Abstract

Nd3+-doped bismuth titanate, (Bi4Ti3O12) (BiT) containing transparent glass-ceramics has been prepared by the melt-quenching followed by heat-treatment in the SiO2-K2O-Bi2O3-TiO2 (SKBT) system. The structural properties of the heat-treated GC are investigated using XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and FT-IR reflectance spectroscopy. The emission intensity of the 4F3/24I11/2 transition at 1065 nm is enhanced by 9-fold due to entering of Nd3+ ions (r = 0.98 Å) into the low-phonon crystalline phase (BiT), possibly by replacing Bi3+ ions (r = 1.02 Å) of the same valency. An increase of εr value (from 18.5 to 32.93) was observed with increase in heat-treatment time.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

A. R. Molla, A. Tarafder, S. Mukherjee, and B. Karmakar, “Transparent Nd3+-doped ferroelectric bismuth titanate glass-ceramic nanocomposites: fabrication and properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3056–3063 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

A. R. Molla, A. Tarafder, and B. Karmakar, “Synthesis and properties of glasses in the K2O–SiO2–Bi2O3–TiO2 system and bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) nano glass–ceramics thereof,” J. Mater. Sci.46(9), 2967–2976 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Gautam, D. Kumar, and O. Parkash, “Crystallization behavior and microstructural analysis of aead-rich (PbxSr1−x)TiO3 glass ceramics containing 1 mole% La2O3,” Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng.2011, 1–11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, T. Ma, X. Wang, Z. Yuan, and Q. Zhang, “Two dielectric relaxation mechanisms observed in lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glass ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 084115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Maury, F. Cambier, and M. Gonon, “Bulk crystallisation of (00l) oriented fresnoite Sr2TiSi2O8 in GC of the Sr–Ti–Si–K–B–O system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(3), 1079–1084 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Al-Ghamdi, M. A. Alvi, and S. A. Khan, “Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic study on Ga15Se85−xAgx chalcogenide glasses by using differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Alloy. Comp.509(5), 2087–2093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

D. Zhang, T. W. Button, V. O. Sherman, A. K. Agantsev, T. Price, and D. Iddles, “Effects of glass additions on the microstructure and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate (BST) ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(2), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Golezardi, V. K. Marghussian, A. Beitollahi, and S. M. Mirkazemi, “Crystallization behavior, microstructure and dielectric properties of lead titanate glass ceramics in the presence of Bi2O3 as a nucleating agent,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(6), 1453–1460 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, Y. Zhang, C. Deng, and X. Dai, “Crystallization kinetics and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate based glass–ceramics,” Mater. Chem. Phys.121(1-2), 109–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, Y. Zhang, T. Ma, H. Li, and L. Zhang, “Correlation between dielectric breakdown strength and interface polarization in barium strontium titanate glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhu and A. R. West, “Formation and Stability of Ferroelectric BaTi2O5,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(1), 295–300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Z. Ž. Lazarević, B. D. Stojanović, M. J. Romčević, and N. Ž. Romčević, “Mechanochemical activation assisted synthesis of bismuth layered-Perovskite Bi4 Ti4O12,” Sci. Sin.41(1), 19–26 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Tarafder, K. Annapurna, R. S. Chaliha, V. S. Tiwari, P. K. Gupta, and B. Karmakar, “Processing and properties of Nd3+:LiTaO3 transparent glass–ceramic nanocomposites,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.92(9), 1934–1939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

I. Ardelean, S. Cora, and D. Rusu, “EPR and FT-IR spectroscopic studies of Bi2O3–B2O3– CuO glasses,” Physica B403(19-20), 3682–3685 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Jardiel, M. A. de la Rubia, and M. Peiteado, “Control of functional microstructure in WO3-doped Bi4Ti3O12 ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.91(4), 1083–1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Ruan, X. Chen, T. Liang, G. Wu, and D. Bao, “Photoluminescence and electrical properties of highly transparent (Bi,Nd)4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on indium-tin-oxide-coated glass substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

