Abstract

Two indenopyrazine compounds for organic light emitting diodes were synthesized with phenanthrene or pyrene side groups that have high photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency (QE); 6,6,12,12-Tetraethyl-2,8-di-phenanthren-9-yl-6,12-dihydro-diindeno[1,2-b;1',2'-e]pyrazine (PA-EIP) and 2-(10b,10c-Dihydro-pyren-1-yl)-6,6,12,12-tetraethyl-8-pyren-1-yl-6,12-dihydro-diindeno[1,2-b;1',2'-e]pyrazine (PY-EIP). The PL spectra of PA-EIP and PY-EIP in film state were 440 nm and 468nm in the blue region, respectively. Td values for PA-EIP and PY-EIP were very high at 432°C and 441°C. Tm values were 385°C and 390°C for PA-EIP and PY-EIP. When the synthesized compounds were used as emitting layers in non-doped OLED devices, PA-EIP and PY-EIP showed luminance efficiencies of 1.35 and 5.15 cd/A, power efficiencies of 0.69 and 2.81 lm/W, and CIEs of (0.17, 0.15) and (0.19, 0.30), respectively. This result shows that efficiency of final emitter increases with increasing efficiency of side group. Additionally, in the solution-processed white OLED devices using PY-EIP as one of emitting materials, the device showed high luminance efficiency of 3.95 cd/A, power efficiency of 2.45 lm/W and CIE value of (0.269, 0.294) at 6 V.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Dienes, S. Durben, T. Kárpáti, T. Neumann, U. Englert, L. Nyulászi, T. Baumgartner, “Selective tuning of the band gap of π-conjugated dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]phospholes toward different emission colors,” Chemistry 13(26), 7487–7500 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Pérez-Bolívar, S. Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, P. Anzenbacher., “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chemistry 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. C. Gather, A. Kohnen, A. Falcou, H. Becker, K. Meerholz, “Solution-processed full-color polymer organic light-emitting diode displays fabricated by direct photolithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 191–200 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Yang, H. Wu, J. Qin, Y. Cao, “Solution-processed, undoped, deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on starburst oligofluorenes with a planar triphenylamine core,” Chemistry 18(22), 6928–6934 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, I. N. Kang, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “New deep-blue emitting materials based on fully substituted ethylene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(44), 4670–4678 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, J. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Kim, Y. Park, J. Lee, D. Yokoyama, J. H. Lee, J. Kido, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of highly efficient blue fluorescence emitters using dual core chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(3), 432–440 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Park, J. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Lee, S. K. Kwon, Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Q. Wang, C. Xu, W. Z. Wang, L. M. Duan, Z. Li, B. T. Zhao, B. M. Ji, “High-color-purity and high-efficiency non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices based on novel anthracene derivaties,” New J. Chem. 36(3), 662–667 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. H. Wu, C. H. Chien, F. M. Hsu, P. I. Shih, C. F. Shu, “Efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes incorporating an anthracene derivative end-capped with fluorene groups,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(10), 1464–1470 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. L. Lai, Q. X. Tong, M. Y. Chan, T. W. Ng, M. F. Lo, S. T. Lee, C. S. Lee, “Distinct electroluminescent properties of triphenylamine derivatives in blue organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(4), 1206–1211 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Hosokawa, H. Higashi, H. Nakamura, T. Kusumoto, “Highly efficient blue electroluminescence from a distyrylarylene emitting layer with a new dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3853–3855 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. I. Park, J. H. Son, J. S. Kang, S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of novel deep blue emitting 6,12-dihydro-diindeno[1,2-b;1'2'-e]pyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Comm. 18, 2143-2145 (2008).
  16. X. Kong, A. P. Kulkarni, S. A. Jenekhe, “Phenothiazine-based conjugated polymers: synthesis, electrochemistry, and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules 36(24), 8992–8999 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Wang, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, B. Jiao, S. Liang, D. Wang, R. He, X. Hou, “Solution-processed organic films of multiple small-molecules and white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 641–648 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. I. Park, Y. Ma, J. Y. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of highly efficient anthracene derivatives with bulky side groups,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 822–833 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. L. Murov, I. Carmicheal, and G. L. Hug, in Handbook of Photochemistry 2nd ed, M. Dekker, ed. (Talyor& Francis, New York, 1993)
  20. B. I. Berlman, in Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic Press, 1971)
  21. S. Ates, A. Yildiz, “Determination of the absolute quantum efficiency of the luminescence of crystalline anthracene and of meso-dimeso derivatives using photoacoustic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 79(12), 2853–2861 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Katoh, K. Suzuki, A. Furube, M. Kotani, K. Tokumaru, “Fluorescence quantum yield of aromatic hydrocarbon crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(7), 2961–2965 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Yang, H. Wu, J. Qin, Y. Cao, “Solution-processed, undoped, deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on starburst oligofluorenes with a planar triphenylamine core,” Chemistry 18(22), 6928–6934 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kim, Y. Park, J. Lee, D. Yokoyama, J. H. Lee, J. Kido, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of highly efficient blue fluorescence emitters using dual core chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(3), 432–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, J. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Lee, S. K. Kwon, Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Wang, C. Xu, W. Z. Wang, L. M. Duan, Z. Li, B. T. Zhao, B. M. Ji, “High-color-purity and high-efficiency non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices based on novel anthracene derivaties,” New J. Chem. 36(3), 662–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. L. Lai, Q. X. Tong, M. Y. Chan, T. W. Ng, M. F. Lo, S. T. Lee, C. S. Lee, “Distinct electroluminescent properties of triphenylamine derivatives in blue organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(4), 1206–1211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S. Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, P. Anzenbacher., “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chemistry 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. Wang, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, B. Jiao, S. Liang, D. Wang, R. He, X. Hou, “Solution-processed organic films of multiple small-molecules and white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 641–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. I. Park, Y. Ma, J. Y. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of highly efficient anthracene derivatives with bulky side groups,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 822–833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Katoh, K. Suzuki, A. Furube, M. Kotani, K. Tokumaru, “Fluorescence quantum yield of aromatic hydrocarbon crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(7), 2961–2965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wu, C. H. Chien, F. M. Hsu, P. I. Shih, C. F. Shu, “Efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes incorporating an anthracene derivative end-capped with fluorene groups,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(10), 1464–1470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. I. Park, J. H. Son, J. S. Kang, S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of novel deep blue emitting 6,12-dihydro-diindeno[1,2-b;1'2'-e]pyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Comm. 18, 2143-2145 (2008).

