Abstract

The origin and consequences to laser performance of blue emission observed in some Raman crystals has been studied in detail, leading us to attribute the origin of the phenomenon to fluorescence from Tm3+(1G4) impurity ions which are excited via sequential upconversion. For the specific case of a Nd:YLF/KGW Raman laser, we show that the blue fluorescence has modest but significant impacts on laser performance and thermal loading. If the blue fluorescence was eliminated, then laser efficiency could be increased by 15% and thermal loading in the KGW crystal reduced by 17%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  22. F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, “Blue luminescence in Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Lumin.106(2), 109–114 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Yang, B. Yao, B. Chen, C. Wang, G. Ren, and X. Wang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorgé, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Growth and fluorescence properties of Tm3+ doped YVO4 and Y2O3 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.8(1–2), 83–90 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. X. Li, H. M. Pask, A. J. Lee, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, and D. J. Spence, “Miniature wavelength-selectable Raman laser: new insights for optimizing performance,” Opt. Express19(25), 25623–25631 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. P. Dekker, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and J. A. Piper, “Continuous-wave, intracavity doubled, self-Raman laser operation in Nd:GdVO4 at 586.5 nm,” Opt. Express15(11), 7038–7046 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” J. Appl. Phys. B108(1), 73–79 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

M. T. Chang, W. Z. Zhuang, K. W. Su, Y. T. Yu, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient continuous-wave self-Raman Yb:KGW laser with a shift of 89 cm⁻¹,” Opt. Express21(21), 24590–24598 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “Transformation of optical properties of crystal media (KGW, YVO4) exposed to quasi-continuous laser radiation in the range of the transmission band of the medium,” Opt. Spectrosc.115(3), 325–334 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “On the influence of dopant ions on blue emission in KGW crystal excited by infrared laser radiation,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.79(1), 38–45 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” J. Appl. Phys. B108(1), 73–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Spence, X. Li, A. J. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Modeling of wavelength-selectable visible Raman lasers,” Opt. Commun.285(18), 3849–3854 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Bonner, H. M. Pask, A. J. Lee, A. J. Kemp, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and T. Omatsu, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a CW BaWO4 intracavity Raman laser,” Opt. Express20(9), 9810–9818 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “An intracavity, frequency-doubled BaWO4 Raman laser generating multi-watt continuous-wave, yellow emission,” Opt. Express18(6), 5984–5992 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Duan, F. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhu, C. Huang, Z. You, Y. Wei, G. Zhang, and C. Tu, “Continuous-wave 560 nm light generated by intracavity SrWO4 Raman and KTP sum-frequency mixing,” Opt. Commun.283(24), 5135–5138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and J. A. Piper, “Efficient 5.3 W CW laser at 559 nm by intracavity frequency summation of fundamental and first-Stokes wavelengths in a self-Raman Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 682–684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2007 (3)

W. Baoshan, T. Huiming, P. Jiying, M. Jieguang, and G. Lanlan, “Low threshold, diode end-pumped Nd3+: GdVO4 self-Raman laser,” Opt. Mater.29(12), 1817–1820 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Dekker, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and J. A. Piper, “Continuous-wave, intracavity doubled, self-Raman laser operation in Nd:GdVO4 at 586.5 nm,” Opt. Express15(11), 7038–7046 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, B. Yao, B. Chen, C. Wang, G. Ren, and X. Wang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. M. Pask, “Continuous-wave, all-solid-state, intracavity Raman laser,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2454–2456 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Blue up-conversion with excitation into Tm ions at 808 nm in YVO4 crystals co-doped with thulium and ytterbium,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 43–47 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “Optical characterization of Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.25(1), 71–77 (2004).

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, “Blue luminescence in Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Lumin.106(2), 109–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, “Efficient 1521-nm Nd:GdVO4 Raman laser,” Opt. Lett.29(22), 2632–2634 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp.300–301(0), 300–302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorgé, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Growth and fluorescence properties of Tm3+ doped YVO4 and Y2O3 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.8(1–2), 83–90 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, “230 mW of blue light from a thulium-doped upconversion fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1100–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aguiló, M.

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “Optical characterization of Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.25(1), 71–77 (2004).

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, “Blue luminescence in Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Lumin.106(2), 109–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Amp, D.

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, “Blue luminescence in Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Lumin.106(2), 109–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “Optical characterization of Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.25(1), 71–77 (2004).

Baoshan, W.