G. D. Hu, S. H. Fan, and X. Cheng, “Anisotropy of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Bi3.15Pr0.85Ti3O12 thin films on Pt (100)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.101(5), 054111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Villafuerte-Castrejón, F. Camacho-Alanís, F. González, A. Ibarra-Palos, G. González, L. Fuentes, and L. Bucio, “Luminescence and structural study of Bi4−xNdxTi3O12 solid solution,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.27(2-3), 545–549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Aizawa and Y. Ohtani, “Ferroelectric and luminescent properties of Nd-doped SrBi{2}Ta{2}O{9} films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(10B), 6944–6947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

X. J. Zheng, L. He, Y. C. Zhou, and M. H. Tang, “Effects of europium content on the microstructural and ferroelectric properties of Bi4−xNdxTi3O12 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 252908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Villegas, T. Jardiel, A. C. Caballero, and J. F. Fernández, “Electrical Properties of Bismuth Titanate Based Ceramics with Secondary Phases,” J. Electroceram.13, 543–548 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, “Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3687–3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. E. Melgarejo, M. S. Tomar, S. Bhaskar, P. S. Dobal, and R. S. Katiyar, “Large ferroelectric response in Bi4-xNdxTi3O12 films prepared by sol–gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(14), 2611–2613 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Villegas, A. C. Caballero, and J. F. Fernandez, “Modulation of electrical conductivity through microstructural control in Bi4Ti3O12-based piezoelectric ceramics,” Ferroelectrics267(1), 165–173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

L. B. Kong, J. Ma, W. Zhu, and O. K. Tan, “Preparation of Bi4Ti3O12 ceramics via a high-energy ball milling process,” Mater. Lett.51(2), 108–114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Prakash, D. N. Rao, and A. K. Bhatnagar, “Linear optical properties of niobium-based tellurite glasses,” Solid State Commun.119(1), 39–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kojima, A. Hushur, F. Jiang, S. Hamazaki, M. Takashige, M. S. Jang, and S. Shimada, “Crystallization of amorphous bismuth titanate,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids293–295, 250–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. K. Bamzai and P. N. Kotru, “Fracture mechanics, crack propagation and microhardness studies on flux grown ErAlO3 single crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol.16, 405–411 (2000).

S. H. Hong, J. A. Horn, S. Trolier-McKinstry, and G. L. Messing, “Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ta-doped bismuth titanate,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.19(18), 1661–1664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, T. Tani, Y. Saito, and T. TakNdchi, “Unidirectionally textured CaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics by the reactive templated grain growth with an extrusion,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 9B), 5577–5580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

M. Villegas, A. C. Caballero, C. Moure, P. Dura’n, and J. F. Ferna’ndez, “Factors affecting the electrical conductivity of donor-doped Bi4Ti3O12 piezoelectric ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.82(9), 2411–2416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Horn, S. C. Zhang, U. Selvaraj, G. L. Messing, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Templated grain growth of textured bismuth titanate,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.82(4), 921–926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Villegas, A. C. Caballero, C. Moure, P. Duran, and J. F. Fernandez, “Factors affecting the electrical conductivity of donor-doped Bi4Ti3O12 piezoelectric ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.82(9), 2411–2416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, B. S. Kang, S. D. Bu, T. W. Noh, J. Lee, and W. Jo, “Lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate for use in non-volatile memories,” Nature401(6754), 682–684 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A. Q. Jiang, H. G. Li, and L. D. Zhang, “Dielectric study in nanocrystalline prepared by chemical doprecipitation,” J. Appl. Phys.83, 4878–4883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Shankar and K. B. R. Varma, “Crystallization, dielectric and optical studies on strontium tetraborate glasses containing bismuth titanate,” Mater. Res. Bull.33(12), 1769–1782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Shankar and K. B. R. Varma, “Crystallization of ferroelectric bismuth vanadate in BiO –VO –SrBO glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids226(1-2), 145–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Gerth and C. Rüssel, “Crystallization of Bi4Ti3O12 from glasses in the system Bi2O3/TiO2/B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids221(1), 10–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Gerth and C. Rüssel, “Crystallization of Bi4Ti3O12 from glasses in the system Bi2O3/TiO2/B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids221(1), 10–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. S. Shulman, M. Testorf, D. Damjanovic, and N. Setter, “Microstructure, electrical conductivity and piezoelectric properties of bismuth titanate,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.79(12), 3124–3128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