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, J. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, I. N. Kang, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “New deep-blue emitting materials based on fully substituted ethylene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(44), 4670–4678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, A. Kohnen, A. Falcou, H. Becker, K. Meerholz, “Solution-processed full-color polymer organic light-emitting diode displays fabricated by direct photolithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 191–200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dienes, S. Durben, T. Kárpáti, T. Neumann, U. Englert, L. Nyulászi, T. Baumgartner, “Selective tuning of the band gap of π-conjugated dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]phospholes toward different emission colors,” Chemistry 13(26), 7487–7500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

X. Kong, A. P. Kulkarni, S. A. Jenekhe, “Phenothiazine-based conjugated polymers: synthesis, electrochemistry, and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules 36(24), 8992–8999 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Hosokawa, H. Higashi, H. Nakamura, T. Kusumoto, “Highly efficient blue electroluminescence from a distyrylarylene emitting layer with a new dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3853–3855 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. Ates, A. Yildiz, “Determination of the absolute quantum efficiency of the luminescence of crystalline anthracene and of meso-dimeso derivatives using photoacoustic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 79(12), 2853–2861 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Anzenbacher, P.

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S. Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, P. Anzenbacher., “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chemistry 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ates, S.

S. Ates, A. Yildiz, “Determination of the absolute quantum efficiency of the luminescence of crystalline anthracene and of meso-dimeso derivatives using photoacoustic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 79(12), 2853–2861 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Baumgartner, T.

