Abstract

Transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and silicon (Si) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The electrical and optical properties of the ITO films are then investigated as a function of the cumulative sputtering gas; a parameter newly proposed in this study and defined as the product of the gas (argon) flow rate and the deposition time. The results show that the ITO films deposited on the PET substrates have an amorphous structure, while those deposited on the Si substrates have a microcrystalline structure. For both ITO films, a critical value of the cumulative sputtering gas parameter exists at which the minimum resistivity occurs due to a corresponding increase in the carrier density. For the ITO films deposited on the Si substrates, the carrier mobility is insensitive to the cumulative sputtering gas. However, for the ITO films deposited on the PET substrates, the carrier mobility reduces as the cumulative sputtering gas increases. For the ITO film on the PET substrate, the average transmittance in the visible range increases with an increasing argon flow rate given a constant deposition time. The optical band gap of the ITO films on the PET substrates located in the visible range reduces the transparency of these samples. Finally, for the ITO films deposited on PET substrates, a low resistivity can be obtained without any significant reduction in the transmittance of the ITO film by using the critical cumulative sputtering gas value as a deposition guideline in determining suitable values of the gas flow rate and deposition time.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. N. Banerjee and K. K. Chattopadhyay, “Recent developments in the emerging field of crystallite p-type transparent conducting oxide thin films,” Prog. Cryst. Growth. Ch.50(1-3), 52–105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. K. Bhagat, H. Han, Y. Zoo, J. Lewis, S. Grego, K. Lee, S. Iyer, and T. L. Alford, “Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 4064–4069 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. C. Choi, Y. Kim, and C. S. Ha, “Polymers for flexible displays: From material selection to device applications,” Prog. Polym. Sci.33(6), 581–630 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 1–7 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Dudek, A. Amassian, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Ion bombardment-induced enhancement of the properties of indium tin oxide films prepared by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films517(16), 4576–4582 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. N. H. Al-Ajili and S. C. Bayliss, “A study of the optical, electrical and structural properties of reactively sputtered InOx and ITOx thin films,” Thin Solid Films305(1-2), 116–123 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Shigesato, R. Koshi-ishi, T. Kawashima, and J. Ohsako, “Early stages of ITO deposition on glass or polymer substrates,” Vacuum59(2-3), 614–621 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. H. Son, J. H. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “Excimer laser crystallization of a-ITO thin film deposited on plastics,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.42, 814–816 (2003).
  10. L. J. Meng, E. Liang, J. Gao, V. Teixeira, and M. P. dos Santos, “Study of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on acrylics substrates by ion beam assisted deposition techniquE,” J, Nanosci. Nanotechno.9, 4151–4155 (2009).
  11. Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, Z. Zhao, and W. Xue, “Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films517(18), 5395–5398 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, and W. Xue, “The characteristics of indium tin oxide films prepared on various buffer layer-coated polymer substrates,” Surf. Coat. Tech.204(1-2), 131–134 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. P. Kushto, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Indium tin oxide thin films grown on flexible plastic substrates by pulsed-laser deposition for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 284–286 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Effect of rf power on the properties of ITO thin films deposited by plasma enhanced reactive ther mal evaporation on unheated polymer substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299–302, 1208–1212 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Properties of ITO films deposited by r.f.-PERTE on unheated polymer substrates—dependence on oxygen partial pressure,” Thin Solid Films427(1-2), 215–218 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. F. Lan, H. R. Chang, and J. L. He, “Improvements of ITO film deposited on PET substrates by plasma-polymerized hydrogenated si-carbon-oxide buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49, 1–5 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(3), 371–373 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Craciun, D. Craciun, X. Wang, T. J. Anderson, and R. K. Singh, “Transparent and conducting indium oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at low temperatures,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.5, 401–408 (2003).
  21. H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Cchrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium–tin–oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Kurdesau, G. Khripunov, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, and A. N. Tiwari, “Comparative study of ITO layers deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1466–1470 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. Teixeira, H. N. Cuia, L. J. Meng, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Amorphous ITO thin films prepared by DC sputtering for electrochromic applications,” Thin Solid Films420-421, 70–75 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: Basic optical properties and application to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys.60(11), R123–R159 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. R. Bellingham, W. A. Phillip, and C. J. Adkins, “Electrical and optical properties of amorphous indium oxide,” J. Phys- Condens. Mat.2, 6207–6221 (1990).
  26. R. B. H. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin film: Electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys.83(5), 2631–2645 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2010