W. Baoshan, T. Huiming, P. Jiying, M. Jieguang, and G. Lanlan, “Low threshold, diode end-pumped Nd3+: GdVO4 self-Raman laser,” Opt. Mater.29(12), 1817–1820 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorgé, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Growth and fluorescence properties of Tm3+ doped YVO4 and Y2O3 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.8(1–2), 83–90 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, G. M.

Cavalli, E.

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorgé, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Growth and fluorescence properties of Tm3+ doped YVO4 and Y2O3 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.8(1–2), 83–90 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. L.

Chang, M. T.

Chang, Y. T.

Chen, B.

Y. Yang, B. Yao, B. Chen, C. Wang, G. Ren, and X. Wang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. D.

Chen, Y. F.

Clarkson, W. A.

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, “230 mW of blue light from a thulium-doped upconversion fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1100–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cohen-Adad, M. T.

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorgé, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Growth and fluorescence properties of Tm3+ doped YVO4 and Y2O3 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.8(1–2), 83–90 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D. F.

Cui, Q. J.

Dekker, P.

Demidovich, A. A.

A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp.300–301(0), 300–302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Díaz, F.

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, “Blue luminescence in Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Lumin.106(2), 109–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “Optical characterization of Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.25(1), 71–77 (2004).

Duan, Y.

H. Zhu, Y. Duan, G. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and F. Yang, “Laser induced blue luminescence phenomenon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50 (Copyright (C) 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics), 090203 (2011).

Y. Duan, F. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhu, C. Huang, Z. You, Y. Wei, G. Zhang, and C. Tu, “Continuous-wave 560 nm light generated by intracavity SrWO4 Raman and KTP sum-frequency mixing,” Opt. Commun.283(24), 5135–5138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Y. M.

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhu, Y. M. Duan, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, W. D. Chen, Y. D. Huang, and N. Ye, “Yellow-light generation of 5.7 W by intracavity doubling self-Raman laser of YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2763–2765 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunina, E. B.

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “Transformation of optical properties of crystal media (KGW, YVO4) exposed to quasi-continuous laser radiation in the range of the transmission band of the medium,” Opt. Spectrosc.115(3), 325–334 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “On the influence of dopant ions on blue emission in KGW crystal excited by infrared laser radiation,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.79(1), 38–45 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ermeneux, F. S.

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorgé, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Growth and fluorescence properties of Tm3+ doped YVO4 and Y2O3 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.8(1–2), 83–90 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, L.

Fan, Y. X.

Galan, M.

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “Optical characterization of Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.25(1), 71–77 (2004).

Gavaldà, J.

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “Optical characterization of Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.25(1), 71–77 (2004).

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, “Blue luminescence in Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Lumin.106(2), 109–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goutaudier, C.

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorgé, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Growth and fluorescence properties of Tm3+ doped YVO4 and Y2O3 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.8(1–2), 83–90 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grabtchikov, A. S.

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “Transformation of optical properties of crystal media (KGW, YVO4) exposed to quasi-continuous laser radiation in the range of the transmission band of the medium,” Opt. Spectrosc.115(3), 325–334 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “On the influence of dopant ions on blue emission in KGW crystal excited by infrared laser radiation,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.79(1), 38–45 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp.300–301(0), 300–302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Güell, F.

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, “Blue luminescence in Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Lumin.106(2), 109–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “Optical characterization of Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.25(1), 71–77 (2004).

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, “230 mW of blue light from a thulium-doped upconversion fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1100–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

Y. Duan, F. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhu, C. Huang, Z. You, Y. Wei, G. Zhang, and C. Tu, “Continuous-wave 560 nm light generated by intracavity SrWO4 Raman and KTP sum-frequency mixing,” Opt. Commun.283(24), 5135–5138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. H.

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhu, Y. M. Duan, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, W. D. Chen, Y. D. Huang, and N. Ye, “Yellow-light generation of 5.7 W by intracavity doubling self-Raman laser of YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2763–2765 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. D.

Huiming, T.

W. Baoshan, T. Huiming, P. Jiying, M. Jieguang, and G. Lanlan, “Low threshold, diode end-pumped Nd3+: GdVO4 self-Raman laser,” Opt. Mater.29(12), 1817–1820 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

Jiang, M.

Jieguang, M.