Y. Dienes, S. Durben, T. Kárpáti, T. Neumann, U. Englert, L. Nyulászi, T. Baumgartner, “Selective tuning of the band gap of π-conjugated dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]phospholes toward different emission colors,” Chemistry 13(26), 7487–7500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, H.

M. C. Gather, A. Kohnen, A. Falcou, H. Becker, K. Meerholz, “Solution-processed full-color polymer organic light-emitting diode displays fabricated by direct photolithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 191–200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Yang, H. Wu, J. Qin, Y. Cao, “Solution-processed, undoped, deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on starburst oligofluorenes with a planar triphenylamine core,” Chemistry 18(22), 6928–6934 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, M. Y.

S. L. Lai, Q. X. Tong, M. Y. Chan, T. W. Ng, M. F. Lo, S. T. Lee, C. S. Lee, “Distinct electroluminescent properties of triphenylamine derivatives in blue organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(4), 1206–1211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chao, I.

M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. T.

M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. H.

C. H. Wu, C. H. Chien, F. M. Hsu, P. I. Shih, C. F. Shu, “Efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes incorporating an anthracene derivative end-capped with fluorene groups,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(10), 1464–1470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, H. Y.

H. Park, J. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Lee, S. K. Kwon, Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, Y.

Y. Dienes, S. Durben, T. Kárpáti, T. Neumann, U. Englert, L. Nyulászi, T. Baumgartner, “Selective tuning of the band gap of π-conjugated dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]phospholes toward different emission colors,” Chemistry 13(26), 7487–7500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, L. M.

Z. Q. Wang, C. Xu, W. Z. Wang, L. M. Duan, Z. Li, B. T. Zhao, B. M. Ji, “High-color-purity and high-efficiency non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices based on novel anthracene derivaties,” New J. Chem. 36(3), 662–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Durben, S.

Y. Dienes, S. Durben, T. Kárpáti, T. Neumann, U. Englert, L. Nyulászi, T. Baumgartner, “Selective tuning of the band gap of π-conjugated dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]phospholes toward different emission colors,” Chemistry 13(26), 7487–7500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Englert, U.

Y. Dienes, S. Durben, T. Kárpáti, T. Neumann, U. Englert, L. Nyulászi, T. Baumgartner, “Selective tuning of the band gap of π-conjugated dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]phospholes toward different emission colors,” Chemistry 13(26), 7487–7500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcou, A.

M. C. Gather, A. Kohnen, A. Falcou, H. Becker, K. Meerholz, “Solution-processed full-color polymer organic light-emitting diode displays fabricated by direct photolithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 191–200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furube, A.

R. Katoh, K. Suzuki, A. Furube, M. Kotani, K. Tokumaru, “Fluorescence quantum yield of aromatic hydrocarbon crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(7), 2961–2965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, A. Kohnen, A. Falcou, H. Becker, K. Meerholz, “Solution-processed full-color polymer organic light-emitting diode displays fabricated by direct photolithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 191–200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, R.

D. Wang, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, B. Jiao, S. Liang, D. Wang, R. He, X. Hou, “Solution-processed organic films of multiple small-molecules and white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 641–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, H.

C. Hosokawa, H. Higashi, H. Nakamura, T. Kusumoto, “Highly efficient blue electroluminescence from a distyrylarylene emitting layer with a new dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3853–3855 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hosokawa, C.

C. Hosokawa, H. Higashi, H. Nakamura, T. Kusumoto, “Highly efficient blue electroluminescence from a distyrylarylene emitting layer with a new dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3853–3855 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

D. Wang, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, B. Jiao, S. Liang, D. Wang, R. He, X. Hou, “Solution-processed organic films of multiple small-molecules and white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 641–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, F. M.

C. H. Wu, C. H. Chien, F. M. Hsu, P. I. Shih, C. F. Shu, “Efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes incorporating an anthracene derivative end-capped with fluorene groups,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(10), 1464–1470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jenekhe, S. A.