O. P. Thakur, D. Kumar, O. Parkash, and L. Pandey, “Effect of K2O adiition on crystallization and microstructural behavior of strontium titanate borosilicate glass ceramic system,” J. Mat. Lett.23(4-6), 253–260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Hiramichi, F. Dhigeru, and M. Kanji, “Refractive-index dispersion of tellurite glasses in the region from 0.40 to 1.71 μm,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.77(9), 2455–2457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

H. Watanabe, T. Kimura, and T. Yamaguch, “Sintering of platelike bismuth titanate powder compacts with preferred orientation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.74(1), 139–147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, and D. M. Krol, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses32, 231–254 (1991).

1990 (1)

H. Nasu, K. Kubodera, M. Kobayashi, M. Nakamura, and K. Kamiya, “Third harmonic generation from some chalcogcnidc glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.73(6), 1794–1796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

H. Nasu, Y. Ibara, and K. Kubodera, “Optical third-harmonic generation from some high-index glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids110(2-3), 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borreli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical suceptibilities of high index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Scott and C. A. Paz de Araujo, “Ferroelectric memories,” Science246(4936), 1400–1405 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, and W. L. Smith, “Nonlinear refractive index of glasses and crystals,” Opt. Eng.17, 463–475 (1987).

1985 (2)

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

G. R. Antis, P. Chantikul, B. R. Lawn, and D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation technique for measuring fracture toughness: I, direct crack measurements,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.64(9), 533–538 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

J. A. Augis and J. E. Bennett, “Calculation of the avrami parameters for heterogeneous solid state reactions using a modification of the Kissinger method,” J. Therm. Anal.13(2), 283–292 (1978).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationships for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.14(8), 601–608 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

T. Kokubo and M. Tashiro, “Dielectric properties of fine grained PbTiO3 crystals precipitated in a glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids13(2), 328–340 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. Fouskova and L. E. Cross, “Dielectric properties of bismuth titanate,” J. Appl. Phys.41(7), 2834–2838 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

T. Ozawa, “A new method of analysing thermogravimetric data,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn.38(11), 1881–1886 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

C. Hirayama and E. C. Subbarao, “Dielectric properties of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses3, 111–115 (1962).

1956 (1)

H. E. Kissinger, “Variation of peak temperature with heating rate in differential thermal analysis,” Res. Nat. Bur. Stand.57(4), 217–221 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1880 (2)

H. A. Lorentz, “Ueber die beziehung zwischen der fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit des lichtes und der koreperdichte,” Ann. Phys.245(4), 641–665 (1880).
[CrossRef]

R. Lorenz, “Ueber die refractionsconstante,” Ann. Phys.247(9), 70–103 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Agantsev, A. K.

D. Zhang, T. W. Button, V. O. Sherman, A. K. Agantsev, T. Price, and D. Iddles, “Effects of glass additions on the microstructure and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate (BST) ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(2), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, K.

K. Aizawa and Y. Ohtani, “Ferroelectric and luminescent properties of Nd-doped SrBi{2}Ta{2}O{9} films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(10B), 6944–6947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Al-Ghamdi, A. A.

A. A. Al-Ghamdi, M. A. Alvi, and S. A. Khan, “Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic study on Ga15Se85−xAgx chalcogenide glasses by using differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Alloy. Comp.509(5), 2087–2093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alvi, M. A.