W. Baoshan, T. Huiming, P. Jiying, M. Jieguang, and G. Lanlan, “Low threshold, diode end-pumped Nd3+: GdVO4 self-Raman laser,” Opt. Mater.29(12), 1817–1820 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiying, P.

W. Baoshan, T. Huiming, P. Jiying, M. Jieguang, and G. Lanlan, “Low threshold, diode end-pumped Nd3+: GdVO4 self-Raman laser,” Opt. Mater.29(12), 1817–1820 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, A. J.

Khodasevich, I. A.

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “Transformation of optical properties of crystal media (KGW, YVO4) exposed to quasi-continuous laser radiation in the range of the transmission band of the medium,” Opt. Spectrosc.115(3), 325–334 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “On the influence of dopant ions on blue emission in KGW crystal excited by infrared laser radiation,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.79(1), 38–45 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kornienko, A. A.

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “Transformation of optical properties of crystal media (KGW, YVO4) exposed to quasi-continuous laser radiation in the range of the transmission band of the medium,” Opt. Spectrosc.115(3), 325–334 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “On the influence of dopant ions on blue emission in KGW crystal excited by infrared laser radiation,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.79(1), 38–45 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, A. N.

A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp.300–301(0), 300–302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lanlan, G.

W. Baoshan, T. Huiming, P. Jiying, M. Jieguang, and G. Lanlan, “Low threshold, diode end-pumped Nd3+: GdVO4 self-Raman laser,” Opt. Mater.29(12), 1817–1820 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A.

T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” J. Appl. Phys. B108(1), 73–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. J.

Li, C. M.

Li, J.

Li, X.

Li, Y. Q.

Li, Z.

Lisiecki, R.

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Blue up-conversion with excitation into Tm ions at 808 nm in YVO4 crystals co-doped with thulium and ytterbium,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 43–47 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lisinetskii, V. A.

A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp.300–301(0), 300–302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. F.

Lukasiewicz, T.

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Blue up-conversion with excitation into Tm ions at 808 nm in YVO4 crystals co-doped with thulium and ytterbium,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 43–47 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Q. L.

Massons, J.

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “Optical characterization of Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.25(1), 71–77 (2004).

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, “Blue luminescence in Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Lumin.106(2), 109–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mateos, X.

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, “Blue luminescence in Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Lumin.106(2), 109–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “Optical characterization of Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.25(1), 71–77 (2004).

Maze, G.

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, “230 mW of blue light from a thulium-doped upconversion fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1100–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moncorgé, R.

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorgé, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Growth and fluorescence properties of Tm3+ doped YVO4 and Y2O3 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.8(1–2), 83–90 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moore, N.

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, “230 mW of blue light from a thulium-doped upconversion fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1100–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okida, M.

T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” J. Appl. Phys. B108(1), 73–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Omatsu, T.

T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” J. Appl. Phys. B108(1), 73–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Bonner, H. M. Pask, A. J. Lee, A. J. Kemp, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and T. Omatsu, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a CW BaWO4 intracavity Raman laser,” Opt. Express20(9), 9810–9818 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orlovich, V. A.

A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp.300–301(0), 300–302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, “230 mW of blue light from a thulium-doped upconversion fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1100–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pask, H. M.

D. J. Spence, X. Li, A. J. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Modeling of wavelength-selectable visible Raman lasers,” Opt. Commun.285(18), 3849–3854 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Bonner, H. M. Pask, A. J. Lee, A. J. Kemp, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and T. Omatsu, “Measurement of thermal lensing in a CW BaWO4 intracavity Raman laser,” Opt. Express20(9), 9810–9818 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” J. Appl. Phys. B108(1), 73–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, H. M. Pask, A. J. Lee, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, and D. J. Spence, “Miniature wavelength-selectable Raman laser: new insights for optimizing performance,” Opt. Express19(25), 25623–25631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, Z. Li, A. J. Lee, J. Li, H. Zhang, J. Wang, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and M. Jiang, “A continuous wave SrMoO4 Raman laser,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 579–581 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and J. A. Piper, “Efficient 5.3 W CW laser at 559 nm by intracavity frequency summation of fundamental and first-Stokes wavelengths in a self-Raman Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 682–684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “An intracavity, frequency-doubled BaWO4 Raman laser generating multi-watt continuous-wave, yellow emission,” Opt. Express18(6), 5984–5992 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dekker, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and J. A. Piper, “Continuous-wave, intracavity doubled, self-Raman laser operation in Nd:GdVO4 at 586.5 nm,” Opt. Express15(11), 7038–7046 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Pask, “Continuous-wave, all-solid-state, intracavity Raman laser,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2454–2456 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piper, J. A.