X. Kong, A. P. Kulkarni, S. A. Jenekhe, “Phenothiazine-based conjugated polymers: synthesis, electrochemistry, and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules 36(24), 8992–8999 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ji, B. M.

Z. Q. Wang, C. Xu, W. Z. Wang, L. M. Duan, Z. Li, B. T. Zhao, B. M. Ji, “High-color-purity and high-efficiency non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices based on novel anthracene derivaties,” New J. Chem. 36(3), 662–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, B.

D. Wang, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, B. Jiao, S. Liang, D. Wang, R. He, X. Hou, “Solution-processed organic films of multiple small-molecules and white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 641–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

H. Park, J. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Lee, S. K. Kwon, Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I. N.

S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, I. N. Kang, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “New deep-blue emitting materials based on fully substituted ethylene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(44), 4670–4678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. S.

Y. I. Park, J. H. Son, J. S. Kang, S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of novel deep blue emitting 6,12-dihydro-diindeno[1,2-b;1'2'-e]pyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Comm. 18, 2143-2145 (2008).

Kárpáti, T.

Y. Dienes, S. Durben, T. Kárpáti, T. Neumann, U. Englert, L. Nyulászi, T. Baumgartner, “Selective tuning of the band gap of π-conjugated dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]phospholes toward different emission colors,” Chemistry 13(26), 7487–7500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katoh, R.

R. Katoh, K. Suzuki, A. Furube, M. Kotani, K. Tokumaru, “Fluorescence quantum yield of aromatic hydrocarbon crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(7), 2961–2965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

B. Kim, Y. Park, J. Lee, D. Yokoyama, J. H. Lee, J. Kido, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of highly efficient blue fluorescence emitters using dual core chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(3), 432–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

B. Kim, Y. Park, J. Lee, D. Yokoyama, J. H. Lee, J. Kido, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of highly efficient blue fluorescence emitters using dual core chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(3), 432–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. I. Park, Y. Ma, J. Y. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of highly efficient anthracene derivatives with bulky side groups,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 822–833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. I. Park, Y. Ma, J. Y. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of highly efficient anthracene derivatives with bulky side groups,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 822–833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Park, J. H. Son, J. S. Kang, S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of novel deep blue emitting 6,12-dihydro-diindeno[1,2-b;1'2'-e]pyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Comm. 18, 2143-2145 (2008).

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, J. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, I. N. Kang, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “New deep-blue emitting materials based on fully substituted ethylene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(44), 4670–4678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

H. Park, J. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Lee, S. K. Kwon, Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kohnen, A.

M. C. Gather, A. Kohnen, A. Falcou, H. Becker, K. Meerholz, “Solution-processed full-color polymer organic light-emitting diode displays fabricated by direct photolithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 191–200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, X.

X. Kong, A. P. Kulkarni, S. A. Jenekhe, “Phenothiazine-based conjugated polymers: synthesis, electrochemistry, and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules 36(24), 8992–8999 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kotani, M.

R. Katoh, K. Suzuki, A. Furube, M. Kotani, K. Tokumaru, “Fluorescence quantum yield of aromatic hydrocarbon crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(7), 2961–2965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, A. P.

X. Kong, A. P. Kulkarni, S. A. Jenekhe, “Phenothiazine-based conjugated polymers: synthesis, electrochemistry, and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules 36(24), 8992–8999 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kusumoto, T.

C. Hosokawa, H. Higashi, H. Nakamura, T. Kusumoto, “Highly efficient blue electroluminescence from a distyrylarylene emitting layer with a new dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3853–3855 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. K.

H. Park, J. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Lee, S. K. Kwon, Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lai, S. L.