A. A. Al-Ghamdi, M. A. Alvi, and S. A. Khan, “Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic study on Ga15Se85−xAgx chalcogenide glasses by using differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Alloy. Comp.509(5), 2087–2093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Annapurna, K.

A. Tarafder, K. Annapurna, R. S. Chaliha, V. S. Tiwari, P. K. Gupta, and B. Karmakar, “Processing and properties of Nd3+:LiTaO3 transparent glass–ceramic nanocomposites,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.92(9), 1934–1939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Antis, G. R.

G. R. Antis, P. Chantikul, B. R. Lawn, and D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation technique for measuring fracture toughness: I, direct crack measurements,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.64(9), 533–538 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ardelean, I.

I. Ardelean, S. Cora, and D. Rusu, “EPR and FT-IR spectroscopic studies of Bi2O3–B2O3– CuO glasses,” Physica B403(19-20), 3682–3685 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Augis, J. A.

J. A. Augis and J. E. Bennett, “Calculation of the avrami parameters for heterogeneous solid state reactions using a modification of the Kissinger method,” J. Therm. Anal.13(2), 283–292 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bamzai, K. K.

K. K. Bamzai and P. N. Kotru, “Fracture mechanics, crack propagation and microhardness studies on flux grown ErAlO3 single crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol.16, 405–411 (2000).

Bao, D.

K. Ruan, X. Chen, T. Liang, G. Wu, and D. Bao, “Photoluminescence and electrical properties of highly transparent (Bi,Nd)4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on indium-tin-oxide-coated glass substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beitollahi, A.

S. Golezardi, V. K. Marghussian, A. Beitollahi, and S. M. Mirkazemi, “Crystallization behavior, microstructure and dielectric properties of lead titanate glass ceramics in the presence of Bi2O3 as a nucleating agent,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(6), 1453–1460 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. E.

J. A. Augis and J. E. Bennett, “Calculation of the avrami parameters for heterogeneous solid state reactions using a modification of the Kissinger method,” J. Therm. Anal.13(2), 283–292 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bhaskar, S.

R. E. Melgarejo, M. S. Tomar, S. Bhaskar, P. S. Dobal, and R. S. Katiyar, “Large ferroelectric response in Bi4-xNdxTi3O12 films prepared by sol–gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(14), 2611–2613 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhatnagar, A. K.

G. V. Prakash, D. N. Rao, and A. K. Bhatnagar, “Linear optical properties of niobium-based tellurite glasses,” Solid State Commun.119(1), 39–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boling, N. L.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationships for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.14(8), 601–608 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Borreli, N. F.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borreli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical suceptibilities of high index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bu, S. D.

B. H. Park, B. S. Kang, S. D. Bu, T. W. Noh, J. Lee, and W. Jo, “Lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate for use in non-volatile memories,” Nature401(6754), 682–684 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bucio, L.

M. E. Villafuerte-Castrejón, F. Camacho-Alanís, F. González, A. Ibarra-Palos, G. González, L. Fuentes, and L. Bucio, “Luminescence and structural study of Bi4−xNdxTi3O12 solid solution,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.27(2-3), 545–549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Button, T. W.

D. Zhang, T. W. Button, V. O. Sherman, A. K. Agantsev, T. Price, and D. Iddles, “Effects of glass additions on the microstructure and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate (BST) ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(2), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, A. C.

M. Villegas, T. Jardiel, A. C. Caballero, and J. F. Fernández, “Electrical Properties of Bismuth Titanate Based Ceramics with Secondary Phases,” J. Electroceram.13, 543–548 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Villegas, A. C. Caballero, and J. F. Fernandez, “Modulation of electrical conductivity through microstructural control in Bi4Ti3O12-based piezoelectric ceramics,” Ferroelectrics267(1), 165–173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Villegas, A. C. Caballero, C. Moure, P. Duran, and J. F. Fernandez, “Factors affecting the electrical conductivity of donor-doped Bi4Ti3O12 piezoelectric ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.82(9), 2411–2416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Villegas, A. C. Caballero, C. Moure, P. Dura’n, and J. F. Ferna’ndez, “Factors affecting the electrical conductivity of donor-doped Bi4Ti3O12 piezoelectric ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.82(9), 2411–2416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Alanís, F.

