Abstract

We report measurements of the third order optical nonlinearity of 51 chalcogenide glasses in the near infrared. Substituting more polarizable elements (Se for S, Sb for As) into the glasses increased their nonlinearity but also reduced the optical bandgap increasing two-photon absorption. Overall the measured values are an extremely good fit to the semi-empirical Miller’s rule whilst the normalized real and imaginary parts are in satisfactory agreement with the scaling for indirect gap semiconductors reported by Dinu. At 1550nm we find that there is an upper limit to the nonlinearity of ≈10−13cm2/W above which two-photon absorption becomes significant.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys.96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 119–121 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in gaas/algaas multiple-quantum-well wave-guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(12), 2934–2939 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, “Role of two-photon absorption in ultrafast semiconductor optical switching devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(14), 1305–1307 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass-fiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.4(4), 362–365 (1992).
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  12. S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, D. Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optical phase conjugation by an As(2)S(3) glass planar waveguide for dispersion-free transmission of WDM-DPSK signals over fiber,” Opt. Express18(25), 26686–26694 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  23. P. Němec, S. Zhang, V. Nazabal, K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, A. Moreac, M. Cathelinaud, and X. H. Zhang, “Photo-stability of pulsed laser deposited GexAsySe100-x-y amorphous thin films,” Opt. Express18(22), 22944–22957 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.1(3), 296–308 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre,” Electron. Lett.42(10), 571–572 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. X. Gai, B. Luther-Davies, and T. P. White, “Photonic crystal nanocavities fabricated from chalcogenide glass fully embedded in an index-matched cladding with a high Q-factor (>750,000),” Opt. Express20(14), 15503–15515 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Ticha and L. Tichy, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its application to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.4, 381–386 (2002).
  33. V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(1), 96–99 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. M. Dinu, “Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(11), 1498–1503 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2014

T. Wang, O. Gulbiten, R. P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, and P. Lucas, “Relative contribution of stoichiometry and mean coordination to the fragility of Ge-As-Se glass forming liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. B118(5), 1436–1442 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

W. H. Wei, R. P. Wang, X. Shen, L. Fang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Correlation between Structural and Physical Properties in Ge-Sb-Se Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C117(32), 16571–16576 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Su, R. P. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, and L. Wang, “The dependence of photosensitivity on composition for thin films of Ge (x) As (y) Se1-x-y chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.113(3), 575–581 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

2009

R. P. Wang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, H. Kokkonen, and I. Jackson, “Observation of two elastic thresholds in GexAsySe1-x-y glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 056109 (2009).

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre,” Electron. Lett.42(10), 571–572 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys.96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Dinu, “Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(11), 1498–1503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ticha and L. Tichy, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its application to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.4, 381–386 (2002).

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in gaas/algaas multiple-quantum-well wave-guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(12), 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass-fiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.4(4), 362–365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, “Role of two-photon absorption in ultrafast semiconductor optical switching devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(14), 1305–1307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

C. C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities,” Phys. Rev. B2(6), 2045–2048 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aitchison, J. S.

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, “Role of two-photon absorption in ultrafast semiconductor optical switching devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(14), 1305–1307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aitken, B. G.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass-fiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.4(4), 362–365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N. J.

Barthelemy, A.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boudebs, G.

P. Němec, S. Zhang, V. Nazabal, K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, A. Moreac, M. Cathelinaud, and X. H. Zhang, “Photo-stability of pulsed laser deposited GexAsySe100-x-y amorphous thin films,” Opt. Express18(22), 22944–22957 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D. A.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulla, D. A. P.

Busse, L.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cathelinaud, M.

Chen, G. R.

Chen, H.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

X. Gai, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Interplay between Raman scattering and four-wave mixing in As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(11), 2777–2784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, D. Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optical phase conjugation by an As(2)S(3) glass planar waveguide for dispersion-free transmission of WDM-DPSK signals over fiber,” Opt. Express18(25), 26686–26694 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express18(16), 17252–17261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express16(25), 20374–20381 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colas, E.