S. L. Lai, Q. X. Tong, M. Y. Chan, T. W. Ng, M. F. Lo, S. T. Lee, C. S. Lee, “Distinct electroluminescent properties of triphenylamine derivatives in blue organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(4), 1206–1211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

S. L. Lai, Q. X. Tong, M. Y. Chan, T. W. Ng, M. F. Lo, S. T. Lee, C. S. Lee, “Distinct electroluminescent properties of triphenylamine derivatives in blue organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(4), 1206–1211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

H. Park, J. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Lee, S. K. Kwon, Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Kim, Y. Park, J. Lee, D. Yokoyama, J. H. Lee, J. Kido, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of highly efficient blue fluorescence emitters using dual core chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(3), 432–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

B. Kim, Y. Park, J. Lee, D. Yokoyama, J. H. Lee, J. Kido, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of highly efficient blue fluorescence emitters using dual core chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(3), 432–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, J. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Park, J. H. Son, J. S. Kang, S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of novel deep blue emitting 6,12-dihydro-diindeno[1,2-b;1'2'-e]pyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Comm. 18, 2143-2145 (2008).

S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, I. N. Kang, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “New deep-blue emitting materials based on fully substituted ethylene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(44), 4670–4678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. I.

H. Park, J. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Lee, S. K. Kwon, Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. I. Park, Y. Ma, J. Y. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of highly efficient anthracene derivatives with bulky side groups,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 822–833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

S. L. Lai, Q. X. Tong, M. Y. Chan, T. W. Ng, M. F. Lo, S. T. Lee, C. S. Lee, “Distinct electroluminescent properties of triphenylamine derivatives in blue organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(4), 1206–1211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. S.

M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Yang, H. Wu, J. Qin, Y. Cao, “Solution-processed, undoped, deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on starburst oligofluorenes with a planar triphenylamine core,” Chemistry 18(22), 6928–6934 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Q. Wang, C. Xu, W. Z. Wang, L. M. Duan, Z. Li, B. T. Zhao, B. M. Ji, “High-color-purity and high-efficiency non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices based on novel anthracene derivaties,” New J. Chem. 36(3), 662–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liang, S.

D. Wang, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, B. Jiao, S. Liang, D. Wang, R. He, X. Hou, “Solution-processed organic films of multiple small-molecules and white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 641–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Yang, H. Wu, J. Qin, Y. Cao, “Solution-processed, undoped, deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on starburst oligofluorenes with a planar triphenylamine core,” Chemistry 18(22), 6928–6934 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. W.

M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. F.

S. L. Lai, Q. X. Tong, M. Y. Chan, T. W. Ng, M. F. Lo, S. T. Lee, C. S. Lee, “Distinct electroluminescent properties of triphenylamine derivatives in blue organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(4), 1206–1211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. I. Park, Y. Ma, J. Y. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of highly efficient anthracene derivatives with bulky side groups,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 822–833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, J. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, A. Kohnen, A. Falcou, H. Becker, K. Meerholz, “Solution-processed full-color polymer organic light-emitting diode displays fabricated by direct photolithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 191–200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Montes, V. A.

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S. Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, P. Anzenbacher., “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chemistry 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murayama, H.

M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, H.

C. Hosokawa, H. Higashi, H. Nakamura, T. Kusumoto, “Highly efficient blue electroluminescence from a distyrylarylene emitting layer with a new dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3853–3855 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, T.

Y. Dienes, S. Durben, T. Kárpáti, T. Neumann, U. Englert, L. Nyulászi, T. Baumgartner, “Selective tuning of the band gap of π-conjugated dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]phospholes toward different emission colors,” Chemistry 13(26), 7487–7500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, T. W.

S. L. Lai, Q. X. Tong, M. Y. Chan, T. W. Ng, M. F. Lo, S. T. Lee, C. S. Lee, “Distinct electroluminescent properties of triphenylamine derivatives in blue organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(4), 1206–1211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, G.

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S. Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, P. Anzenbacher., “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chemistry 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nyulászi, L.