M. E. Villafuerte-Castrejón, F. Camacho-Alanís, F. González, A. Ibarra-Palos, G. González, L. Fuentes, and L. Bucio, “Luminescence and structural study of Bi4−xNdxTi3O12 solid solution,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.27(2-3), 545–549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cambier, F.

N. Maury, F. Cambier, and M. Gonon, “Bulk crystallisation of (00l) oriented fresnoite Sr2TiSi2O8 in GC of the Sr–Ti–Si–K–B–O system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(3), 1079–1084 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chaliha, R. S.

A. Tarafder, K. Annapurna, R. S. Chaliha, V. S. Tiwari, P. K. Gupta, and B. Karmakar, “Processing and properties of Nd3+:LiTaO3 transparent glass–ceramic nanocomposites,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.92(9), 1934–1939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chantikul, P.

G. R. Antis, P. Chantikul, B. R. Lawn, and D. B. Marshall, “A critical evaluation of indentation technique for measuring fracture toughness: I, direct crack measurements,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.64(9), 533–538 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, Y. Zhang, C. Deng, and X. Dai, “Crystallization kinetics and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate based glass–ceramics,” Mater. Chem. Phys.121(1-2), 109–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

K. Ruan, X. Chen, T. Liang, G. Wu, and D. Bao, “Photoluminescence and electrical properties of highly transparent (Bi,Nd)4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on indium-tin-oxide-coated glass substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X.

G. D. Hu, S. H. Fan, and X. Cheng, “Anisotropy of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Bi3.15Pr0.85Ti3O12 thin films on Pt (100)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.101(5), 054111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cora, S.

I. Ardelean, S. Cora, and D. Rusu, “EPR and FT-IR spectroscopic studies of Bi2O3–B2O3– CuO glasses,” Physica B403(19-20), 3682–3685 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cross, L. E.

A. Fouskova and L. E. Cross, “Dielectric properties of bismuth titanate,” J. Appl. Phys.41(7), 2834–2838 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Dai, X.

J. Chen, Y. Zhang, C. Deng, and X. Dai, “Crystallization kinetics and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate based glass–ceramics,” Mater. Chem. Phys.121(1-2), 109–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Damjanovic, D.

H. S. Shulman, M. Testorf, D. Damjanovic, and N. Setter, “Microstructure, electrical conductivity and piezoelectric properties of bismuth titanate,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.79(12), 3124–3128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de la Rubia, M. A.

T. Jardiel, M. A. de la Rubia, and M. Peiteado, “Control of functional microstructure in WO3-doped Bi4Ti3O12 ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.91(4), 1083–1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deng, C.

J. Chen, Y. Zhang, C. Deng, and X. Dai, “Crystallization kinetics and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate based glass–ceramics,” Mater. Chem. Phys.121(1-2), 109–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dhigeru, F.

T. Hiramichi, F. Dhigeru, and M. Kanji, “Refractive-index dispersion of tellurite glasses in the region from 0.40 to 1.71 μm,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.77(9), 2455–2457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J. P.

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, “Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3687–3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dobal, P. S.

R. E. Melgarejo, M. S. Tomar, S. Bhaskar, P. S. Dobal, and R. S. Katiyar, “Large ferroelectric response in Bi4-xNdxTi3O12 films prepared by sol–gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(14), 2611–2613 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dumbaugh, W. H.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borreli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical suceptibilities of high index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dura’n, P.

M. Villegas, A. C. Caballero, C. Moure, P. Dura’n, and J. F. Ferna’ndez, “Factors affecting the electrical conductivity of donor-doped Bi4Ti3O12 piezoelectric ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.82(9), 2411–2416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duran, P.