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, “Role of two-photon absorption in ultrafast semiconductor optical switching devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(14), 1305–1307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Couderc, V.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, “Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(11), 1498–1503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, D. Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optical phase conjugation by an As(2)S(3) glass planar waveguide for dispersion-free transmission of WDM-DPSK signals over fiber,” Opt. Express18(25), 26686–26694 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express18(16), 17252–17261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express16(25), 20374–20381 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre,” Electron. Lett.42(10), 571–572 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, L.

W. H. Wei, R. P. Wang, X. Shen, L. Fang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Correlation between Structural and Physical Properties in Ge-Sb-Se Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C117(32), 16571–16576 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fedus, K.

Finsterbusch, K.

Florea, C. M.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L. B.

Fuflyigin, V. N.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys.96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gai, X.

Galili, M.

Ganjoo, A. T.

Gaylord, S.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, J. T.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys.96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gulbiten, O.

T. Wang, O. Gulbiten, R. P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, and P. Lucas, “Relative contribution of stoichiometry and mean coordination to the fragility of Ge-As-Se glass forming liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. B118(5), 1436–1442 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harbold, J. M.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, H.

Hu, J.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. O.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys.96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, I.

R. P. Wang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, H. Kokkonen, and I. Jackson, “Observation of two elastic thresholds in GexAsySe1-x-y glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 056109 (2009).

Jain, H. S.

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass-fiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.4(4), 362–365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, “Role of two-photon absorption in ultrafast semiconductor optical switching devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(14), 1305–1307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

King, W. A.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys.96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kokkonen, H.

R. P. Wang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, H. Kokkonen, and I. Jackson, “Observation of two elastic thresholds in GexAsySe1-x-y glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 056109 (2009).

Kubodera, K.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass-fiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.4(4), 362–365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kung, F. H.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuyken, B.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lamont, M. R. E.

Leneindre, L.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in gaas/algaas multiple-quantum-well wave-guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(12), 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. H.

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in gaas/algaas multiple-quantum-well wave-guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(12), 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, D. Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optical phase conjugation by an As(2)S(3) glass planar waveguide for dispersion-free transmission of WDM-DPSK signals over fiber,” Opt. Express18(25), 26686–26694 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, P.

T. Wang, O. Gulbiten, R. P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, and P. Lucas, “Relative contribution of stoichiometry and mean coordination to the fragility of Ge-As-Se glass forming liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. B118(5), 1436–1442 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

T. Wang, O. Gulbiten, R. P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, and P. Lucas, “Relative contribution of stoichiometry and mean coordination to the fragility of Ge-As-Se glass forming liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. B118(5), 1436–1442 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Wei, R. P. Wang, X. Shen, L. Fang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Correlation between Structural and Physical Properties in Ge-Sb-Se Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C117(32), 16571–16576 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Su, R. P. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, and L. Wang, “The dependence of photosensitivity on composition for thin films of Ge (x) As (y) Se1-x-y chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.113(3), 575–581 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Gai, B. Luther-Davies, and T. P. White, “Photonic crystal nanocavities fabricated from chalcogenide glass fully embedded in an index-matched cladding with a high Q-factor (>750,000),” Opt. Express20(14), 15503–15515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gai, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Interplay between Raman scattering and four-wave mixing in As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(11), 2777–2784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, D. Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optical phase conjugation by an As(2)S(3) glass planar waveguide for dispersion-free transmission of WDM-DPSK signals over fiber,” Opt. Express18(25), 26686–26694 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express18(16), 17252–17261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Wang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, H. Kokkonen, and I. Jackson, “Observation of two elastic thresholds in GexAsySe1-x-y glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 056109 (2009).

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express16(25), 20374–20381 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, P.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, D. Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optical phase conjugation by an As(2)S(3) glass planar waveguide for dispersion-free transmission of WDM-DPSK signals over fiber,” Opt. Express18(25), 26686–26694 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express18(16), 17252–17261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massera, J.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moreac, A.