Y. Dienes, S. Durben, T. Kárpáti, T. Neumann, U. Englert, L. Nyulászi, T. Baumgartner, “Selective tuning of the band gap of π-conjugated dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]phospholes toward different emission colors,” Chemistry 13(26), 7487–7500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

H. Park, J. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Lee, S. K. Kwon, Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

B. Kim, Y. Park, J. Lee, D. Yokoyama, J. H. Lee, J. Kido, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of highly efficient blue fluorescence emitters using dual core chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(3), 432–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. I. Park, Y. Ma, J. Y. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of highly efficient anthracene derivatives with bulky side groups,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 822–833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, J. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

Y. I. Park, J. H. Son, J. S. Kang, S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of novel deep blue emitting 6,12-dihydro-diindeno[1,2-b;1'2'-e]pyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Comm. 18, 2143-2145 (2008).

S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, I. N. Kang, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “New deep-blue emitting materials based on fully substituted ethylene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(44), 4670–4678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

B. Kim, Y. Park, J. Lee, D. Yokoyama, J. H. Lee, J. Kido, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of highly efficient blue fluorescence emitters using dual core chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(3), 432–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. I.

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. I. Park, Y. Ma, J. Y. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of highly efficient anthracene derivatives with bulky side groups,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 822–833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Park, J. H. Son, J. S. Kang, S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of novel deep blue emitting 6,12-dihydro-diindeno[1,2-b;1'2'-e]pyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Comm. 18, 2143-2145 (2008).

S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, I. N. Kang, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “New deep-blue emitting materials based on fully substituted ethylene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(44), 4670–4678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Bolívar, C.

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S. Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, P. Anzenbacher., “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chemistry 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, J.

C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Yang, H. Wu, J. Qin, Y. Cao, “Solution-processed, undoped, deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on starburst oligofluorenes with a planar triphenylamine core,” Chemistry 18(22), 6928–6934 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, P. I.

C. H. Wu, C. H. Chien, F. M. Hsu, P. I. Shih, C. F. Shu, “Efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes incorporating an anthracene derivative end-capped with fluorene groups,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(10), 1464–1470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C. F.

C. H. Wu, C. H. Chien, F. M. Hsu, P. I. Shih, C. F. Shu, “Efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes incorporating an anthracene derivative end-capped with fluorene groups,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(10), 1464–1470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

Y. I. Park, J. H. Son, J. S. Kang, S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of novel deep blue emitting 6,12-dihydro-diindeno[1,2-b;1'2'-e]pyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Comm. 18, 2143-2145 (2008).

Suzuki, K.

R. Katoh, K. Suzuki, A. Furube, M. Kotani, K. Tokumaru, “Fluorescence quantum yield of aromatic hydrocarbon crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(7), 2961–2965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takizawa, S. Y.

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S. Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, P. Anzenbacher., “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chemistry 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tokumaru, K.

R. Katoh, K. Suzuki, A. Furube, M. Kotani, K. Tokumaru, “Fluorescence quantum yield of aromatic hydrocarbon crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(7), 2961–2965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Q. X.

S. L. Lai, Q. X. Tong, M. Y. Chan, T. W. Ng, M. F. Lo, S. T. Lee, C. S. Lee, “Distinct electroluminescent properties of triphenylamine derivatives in blue organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(4), 1206–1211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsuboi, T.

M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Slyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, B. Jiao, S. Liang, D. Wang, R. He, X. Hou, “Solution-processed organic films of multiple small-molecules and white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 641–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, B. Jiao, S. Liang, D. Wang, R. He, X. Hou, “Solution-processed organic films of multiple small-molecules and white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 641–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. K.

M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. Z.

Z. Q. Wang, C. Xu, W. Z. Wang, L. M. Duan, Z. Li, B. T. Zhao, B. M. Ji, “High-color-purity and high-efficiency non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices based on novel anthracene derivaties,” New J. Chem. 36(3), 662–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Wang, C. Xu, W. Z. Wang, L. M. Duan, Z. Li, B. T. Zhao, B. M. Ji, “High-color-purity and high-efficiency non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices based on novel anthracene derivaties,” New J. Chem. 36(3), 662–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. H.