M. Villegas, A. C. Caballero, C. Moure, P. Duran, and J. F. Fernandez, “Factors affecting the electrical conductivity of donor-doped Bi4Ti3O12 piezoelectric ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.82(9), 2411–2416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Etchepare, J.

Fan, S. H.

G. D. Hu, S. H. Fan, and X. Cheng, “Anisotropy of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Bi3.15Pr0.85Ti3O12 thin films on Pt (100)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.101(5), 054111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferna’ndez, J. F.

M. Villegas, A. C. Caballero, C. Moure, P. Dura’n, and J. F. Ferna’ndez, “Factors affecting the electrical conductivity of donor-doped Bi4Ti3O12 piezoelectric ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.82(9), 2411–2416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, J. F.

M. Villegas, A. C. Caballero, and J. F. Fernandez, “Modulation of electrical conductivity through microstructural control in Bi4Ti3O12-based piezoelectric ceramics,” Ferroelectrics267(1), 165–173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Villegas, A. C. Caballero, C. Moure, P. Duran, and J. F. Fernandez, “Factors affecting the electrical conductivity of donor-doped Bi4Ti3O12 piezoelectric ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.82(9), 2411–2416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, J. F.

M. Villegas, T. Jardiel, A. C. Caballero, and J. F. Fernández, “Electrical Properties of Bismuth Titanate Based Ceramics with Secondary Phases,” J. Electroceram.13, 543–548 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fouskova, A.

A. Fouskova and L. E. Cross, “Dielectric properties of bismuth titanate,” J. Appl. Phys.41(7), 2834–2838 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Fuentes, L.

M. E. Villafuerte-Castrejón, F. Camacho-Alanís, F. González, A. Ibarra-Palos, G. González, L. Fuentes, and L. Bucio, “Luminescence and structural study of Bi4−xNdxTi3O12 solid solution,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.27(2-3), 545–549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gautam, C. R.

C. R. Gautam, D. Kumar, and O. Parkash, “Crystallization behavior and microstructural analysis of aead-rich (PbxSr1−x)TiO3 glass ceramics containing 1 mole% La2O3,” Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng.2011, 1–11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerth, K.

K. Gerth and C. Rüssel, “Crystallization of Bi4Ti3O12 from glasses in the system Bi2O3/TiO2/B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids221(1), 10–17 (1997).
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K. Gerth and C. Rüssel, “Crystallization of Bi4Ti3O12 from glasses in the system Bi2O3/TiO2/B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids221(1), 10–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. J.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationships for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.14(8), 601–608 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Golezardi, S.

S. Golezardi, V. K. Marghussian, A. Beitollahi, and S. M. Mirkazemi, “Crystallization behavior, microstructure and dielectric properties of lead titanate glass ceramics in the presence of Bi2O3 as a nucleating agent,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(6), 1453–1460 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gonon, M.

N. Maury, F. Cambier, and M. Gonon, “Bulk crystallisation of (00l) oriented fresnoite Sr2TiSi2O8 in GC of the Sr–Ti–Si–K–B–O system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(3), 1079–1084 (2011).
[CrossRef]

González, F.

M. E. Villafuerte-Castrejón, F. Camacho-Alanís, F. González, A. Ibarra-Palos, G. González, L. Fuentes, and L. Bucio, “Luminescence and structural study of Bi4−xNdxTi3O12 solid solution,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.27(2-3), 545–549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

González, G.

M. E. Villafuerte-Castrejón, F. Camacho-Alanís, F. González, A. Ibarra-Palos, G. González, L. Fuentes, and L. Bucio, “Luminescence and structural study of Bi4−xNdxTi3O12 solid solution,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.27(2-3), 545–549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

Gu, B.

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, “Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3687–3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P. K.

A. Tarafder, K. Annapurna, R. S. Chaliha, V. S. Tiwari, P. K. Gupta, and B. Karmakar, “Processing and properties of Nd3+:LiTaO3 transparent glass–ceramic nanocomposites,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.92(9), 1934–1939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. W.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borreli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical suceptibilities of high index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hamazaki, S.