Moss, D. J.

Nazabal, V.

Nemec, P.

Nguyen, H. C.

Nguyen, V. Q.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliver, M. K.

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, “Role of two-photon absorption in ultrafast semiconductor optical switching devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(14), 1305–1307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Palushani, E.

Pelusi, M.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M. D.

Petit, L.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, A.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pureza, P.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quemard, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Quémard, C.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roelkens, G.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder, J.

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheik Bahae, M.

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, X.

W. H. Wei, R. P. Wang, X. Shen, L. Fang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Correlation between Structural and Physical Properties in Ge-Sb-Se Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C117(32), 16571–16576 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shurgalin, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys.96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A.

T. Wang, O. Gulbiten, R. P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, and P. Lucas, “Relative contribution of stoichiometry and mean coordination to the fragility of Ge-As-Se glass forming liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. B118(5), 1436–1442 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Wang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, H. Kokkonen, and I. Jackson, “Observation of two elastic thresholds in GexAsySe1-x-y glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 056109 (2009).

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. W. E.

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, “Role of two-photon absorption in ultrafast semiconductor optical switching devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(14), 1305–1307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys.96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in gaas/algaas multiple-quantum-well wave-guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(12), 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Su, X. Q.

X. Q. Su, R. P. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, and L. Wang, “The dependence of photosensitivity on composition for thin films of Ge (x) As (y) Se1-x-y chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.113(3), 575–581 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V. G.

Ticha, H.

H. Ticha and L. Tichy, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its application to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.4, 381–386 (2002).

Tichy, L.

H. Ticha and L. Tichy, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its application to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.4, 381–386 (2002).

Van Campenhout, J.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vanstryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in gaas/algaas multiple-quantum-well wave-guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(12), 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vo, T. D.

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express18(16), 17252–17261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities,” Phys. Rev. B2(6), 2045–2048 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

X. Q. Su, R. P. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, and L. Wang, “The dependence of photosensitivity on composition for thin films of Ge (x) As (y) Se1-x-y chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.113(3), 575–581 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. P.

T. Wang, O. Gulbiten, R. P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, and P. Lucas, “Relative contribution of stoichiometry and mean coordination to the fragility of Ge-As-Se glass forming liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. B118(5), 1436–1442 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Su, R. P. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, and L. Wang, “The dependence of photosensitivity on composition for thin films of Ge (x) As (y) Se1-x-y chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.113(3), 575–581 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wei, R. P. Wang, X. Shen, L. Fang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Correlation between Structural and Physical Properties in Ge-Sb-Se Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C117(32), 16571–16576 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Wang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, H. Kokkonen, and I. Jackson, “Observation of two elastic thresholds in GexAsySe1-x-y glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 056109 (2009).

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, O. Gulbiten, R. P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, and P. Lucas, “Relative contribution of stoichiometry and mean coordination to the fragility of Ge-As-Se glass forming liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. B118(5), 1436–1442 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wei, W. H.

W. H. Wei, R. P. Wang, X. Shen, L. Fang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Correlation between Structural and Physical Properties in Ge-Sb-Se Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C117(32), 16571–16576 (2013).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

Wise, F. W.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Xu, Y. S.

Yang, C. C.

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in gaas/algaas multiple-quantum-well wave-guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(12), 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Yang, Z. Y.

T. Wang, O. Gulbiten, R. P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, and P. Lucas, “Relative contribution of stoichiometry and mean coordination to the fragility of Ge-As-Se glass forming liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. B118(5), 1436–1442 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H. D.

Zha, C. J.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, X. H.

Zhao, D. H.

Appl. Phys. A Mater.