C. H. Wu, C. H. Chien, F. M. Hsu, P. I. Shih, C. F. Shu, “Efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes incorporating an anthracene derivative end-capped with fluorene groups,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(10), 1464–1470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Yang, H. Wu, J. Qin, Y. Cao, “Solution-processed, undoped, deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on starburst oligofluorenes with a planar triphenylamine core,” Chemistry 18(22), 6928–6934 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M. F.

M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

D. Wang, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, B. Jiao, S. Liang, D. Wang, R. He, X. Hou, “Solution-processed organic films of multiple small-molecules and white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 641–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Z. Q. Wang, C. Xu, W. Z. Wang, L. M. Duan, Z. Li, B. T. Zhao, B. M. Ji, “High-color-purity and high-efficiency non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices based on novel anthracene derivaties,” New J. Chem. 36(3), 662–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. I. Park, Y. Ma, J. Y. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of highly efficient anthracene derivatives with bulky side groups,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 822–833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, J. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Yang, H. Wu, J. Qin, Y. Cao, “Solution-processed, undoped, deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on starburst oligofluorenes with a planar triphenylamine core,” Chemistry 18(22), 6928–6934 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, S. J.

M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yildiz, A.

S. Ates, A. Yildiz, “Determination of the absolute quantum efficiency of the luminescence of crystalline anthracene and of meso-dimeso derivatives using photoacoustic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 79(12), 2853–2861 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, D.

B. Kim, Y. Park, J. Lee, D. Yokoyama, J. H. Lee, J. Kido, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of highly efficient blue fluorescence emitters using dual core chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(3), 432–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

D. Wang, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, B. Jiao, S. Liang, D. Wang, R. He, X. Hou, “Solution-processed organic films of multiple small-molecules and white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 641–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Yang, H. Wu, J. Qin, Y. Cao, “Solution-processed, undoped, deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on starburst oligofluorenes with a planar triphenylamine core,” Chemistry 18(22), 6928–6934 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, B. T.

Z. Q. Wang, C. Xu, W. Z. Wang, L. M. Duan, Z. Li, B. T. Zhao, B. M. Ji, “High-color-purity and high-efficiency non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices based on novel anthracene derivaties,” New J. Chem. 36(3), 662–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

M. C. Gather, A. Kohnen, A. Falcou, H. Becker, K. Meerholz, “Solution-processed full-color polymer organic light-emitting diode displays fabricated by direct photolithography,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(2), 191–200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Wu, S. J. Yeh, C. T. Chen, H. Murayama, T. Tsuboi, W. S. Li, I. Chao, S. W. Liu, J. K. Wang, “The Quest for High-Performance Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Blue Dopants,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1887–1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Hosokawa, H. Higashi, H. Nakamura, T. Kusumoto, “Highly efficient blue electroluminescence from a distyrylarylene emitting layer with a new dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3853–3855 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Comm. (1)

Y. I. Park, J. H. Son, J. S. Kang, S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of novel deep blue emitting 6,12-dihydro-diindeno[1,2-b;1'2'-e]pyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Comm. 18, 2143-2145 (2008).

Chemistry (3)

Y. Dienes, S. Durben, T. Kárpáti, T. Neumann, U. Englert, L. Nyulászi, T. Baumgartner, “Selective tuning of the band gap of π-conjugated dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]phospholes toward different emission colors,” Chemistry 13(26), 7487–7500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S. Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, P. Anzenbacher., “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chemistry 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Yang, H. Wu, J. Qin, Y. Cao, “Solution-processed, undoped, deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on starburst oligofluorenes with a planar triphenylamine core,” Chemistry 18(22), 6928–6934 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I (1)

S. Ates, A. Yildiz, “Determination of the absolute quantum efficiency of the luminescence of crystalline anthracene and of meso-dimeso derivatives using photoacoustic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 79(12), 2853–2861 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (5)