S. Kojima, A. Hushur, F. Jiang, S. Hamazaki, M. Takashige, M. S. Jang, and S. Shimada, “Crystallization of amorphous bismuth titanate,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids293–295, 250–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

He, J. L.

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, “Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3687–3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

X. J. Zheng, L. He, Y. C. Zhou, and M. H. Tang, “Effects of europium content on the microstructural and ferroelectric properties of Bi4−xNdxTi3O12 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 252908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hiramichi, T.

T. Hiramichi, F. Dhigeru, and M. Kanji, “Refractive-index dispersion of tellurite glasses in the region from 0.40 to 1.71 μm,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.77(9), 2455–2457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, C.

C. Hirayama and E. C. Subbarao, “Dielectric properties of bismuth borate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses3, 111–115 (1962).

Hong, S. H.

S. H. Hong, J. A. Horn, S. Trolier-McKinstry, and G. L. Messing, “Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ta-doped bismuth titanate,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.19(18), 1661–1664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horn, J. A.

S. H. Hong, J. A. Horn, S. Trolier-McKinstry, and G. L. Messing, “Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ta-doped bismuth titanate,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.19(18), 1661–1664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Horn, S. C. Zhang, U. Selvaraj, G. L. Messing, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Templated grain growth of textured bismuth titanate,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.82(4), 921–926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, G. D.

G. D. Hu, S. H. Fan, and X. Cheng, “Anisotropy of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Bi3.15Pr0.85Ti3O12 thin films on Pt (100)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.101(5), 054111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, Y. Zhang, T. Ma, H. Li, and L. Zhang, “Correlation between dielectric breakdown strength and interface polarization in barium strontium titanate glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 042902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hushur, A.

S. Kojima, A. Hushur, F. Jiang, S. Hamazaki, M. Takashige, M. S. Jang, and S. Shimada, “Crystallization of amorphous bismuth titanate,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids293–295, 250–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ibara, Y.

H. Nasu, Y. Ibara, and K. Kubodera, “Optical third-harmonic generation from some high-index glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids110(2-3), 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ibarra-Palos, A.

M. E. Villafuerte-Castrejón, F. Camacho-Alanís, F. González, A. Ibarra-Palos, G. González, L. Fuentes, and L. Bucio, “Luminescence and structural study of Bi4−xNdxTi3O12 solid solution,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.27(2-3), 545–549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iddles, D.

D. Zhang, T. W. Button, V. O. Sherman, A. K. Agantsev, T. Price, and D. Iddles, “Effects of glass additions on the microstructure and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate (BST) ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.30(2), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

Jang, M. S.

S. Kojima, A. Hushur, F. Jiang, S. Hamazaki, M. Takashige, M. S. Jang, and S. Shimada, “Crystallization of amorphous bismuth titanate,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids293–295, 250–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jardiel, T.

T. Jardiel, M. A. de la Rubia, and M. Peiteado, “Control of functional microstructure in WO3-doped Bi4Ti3O12 ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.91(4), 1083–1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Villegas, T. Jardiel, A. C. Caballero, and J. F. Fernández, “Electrical Properties of Bismuth Titanate Based Ceramics with Secondary Phases,” J. Electroceram.13, 543–548 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, A. Q.

A. Q. Jiang, H. G. Li, and L. D. Zhang, “Dielectric study in nanocrystalline prepared by chemical doprecipitation,” J. Appl. Phys.83, 4878–4883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, F.

S. Kojima, A. Hushur, F. Jiang, S. Hamazaki, M. Takashige, M. S. Jang, and S. Shimada, “Crystallization of amorphous bismuth titanate,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids293–295, 250–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jo, W.

B. H. Park, B. S. Kang, S. D. Bu, T. W. Noh, J. Lee, and W. Jo, “Lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate for use in non-volatile memories,” Nature401(6754), 682–684 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, K.