D. A. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge-As-Se thin films,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Su, R. P. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, and L. Wang, “The dependence of photosensitivity on composition for thin films of Ge (x) As (y) Se1-x-y chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. A Mater.113(3), 575–581 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. S. Aitchison, M. K. Oliver, E. Kapon, E. Colas, and P. W. E. Smith, “Role of two-photon absorption in ultrafast semiconductor optical switching devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(14), 1305–1307 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre,” Electron. Lett.42(10), 571–572 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in gaas/algaas multiple-quantum-well wave-guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(12), 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, “Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(11), 1498–1503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonic Tech. L.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass-fiber,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.4(4), 362–365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L.14(6), 822–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, D. Gibson, L. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, C. M. Florea, and F. H. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.1(3), 296–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys.96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Wang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, H. Kokkonen, and I. Jackson, “Observation of two elastic thresholds in GexAsySe1-x-y glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 056109 (2009).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.

H. Ticha and L. Tichy, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its application to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.4, 381–386 (2002).

J. Phys. Chem. B

T. Wang, O. Gulbiten, R. P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, A. Smith, B. Luther-Davies, and P. Lucas, “Relative contribution of stoichiometry and mean coordination to the fragility of Ge-As-Se glass forming liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. B118(5), 1436–1442 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C

W. H. Wei, R. P. Wang, X. Shen, L. Fang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Correlation between Structural and Physical Properties in Ge-Sb-Se Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C117(32), 16571–16576 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids62(8), 1435–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem.182(10), 2756–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

X. Gai, B. Luther-Davies, and T. P. White, “Photonic crystal nanocavities fabricated from chalcogenide glass fully embedded in an index-matched cladding with a high Q-factor (>750,000),” Opt. Express20(14), 15503–15515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yang, H. S. Jain, A. T. Ganjoo, D. H. Zhao, Y. S. Xu, H. D. Zeng, and G. R. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express16(25), 20374–20381 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express18(16), 17252–17261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Němec, S. Zhang, V. Nazabal, K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, A. Moreac, M. Cathelinaud, and X. H. Zhang, “Photo-stability of pulsed laser deposited GexAsySe100-x-y amorphous thin films,” Opt. Express18(22), 22944–22957 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, D. Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optical phase conjugation by an As(2)S(3) glass planar waveguide for dispersion-free transmission of WDM-DPSK signals over fiber,” Opt. Express18(25), 26686–26694 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

C. C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities,” Phys. Rev. B2(6), 2045–2048 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. A. Popescu, Non-Crystalline Chalcogenide (Kluwer Academic, 2001).

W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press Inc., 2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of optical damage threshold measured for CW radiation at 830nm for glasses in the Ge11.5As24(SexS1-x)64.5 for x = 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Variation of the nonlinear susceptibility vs (n02-1)4 demonstrating that the data is a good fit to Miller’s rule 2(b) The nonlinear index n2 plotted against the linear index n0 along with the Miller’s rule according to Eq. (2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the linear refractive index of Ge-Sb-Se glasses for fixed Sb contentions of 10, 15 and 20 as a function of Ge concentration. The stoichiometric compositions correspond to the minima in these graphs [21].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Typical open aperture traces and their corresponding fit to a numerical model. 4(b) Inverse transmission data for different wavelengths is plotted against irradiance. The slope of the lines is used to determine the 2PA absorption coefficient, β2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Plot of n2 vs normalised photon energy for the glasses listed in Table 2. 5(b) β2 vs normalised photon energy for the glasses listed in Table 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Normalised nonlinear refractive index, n2Eg4n02, plotted as a function of normalised photon energy. 6(b) Normalised two photon absorption, β2Eg3n02, plotted as a function of normalised photon energy. The solid line is fitting according to Dinu’s model [35] and the dashed line is Sheik Bahae’s model [34].

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The measured linear indices (n0), nonlinear indices (n2) at 1550nm for all the glass samples

Tables Icon

Table 2 Compositions, optical bandgap (Eg), nonlinear optical properties (n2, β2 and FOM) of five selected chalcogenide glasses.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ ( 3 ) = n 2 n 0 2 0.0395 =α [ ( n 0 2 1 ) 4π ] 4
n 2 =4.27× 10 16 ( n 0 2 1 ) 4 n 0 2 c m 2 /W

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