Ren, G.

Y. Yang, B. Yao, B. Chen, C. Wang, G. Ren, and X. Wang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ryabtsev, G. I.

A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp.300–301(0), 300–302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Blue up-conversion with excitation into Tm ions at 808 nm in YVO4 crystals co-doped with thulium and ytterbium,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 43–47 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solé, R.

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “Optical characterization of Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.25(1), 71–77 (2004).

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, “Blue luminescence in Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Lumin.106(2), 109–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. J.

Su, K. W.

Tropper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, “230 mW of blue light from a thulium-doped upconversion fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1100–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C.

Y. Duan, F. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhu, C. Huang, Z. You, Y. Wei, G. Zhang, and C. Tu, “Continuous-wave 560 nm light generated by intracavity SrWO4 Raman and KTP sum-frequency mixing,” Opt. Commun.283(24), 5135–5138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C. Y.

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Y. Yang, B. Yao, B. Chen, C. Wang, G. Ren, and X. Wang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

Wang, J.

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, Q.

Wang, X.

Y. Yang, B. Yao, B. Chen, C. Wang, G. Ren, and X. Wang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Y.

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Duan, F. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhu, C. Huang, Z. You, Y. Wei, G. Zhang, and C. Tu, “Continuous-wave 560 nm light generated by intracavity SrWO4 Raman and KTP sum-frequency mixing,” Opt. Commun.283(24), 5135–5138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhu, Y. M. Duan, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, W. D. Chen, Y. D. Huang, and N. Ye, “Yellow-light generation of 5.7 W by intracavity doubling self-Raman laser of YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2763–2765 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. Y.

Yang, F.

H. Zhu, Y. Duan, G. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and F. Yang, “Laser induced blue luminescence phenomenon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50 (Copyright (C) 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics), 090203 (2011).

Y. Duan, F. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhu, C. Huang, Z. You, Y. Wei, G. Zhang, and C. Tu, “Continuous-wave 560 nm light generated by intracavity SrWO4 Raman and KTP sum-frequency mixing,” Opt. Commun.283(24), 5135–5138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F. G.

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, B. Yao, B. Chen, C. Wang, G. Ren, and X. Wang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

Y. Yang, B. Yao, B. Chen, C. Wang, G. Ren, and X. Wang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, N.

You, Z.

Y. Duan, F. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhu, C. Huang, Z. You, Y. Wei, G. Zhang, and C. Tu, “Continuous-wave 560 nm light generated by intracavity SrWO4 Raman and KTP sum-frequency mixing,” Opt. Commun.283(24), 5135–5138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, Z. Y.

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Yu, Y. T.

Zhang, G.

H. Zhu, Y. Duan, G. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and F. Yang, “Laser induced blue luminescence phenomenon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50 (Copyright (C) 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics), 090203 (2011).

Y. Duan, F. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhu, C. Huang, Z. You, Y. Wei, G. Zhang, and C. Tu, “Continuous-wave 560 nm light generated by intracavity SrWO4 Raman and KTP sum-frequency mixing,” Opt. Commun.283(24), 5135–5138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhu, Y. M. Duan, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, W. D. Chen, Y. D. Huang, and N. Ye, “Yellow-light generation of 5.7 W by intracavity doubling self-Raman laser of YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2763–2765 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, X. F.

Zhang, Y.

H. Zhu, Y. Duan, G. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and F. Yang, “Laser induced blue luminescence phenomenon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50 (Copyright (C) 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics), 090203 (2011).

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, Y. Duan, G. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and F. Yang, “Laser induced blue luminescence phenomenon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50 (Copyright (C) 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics), 090203 (2011).

Y. Duan, F. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhu, C. Huang, Z. You, Y. Wei, G. Zhang, and C. Tu, “Continuous-wave 560 nm light generated by intracavity SrWO4 Raman and KTP sum-frequency mixing,” Opt. Commun.283(24), 5135–5138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H. Y.

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhu, Y. M. Duan, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, W. D. Chen, Y. D. Huang, and N. Ye, “Yellow-light generation of 5.7 W by intracavity doubling self-Raman laser of YVO4/Nd:YVO4 composite,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2763–2765 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z.