H. Nasu, K. Kubodera, M. Kobayashi, M. Nakamura, and K. Kamiya, “Third harmonic generation from some chalcogcnidc glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.73(6), 1794–1796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kang, B. S.

B. H. Park, B. S. Kang, S. D. Bu, T. W. Noh, J. Lee, and W. Jo, “Lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate for use in non-volatile memories,” Nature401(6754), 682–684 (1999).
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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DSC thermogram of Nd3+ - doped BiT precursor glass powders.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dilatometric thermogram of Nd3+ - doped precursor BiT glass.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Plot of ln (α/Tp2) as a function of 1000/Tp (K−1), Kissinger model, (b) ln α as a function of 1000/Tp (K−1), Augis & Bennett model, and (c) ln (α/Tp) vs. 1000/Tp (K−1), Ozowa model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XRD pattern of Nd3+ - doped BiT glass-ceramics heat-treated at 470°C for 5 h and at 500°C for different duration of 5 – 100 h.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FT-IR reflectance spectra of Nd3+ - doped BiT precursor glass and glass-ceramics heat-treated at 470°C for 5 h and at 500°C for different duration of 16 and 30h.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FE-SEM images of Nd3+ - doped BiT glass-ceramics heat-treated at 470°C for 5 h and at 500°C for different duration of (a) 5, (b) 10, (c) 15, (d) 20, (e) 25, and (f) 30 h.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

TEM images and SAED patterns of Nd3+ - doped BiT glass-ceramics heat-treated at 470°C for 5 h and at 500°C for different duration of (a) 10, (b) 15, (c) 20, and (d) 25 h.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The images of the as prepared glass and heat-treated glass-ceramics.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of n vs. wavelength of Nd3+ - doped BiT precursor glass.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Absorbance spectra of Nd3+ - doped BiT precursor glass and glass-ceramics heat-treated at 470°C for 5 h and at 500°C for varying duration of 5-30 h with the interval of 5h.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Photoluminescence emission spectra (λex = 590 nm) of Nd3+ - doped BiT precursor glass and glass-ceramics heat-treated at 470°C for 5 h and at 500°C for varying duration of 5-30 h with the interval of 5h.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Decay curves for the 4F3/24I11/2 transition of Nd3 + ion at 1065 nm under excitation at 590 nm of Nd3+ - doped BiT precursor glass and glass-ceramics heat-treated at 470°C for 5 h and at 500°C for varying duration of 5-30 h with the interval of 5h. (Inset shows the life time of the individual samples).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dielectric constant (εr) of BiT glass and glass-ceramics heat-treated at 470°C for 5 h and at 500°C for varying duration of 5-100 h.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Representative images of the indentation impressions taken on Nd3+ - doped BiT precursor glass and glass-ceramics heat-treated at 470°C for 5 h and at 500°C for varying duration of 5, 20 and 30 h observed under optical microscope (load = 50 g).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Some measured and calculated properties of Nd3+:BiT precursor glass and glass-ceramics

Tables Icon

Table 2 Band assignment of FT-IR spectra

Tables Icon

Table 3 Calculated third-order nonlinear susceptibilities (χ3) of Nd3+:BiT precursor glass and glass-ceramics and other glasses reported in the literature

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

HV=1.8544 P d 2
K 1c =α ( E H ) 0.5 ( P C 1.5 )
ln α T p 2 = E c R T p +C
ln α T p = E c R T p +C
lnα= E c R T p +C
R M = ( n 2 1) ( n 2 +2) M ρ
α m = 3 4πN R M
χ 3 = n 12 π n 2 = 17 3 π ( n 1 ) ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 υ d [ 1.52 + ( n 2 + 2 ) ( n + 1 ) υ d 6 n ] 0.5
τ = 32 π 4 d 3 ( n Δ n ) 2 3 λ 4 N V
R i ( A o ) = ( 1 / N N d 3 + ) 1 / 3

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