Abstract

We proposed an electrically assisting crystal growth of blue phase liquid crystals (BP-LCs) to generate uniform crystal orientation of BP-LCs. With an applied electric field, a phase transition from BP-LCs to focal conic state and homeotropic state occurs. As the electric field is removed, the crystal orientation of [220] quickly dominates the crystal growth process and other crystal orientations grow less at the same time. The BP-LCs with a single crystal orientation can be achieved with multiple cycles of the electrical treatment. We also provide a possible mechanism of crystal growth with electrical treatment which is applicable for both BP-LCs and PSBP-LCs. In addition, we conclude that the hysteresis effect is mainly affected by the domain size of PSBP-LCs rather than uniformity of crystal orientation. This study helps further understanding of the origin of hysteresis effect in PSBP-LCs which is important for development of many BP-LCs based photonic devices, such as micro lenses, displays, and lasers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem.7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: a review,” Proc. SPIE7232, 723205 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Demikhov, H. Stegemeyer, and V. Tsukruk, “Pretransitional phenomena and pinning in liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. A46(8), 4879–4887 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys.61(2), 385–432 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. P. Crooker, “The blue phases. A review of experiments,” Liq. Cryst.5(3), 751–775 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and T. H. Chiang, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical display using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 333–336 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Kimura, N. Nagumo, T. N. Oo, N. Endo, H. Kikuchi, and T. Akahane, “Single-substrate polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display,” Opt. Mater. Express3(12), 2086–2095 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. H. Chen, C. T. Wang, C. P. Yu, and T. H. Lin, “Polarization independent Fabry-Pérot filter based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with fast response time,” Opt. Express19(25), 25441–25446 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Zhu, B. Y. Wei, L. Y. Shi, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. D. Huang, and Y. Q. Lu, “A fast response variable optical attenuator based on blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express21(5), 5332–5337 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Y. Fan, C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42, 213–215 (2011).
  18. L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Yoshizawa, M. Kamiyama, and T. Hirose, “Amorphous blue phase III exhibiting submillisecond response and hysteresis-free switching at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express4(10), 101701 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. S. Chen, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wu, M. Chen, and H. K. Hsu, “Hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals using thermal recycles,” Opt. Mater. Express2(8), 1149–1155 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Electric field-induced monodomain blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 171110 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Yan, Y. Chen, D. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Angular dependent reflections of a monodomain blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.114(11), 113106 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (6)

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Electric field-induced monodomain blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 171110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Y. Chen, D. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Angular dependent reflections of a monodomain blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.114(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, B. Y. Wei, L. Y. Shi, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. D. Huang, and Y. Q. Lu, “A fast response variable optical attenuator based on blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express21(5), 5332–5337 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kimura, N. Nagumo, T. N. Oo, N. Endo, H. Kikuchi, and T. Akahane, “Single-substrate polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display,” Opt. Mater. Express3(12), 2086–2095 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

H. S. Chen, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wu, M. Chen, and H. K. Hsu, “Hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals using thermal recycles,” Opt. Mater. Express2(8), 1149–1155 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and T. H. Chiang, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical display using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 333–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

Y. H. Chen, C. T. Wang, C. P. Yu, and T. H. Lin, “Polarization independent Fabry-Pérot filter based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with fast response time,” Opt. Express19(25), 25441–25446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yoshizawa, M. Kamiyama, and T. Hirose, “Amorphous blue phase III exhibiting submillisecond response and hysteresis-free switching at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express4(10), 101701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: a review,” Proc. SPIE7232, 723205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem.7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Demikhov, H. Stegemeyer, and V. Tsukruk, “Pretransitional phenomena and pinning in liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. A46(8), 4879–4887 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys.61(2), 385–432 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Crooker, “The blue phases. A review of experiments,” Liq. Cryst.5(3), 751–775 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, T.

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castles, F.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wu, M. Chen, and H. K. Hsu, “Hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals using thermal recycles,” Opt. Mater. Express2(8), 1149–1155 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and T. H. Chiang, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical display using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 333–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Electric field-induced monodomain blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 171110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Y. Chen, D. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Angular dependent reflections of a monodomain blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.114(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. H.

Cheng, K. L.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and T. H. Chiang, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical display using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 333–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y. H.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. S.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coles, H. J.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crooker, P. P.

P. P. Crooker, “The blue phases. A review of experiments,” Liq. Cryst.5(3), 751–775 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Day, F. V.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demikhov, E.

E. Demikhov, H. Stegemeyer, and V. Tsukruk, “Pretransitional phenomena and pinning in liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. A46(8), 4879–4887 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellahi, M.

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Endo, N.

Friend, R. H.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardiner, D. J.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hands, P. J. W.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauser, A.

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem.7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

He, W.

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Heppke, G.

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem.7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hirose, T.

A. Yoshizawa, M. Kamiyama, and T. Hirose, “Amorphous blue phase III exhibiting submillisecond response and hysteresis-free switching at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express4(10), 101701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, P. J.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. K.

H. S. Chen, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wu, M. Chen, and H. K. Hsu, “Hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals using thermal recycles,” Opt. Mater. Express2(8), 1149–1155 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

Huang, Z. D.