Y. F. Lan, H. R. Chang, and J. L. He, “Improvements of ITO film deposited on PET substrates by plasma-polymerized hydrogenated si-carbon-oxide buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. J. Meng, E. Liang, J. Gao, V. Teixeira, and M. P. dos Santos, “Study of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on acrylics substrates by ion beam assisted deposition techniquE,” J, Nanosci. Nanotechno.9, 4151–4155 (2009).

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, Z. Zhao, and W. Xue, “Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films517(18), 5395–5398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, and W. Xue, “The characteristics of indium tin oxide films prepared on various buffer layer-coated polymer substrates,” Surf. Coat. Tech.204(1-2), 131–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Dudek, A. Amassian, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Ion bombardment-induced enhancement of the properties of indium tin oxide films prepared by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films517(16), 4576–4582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. K. Bhagat, H. Han, Y. Zoo, J. Lewis, S. Grego, K. Lee, S. Iyer, and T. L. Alford, “Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 4064–4069 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Choi, Y. Kim, and C. S. Ha, “Polymers for flexible displays: From material selection to device applications,” Prog. Polym. Sci.33(6), 581–630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Kurdesau, G. Khripunov, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, and A. N. Tiwari, “Comparative study of ITO layers deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1466–1470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. N. Banerjee and K. K. Chattopadhyay, “Recent developments in the emerging field of crystallite p-type transparent conducting oxide thin films,” Prog. Cryst. Growth. Ch.50(1-3), 52–105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. S. Jung, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions,” Thin Solid Films467(1-2), 36–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

V. Craciun, D. Craciun, X. Wang, T. J. Anderson, and R. K. Singh, “Transparent and conducting indium oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at low temperatures,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.5, 401–408 (2003).

Y. H. Son, J. H. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “Excimer laser crystallization of a-ITO thin film deposited on plastics,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.42, 814–816 (2003).

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Properties of ITO films deposited by r.f.-PERTE on unheated polymer substrates—dependence on oxygen partial pressure,” Thin Solid Films427(1-2), 215–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Effect of rf power on the properties of ITO thin films deposited by plasma enhanced reactive ther mal evaporation on unheated polymer substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299–302, 1208–1212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Teixeira, H. N. Cuia, L. J. Meng, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Amorphous ITO thin films prepared by DC sputtering for electrochromic applications,” Thin Solid Films420-421, 70–75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. P. Kushto, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Indium tin oxide thin films grown on flexible plastic substrates by pulsed-laser deposition for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 284–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. Shigesato, R. Koshi-ishi, T. Kawashima, and J. Ohsako, “Early stages of ITO deposition on glass or polymer substrates,” Vacuum59(2-3), 614–621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Cchrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium–tin–oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. B. H. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin film: Electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys.83(5), 2631–2645 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 1–7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. N. H. Al-Ajili and S. C. Bayliss, “A study of the optical, electrical and structural properties of reactively sputtered InOx and ITOx thin films,” Thin Solid Films305(1-2), 116–123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. R. Bellingham, W. A. Phillip, and C. J. Adkins, “Electrical and optical properties of amorphous indium oxide,” J. Phys- Condens. Mat.2, 6207–6221 (1990).

1986

I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: Basic optical properties and application to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys.60(11), R123–R159 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Adkins, C. J.

J. R. Bellingham, W. A. Phillip, and C. J. Adkins, “Electrical and optical properties of amorphous indium oxide,” J. Phys- Condens. Mat.2, 6207–6221 (1990).

Al-Ajili, A. N. H.

A. N. H. Al-Ajili and S. C. Bayliss, “A study of the optical, electrical and structural properties of reactively sputtered InOx and ITOx thin films,” Thin Solid Films305(1-2), 116–123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alford, T. L.