C. H. Wu, C. H. Chien, F. M. Hsu, P. I. Shih, C. F. Shu, “Efficient non-doped blue-light-emitting diodes incorporating an anthracene derivative end-capped with fluorene groups,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(10), 1464–1470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Lai, Q. X. Tong, M. Y. Chan, T. W. Ng, M. F. Lo, S. T. Lee, C. S. Lee, “Distinct electroluminescent properties of triphenylamine derivatives in blue organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(4), 1206–1211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, I. N. Kang, J. H. Lee, J. W. Park, “New deep-blue emitting materials based on fully substituted ethylene derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(44), 4670–4678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J. H. Lee, J. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, J. Lee, I. Kang, H. Y. Chu, J. I. Lee, S. K. Kwon, Y. H. Kim, “Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep blue OLED materials with theoretical limit efficiency,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(6), 2695–2700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

B. Kim, Y. Park, J. Lee, D. Yokoyama, J. H. Lee, J. Kido, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of highly efficient blue fluorescence emitters using dual core chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(3), 432–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

R. Katoh, K. Suzuki, A. Furube, M. Kotani, K. Tokumaru, “Fluorescence quantum yield of aromatic hydrocarbon crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(7), 2961–2965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

X. Kong, A. P. Kulkarni, S. A. Jenekhe, “Phenothiazine-based conjugated polymers: synthesis, electrochemistry, and light-emitting properties,” Macromolecules 36(24), 8992–8999 (2003).
[CrossRef]

New J. Chem. (1)

Z. Q. Wang, C. Xu, W. Z. Wang, L. M. Duan, Z. Li, B. T. Zhao, B. M. Ji, “High-color-purity and high-efficiency non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices based on novel anthracene derivaties,” New J. Chem. 36(3), 662–667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (2)

D. Wang, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, B. Jiao, S. Liang, D. Wang, R. He, X. Hou, “Solution-processed organic films of multiple small-molecules and white light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 641–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. I. Park, Y. Ma, J. Y. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. Park, “Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of highly efficient anthracene derivatives with bulky side groups,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 822–833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. L. Murov, I. Carmicheal, and G. L. Hug, in Handbook of Photochemistry 2nd ed, M. Dekker, ed. (Talyor& Francis, New York, 1993)

B. I. Berlman, in Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic Press, 1971)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of new indenopyrazine blue emitting materials.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Synthetic route of new indenopyrazine blue emitting materials.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV-Visible absorption and PL spectra in (a) solution and (b) film state; PA-EIP (square), PY-EIP (cycle)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PL spectrum of film state and EL spectra of non-doping OLED device: ITO/2-TNATA (60 nm)/NPB (15 nm)/(a) PA-EIP or (b) PY-EIP (30 nm)/Alq3 or TPBi (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm): PL spectrum of film state (square), TPBi (circle), Alq3 (triangle).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Luminance Efficiency of non-doped OLED device: ITO/2-TNATA (60 nm)/NPB (15 nm)/PA-EIP or PY-EIP (30 nm)/Alq3 or TPBi (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm): (○) PA-EIP/Alq3, (●) PA-EIP/TPBi, (□) PY-EIP/Alq3, (■) PY-EIP/TPBi.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

White EL spectra of solution process OLED device: ITO/PEDOT(40 nm)/NPB(57.5%) + DPVBi (38.3%) + PY-EIP(4%) + Rubrene(0.2%) (50 nm)/TPBi (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm): (○) 6V, (△) 7V, (□) 8V.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thermal properties of the synthesized materials.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical properties of the synthesized materials.

Tables Icon

Table 3 EL performances of synthesized material: ITO/2-TNATA (60 nm)/NPB (15 nm)/synthesized material (30 nm)/Alq3 (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm) at 10 mA/cm2

Tables Icon

Table 4 EL performances of synthesized material: ITO/2-TNATA (60 nm)/NPB (15 nm)/synthesized material (30 nm)/Alq3 or TPBi (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm) at 10 mA/cm2

Tables Icon

Table 5 EL performances of synthesized material: ITO/PEDOT(40 nm)/NPB(57.5%) + DPVBi (38.3%) + PY-EIP(4%) + Rubrene(0.2%) (50 nm)/TPBi (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm)

Metrics