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamiyama, M.

A. Yoshizawa, M. Kamiyama, and T. Hirose, “Amorphous blue phase III exhibiting submillisecond response and hysteresis-free switching at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express4(10), 101701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

M. Kimura, N. Nagumo, T. N. Oo, N. Endo, H. Kikuchi, and T. Akahane, “Single-substrate polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display,” Opt. Mater. Express3(12), 2086–2095 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, M.

Kitzerow, H. S.

H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: a review,” Proc. SPIE7232, 723205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D.-H.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruerke, D.

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem.7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y. C.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. F.

Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. Y.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C. C.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. C.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. H.

Lin, X. W.

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and T. H. Chiang, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical display using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 333–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wu, M. Chen, and H. K. Hsu, “Hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals using thermal recycles,” Opt. Mater. Express2(8), 1149–1155 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. H.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. K.

Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

Mermin, N. D.

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys.61(2), 385–432 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S. M.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muñoz, A.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagumo, N.

Nosheen, S.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oo, T. N.

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pivnenko, M. N.

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qasim, M. M.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, L.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saupe, A.

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem.7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L. Y.

Stegemeyer, H.

E. Demikhov, H. Stegemeyer, and V. Tsukruk, “Pretransitional phenomena and pinning in liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. A46(8), 4879–4887 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiura, N.

Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thieme, M.

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem.7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. Y.

Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tsou, Y. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsukruk, V.

E. Demikhov, H. Stegemeyer, and V. Tsukruk, “Pretransitional phenomena and pinning in liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. A46(8), 4879–4887 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. T.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wei, B. Y.

Wright, D. C.

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys.61(2), 385–432 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. H.

Wu, C. M.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

J. Yan, Y. Chen, D. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Angular dependent reflections of a monodomain blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.114(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Electric field-induced monodomain blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 171110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

J. Yan, Y. Chen, D. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Angular dependent reflections of a monodomain blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.114(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, Y. Chen, D. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Angular dependent reflections of a monodomain blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.114(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshizawa, A.

A. Yoshizawa, M. Kamiyama, and T. Hirose, “Amorphous blue phase III exhibiting submillisecond response and hysteresis-free switching at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express4(10), 101701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. P.

Yu, M.

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

A. Yoshizawa, M. Kamiyama, and T. Hirose, “Amorphous blue phase III exhibiting submillisecond response and hysteresis-free switching at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express4(10), 101701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Electric field-induced monodomain blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 171110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Yan, Y. Chen, D. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Angular dependent reflections of a monodomain blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.114(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. C. Lai, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free BPLC device,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 627–629 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem.7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

L. Wang, W. He, Q. Wang, M. Yu, X. Xiao, Y. Zhang, M. Ellahi, D. Zhao, H. Yang, and L. Guo, “Polymer-stabilized nanoparticle-enriched blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(40), 6526–6531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and T. H. Chiang, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical display using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 333–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

P. P. Crooker, “The blue phases. A review of experiments,” Liq. Cryst.5(3), 751–775 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (3)

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D.-H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. Demikhov, H. Stegemeyer, and V. Tsukruk, “Pretransitional phenomena and pinning in liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. A46(8), 4879–4887 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Mechanism of hysteresis in polymer-network stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Polymer (Guildf.)54(7), 1876–1879 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: a review,” Proc. SPIE7232, 723205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys.61(2), 385–432 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Y. Fan, C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42, 213–215 (2011).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Morphologies of BPLC sample under a reflective polarizing microscope at 40.3°C (a) without an applied voltage. (b) The morphology during the first applied voltage. (c) The morphology after the voltage turns off. Blue crystal grows. (d) The morphology after (c) for 5 sec. (e) The morphology during the second applied voltage. (f) The morphology after turning off the second applied voltage. (g) The morphology after (f) for 5 sec. (h) and (i) are the morphologies of BP-LC after the 10th and the 30th cycles of applied voltages, respectively. V = 13Vrms, and f = 1kHz.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Kossel diagrams of the blue area of the BP-LC sample (a) before, (b) during, and (c) after applying a voltage of 13Vrms. Before taking photos of Kossel diagrams, the BP-LC sample experiences electrical treatment 200 times. λ = 510nm

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A possible mechanism of nucleation process of BP-LC under the electrical treatment. (a) BP-LCs have crystal orientations of [220], [211] and [200], and the isotropic phase is represented by the rest of region (black part). (b) A phase transition to the focal conic state and the homeotropic state occur as an electric field is applied. (c) Most of the focal conic state turns into [220] crystal when the electric field is removed. The rest of the region grows randomly with red, green, and blue crystals until the whole mixture turns into BP-LCs, as depicted in (d). (e) More focal conic state appears when the electric field is applied again. (f) BP-LCs turn out the single crystal orientation of [220] after several cycles of processes (c), (d), and (e).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The morphologies of PSBP-LCs (a) without any treatment and (b) with applying an electrical field 10 times. (c) The voltage-dependent transmittance of PSBP-LCs of samples in (a) and (b) with an increasing voltage (up) and a decreasing voltage (down).

Equations (1)

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λ= 2×n×a×cosθ h 2 + k 2 + l 2 ,

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