S. K. Bhagat, H. Han, Y. Zoo, J. Lewis, S. Grego, K. Lee, S. Iyer, and T. L. Alford, “Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 4064–4069 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amaral, A.

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Properties of ITO films deposited by r.f.-PERTE on unheated polymer substrates—dependence on oxygen partial pressure,” Thin Solid Films427(1-2), 215–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Effect of rf power on the properties of ITO thin films deposited by plasma enhanced reactive ther mal evaporation on unheated polymer substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299–302, 1208–1212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amassian, A.

M. Dudek, A. Amassian, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Ion bombardment-induced enhancement of the properties of indium tin oxide films prepared by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films517(16), 4576–4582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. J.

V. Craciun, D. Craciun, X. Wang, T. J. Anderson, and R. K. Singh, “Transparent and conducting indium oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at low temperatures,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.5, 401–408 (2003).

Ban, T.

R. B. H. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin film: Electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys.83(5), 2631–2645 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A. N.

A. N. Banerjee and K. K. Chattopadhyay, “Recent developments in the emerging field of crystallite p-type transparent conducting oxide thin films,” Prog. Cryst. Growth. Ch.50(1-3), 52–105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bayliss, S. C.

A. N. H. Al-Ajili and S. C. Bayliss, “A study of the optical, electrical and structural properties of reactively sputtered InOx and ITOx thin films,” Thin Solid Films305(1-2), 116–123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bellingham, J. R.

J. R. Bellingham, W. A. Phillip, and C. J. Adkins, “Electrical and optical properties of amorphous indium oxide,” J. Phys- Condens. Mat.2, 6207–6221 (1990).

Bhagat, S. K.

S. K. Bhagat, H. Han, Y. Zoo, J. Lewis, S. Grego, K. Lee, S. Iyer, and T. L. Alford, “Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 4064–4069 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cchrisey, D. B.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Cchrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium–tin–oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. R.

Y. F. Lan, H. R. Chang, and J. L. He, “Improvements of ITO film deposited on PET substrates by plasma-polymerized hydrogenated si-carbon-oxide buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, K. K.

A. N. Banerjee and K. K. Chattopadhyay, “Recent developments in the emerging field of crystallite p-type transparent conducting oxide thin films,” Prog. Cryst. Growth. Ch.50(1-3), 52–105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M. C.

M. C. Choi, Y. Kim, and C. S. Ha, “Polymers for flexible displays: From material selection to device applications,” Prog. Polym. Sci.33(6), 581–630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chrisey, D. B.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. P. Kushto, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Indium tin oxide thin films grown on flexible plastic substrates by pulsed-laser deposition for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 284–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Conde, O.

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Properties of ITO films deposited by r.f.-PERTE on unheated polymer substrates—dependence on oxygen partial pressure,” Thin Solid Films427(1-2), 215–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Effect of rf power on the properties of ITO thin films deposited by plasma enhanced reactive ther mal evaporation on unheated polymer substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299–302, 1208–1212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Craciun, D.

V. Craciun, D. Craciun, X. Wang, T. J. Anderson, and R. K. Singh, “Transparent and conducting indium oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at low temperatures,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.5, 401–408 (2003).

Craciun, V.

V. Craciun, D. Craciun, X. Wang, T. J. Anderson, and R. K. Singh, “Transparent and conducting indium oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at low temperatures,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.5, 401–408 (2003).

Cuia, H. N.

V. Teixeira, H. N. Cuia, L. J. Meng, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Amorphous ITO thin films prepared by DC sputtering for electrochromic applications,” Thin Solid Films420-421, 70–75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

da Cunha, A. F.

F. Kurdesau, G. Khripunov, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, and A. N. Tiwari, “Comparative study of ITO layers deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1466–1470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Carvalho, C. N.

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Properties of ITO films deposited by r.f.-PERTE on unheated polymer substrates—dependence on oxygen partial pressure,” Thin Solid Films427(1-2), 215–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Effect of rf power on the properties of ITO thin films deposited by plasma enhanced reactive ther mal evaporation on unheated polymer substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299–302, 1208–1212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, M. P.

