical application,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull.44, 9–11 (1965).

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Wemple, S. H.

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, and A. Jayaraman, “Electron scattering in perovskite-oxide ferroelectric semiconductors,” Phys. Rev.180(2), 547–556 (1969).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

Yagi, S.

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 111501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull.

E. F. Bonner, Dearborn, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Growth of potassium tantalate niobate single crystals for optical application,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull.44, 9–11 (1965).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Express

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 111501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Wide-angle, low-voltage electro-optic beam deflection based on space-charge-controlled mode of electrical conduction in KTa1−xNbxO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Photon. J.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, and M. Ohmi, “High-speed optical coherence tomography system using a 200-kHz swept light source with a KTN deflector,” Opt. Photon. J.03(02), 190–193 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

S. Triebwasser, “Study of ferroelectric transition of solid-solution single crystals of KNbO3- KTaO3,” Phys. Rev.114(1), 63–70 (1959).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, and A. Jayaraman, “Electron scattering in perovskite-oxide ferroelectric semiconductors,” Phys. Rev.180(2), 547–556 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, T. Imai, Y. Shibata, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, K. Fujiura, M. Sasaura, K. Kato, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “Improvement of coherence length in a 200-kHz swept light source equipped with a KTN deflector,” Proc. SPIE8213, 821333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus for charge distribution measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Retardation and charge density distributions in KTN block during voltage application. The relative permittivity was 5,600. The cathode is at the left end and the anode is at the right end.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Charge density distributions with their respective permittivities. The voltage was 150 V.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dE( x ) dx = ρ( x ) ε .
Δn= 1 2 n 0 3 g ε 2 E 2 .
Δn( x )= 1 2 n 0 3 g{ 2ρε V s d x+ ( ε V s d ) 2 + ρ 2 x 2 }.
tan [ Δ ϕ ( x , y ) ] = I ( x , y , 3 π / 2 ) I ( x , y , π / 2 ) I ( x , y , π ) I ( x , y , 0 ) ,
Δ ϕ ( x ) = π λ n 0 3 ( g 11 g 12 ) ε 2 E 2 L .
ρ ( x ) = d d x 1 n 0 3 ( g 11 g 12 ) λ L Δ ϕ ( x ) π ,
w 0 = Lλ π n 0 ,

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