Y. Duan, F. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhu, C. Huang, Z. You, Y. Wei, G. Zhang, and C. Tu, “Continuous-wave 560 nm light generated by intracavity SrWO4 Raman and KTP sum-frequency mixing,” Opt. Commun.283(24), 5135–5138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z. J.

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, W. Z.

Zong, N.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Blue up-conversion with excitation into Tm ions at 808 nm in YVO4 crystals co-doped with thulium and ytterbium,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 43–47 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, “230 mW of blue light from a thulium-doped upconversion fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1100–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp.300–301(0), 300–302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” J. Appl. Phys. B108(1), 73–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “On the influence of dopant ions on blue emission in KGW crystal excited by infrared laser radiation,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.79(1), 38–45 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, “Blue luminescence in Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Lumin.106(2), 109–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Zhu, Y. Duan, G. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and F. Yang, “Laser induced blue luminescence phenomenon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50 (Copyright (C) 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics), 090203 (2011).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. Duan, F. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhu, C. Huang, Z. You, Y. Wei, G. Zhang, and C. Tu, “Continuous-wave 560 nm light generated by intracavity SrWO4 Raman and KTP sum-frequency mixing,” Opt. Commun.283(24), 5135–5138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Spence, X. Li, A. J. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Modeling of wavelength-selectable visible Raman lasers,” Opt. Commun.285(18), 3849–3854 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. (4)

W. Baoshan, T. Huiming, P. Jiying, M. Jieguang, and G. Lanlan, “Low threshold, diode end-pumped Nd3+: GdVO4 self-Raman laser,” Opt. Mater.29(12), 1817–1820 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Güell, X. Mateos, J. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, D. Amp, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “Optical characterization of Tm3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.25(1), 71–77 (2004).

Y. Yang, B. Yao, B. Chen, C. Wang, G. Ren, and X. Wang, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Tm3+, Ho3+ doped GdVO4 crystals,” Opt. Mater.29(9), 1159–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Ermeneux, C. Goutaudier, R. Moncorgé, M. T. Cohen-Adad, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Growth and fluorescence properties of Tm3+ doped YVO4 and Y2O3 single crystals,” Opt. Mater.8(1–2), 83–90 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

I. A. Khodasevich, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, and A. S. Grabtchikov, “Transformation of optical properties of crystal media (KGW, YVO4) exposed to quasi-continuous laser radiation in the range of the transmission band of the medium,” Opt. Spectrosc.115(3), 325–334 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. H. Esbensen, D. Guyot, and F. Westad, Multivariate Data Analysis: In Practice (Camo, 2000).

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Their Physics and Properties (Springer-Verlag, 1981).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Picture of the blue emission in a 25mm long KGW crystal and (b) curve showing the intensity of the blue and red (30x) luminescence as a function of diode pump power for a Nd:GdVO4 crystal from Northrop Grumman (NG)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup used for spectral measurements of blue emission. The Raman crystal was omitted for a self-Raman configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of the blue emission for KGW, Nd:GdVO4, BaWO4, Nd:YVO4

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Decay curves of the blue emission in Nd:GdVO4, YVO4, KGW and BaWO4.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Emission spectra from Nd:GdVO4 crystal above the SRS threshold, and fluorescence only (resonator blocked). (b) Emission spectra as a function of diode pump power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PCA scores plot. Point labels correspond to diode pump power (W). PC-1 explains 94% of data variance, PC-2 explains 5%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

PCA loadings plot. Point labels correspond to peak wavelengths (nm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Energy level diagram for Tm:YVO4 showing blue upconversion steps [26].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Laser cavity with the integrating sphere used to measure the blue emission power.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental blue luminescence lifetime and Tm3+(1G4) lifetimes from the literature for KGW, BaWO4, GdVO4 and YVO4.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Concentration of Nd3+ and Tm3+ found in the in the Raman crystals studied.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Transitions, photon and phonon energies for the Tm:YVO4 system.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N Tm( 1G4 ) = N blue η qe β
P Stokes =3h ν S N Tm( 1G4 )
P heat blue 1 =( 3h ν S h ν blue ) N Tm( 1G4 ) =12.44 mW
P heat blue 2 = P Stokes ( 1 η qe )=9.47 mW
P heat blue 3 = P blue 0.6 0.4 3 =9.5 mW
P heat Raman = ( h ν f h ν s ) P Stokes out ( T oc + L passive + L blue ) T oc

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