L. J. Meng, E. Liang, J. Gao, V. Teixeira, and M. P. dos Santos, “Study of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on acrylics substrates by ion beam assisted deposition techniquE,” J, Nanosci. Nanotechno.9, 4151–4155 (2009).

Dudek, M.

M. Dudek, A. Amassian, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Ion bombardment-induced enhancement of the properties of indium tin oxide films prepared by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films517(16), 4576–4582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fortunato, E.

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Properties of ITO films deposited by r.f.-PERTE on unheated polymer substrates—dependence on oxygen partial pressure,” Thin Solid Films427(1-2), 215–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Effect of rf power on the properties of ITO thin films deposited by plasma enhanced reactive ther mal evaporation on unheated polymer substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299–302, 1208–1212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Teixeira, H. N. Cuia, L. J. Meng, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Amorphous ITO thin films prepared by DC sputtering for electrochromic applications,” Thin Solid Films420-421, 70–75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

L. J. Meng, E. Liang, J. Gao, V. Teixeira, and M. P. dos Santos, “Study of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on acrylics substrates by ion beam assisted deposition techniquE,” J, Nanosci. Nanotechno.9, 4151–4155 (2009).

Gilmore, C. M.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Cchrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium–tin–oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: Basic optical properties and application to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys.60(11), R123–R159 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Grego, S.

S. K. Bhagat, H. Han, Y. Zoo, J. Lewis, S. Grego, K. Lee, S. Iyer, and T. L. Alford, “Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 4064–4069 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ha, C. S.

M. C. Choi, Y. Kim, and C. S. Ha, “Polymers for flexible displays: From material selection to device applications,” Prog. Polym. Sci.33(6), 581–630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamberg, I.

I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: Basic optical properties and application to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys.60(11), R123–R159 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

S. K. Bhagat, H. Han, Y. Zoo, J. Lewis, S. Grego, K. Lee, S. Iyer, and T. L. Alford, “Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 4064–4069 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, J. L.

Y. F. Lan, H. R. Chang, and J. L. He, “Improvements of ITO film deposited on PET substrates by plasma-polymerized hydrogenated si-carbon-oxide buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Horwitz, J. S.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. P. Kushto, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Indium tin oxide thin films grown on flexible plastic substrates by pulsed-laser deposition for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 284–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Cchrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium–tin–oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, S.

S. K. Bhagat, H. Han, Y. Zoo, J. Lewis, S. Grego, K. Lee, S. Iyer, and T. L. Alford, “Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 4064–4069 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. S.

Y. S. Jung, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions,” Thin Solid Films467(1-2), 36–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaelin, M.

F. Kurdesau, G. Khripunov, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, and A. N. Tiwari, “Comparative study of ITO layers deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1466–1470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kafafi, Z. H.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. P. Kushto, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Indium tin oxide thin films grown on flexible plastic substrates by pulsed-laser deposition for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 284–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Cchrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium–tin–oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

Y. Shigesato, R. Koshi-ishi, T. Kawashima, and J. Ohsako, “Early stages of ITO deposition on glass or polymer substrates,” Vacuum59(2-3), 614–621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M.

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 1–7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khripunov, G.

F. Kurdesau, G. Khripunov, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, and A. N. Tiwari, “Comparative study of ITO layers deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1466–1470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. P. Kushto, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Indium tin oxide thin films grown on flexible plastic substrates by pulsed-laser deposition for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 284–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Cchrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium–tin–oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

Y. H. Son, J. H. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “Excimer laser crystallization of a-ITO thin film deposited on plastics,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.42, 814–816 (2003).

Kim, Y.

M. C. Choi, Y. Kim, and C. S. Ha, “Polymers for flexible displays: From material selection to device applications,” Prog. Polym. Sci.33(6), 581–630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.

M. Dudek, A. Amassian, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Ion bombardment-induced enhancement of the properties of indium tin oxide films prepared by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films517(16), 4576–4582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koshi-ishi, R.

Y. Shigesato, R. Koshi-ishi, T. Kawashima, and J. Ohsako, “Early stages of ITO deposition on glass or polymer substrates,” Vacuum59(2-3), 614–621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, A. K.

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 1–7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurdesau, F.

F. Kurdesau, G. Khripunov, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, and A. N. Tiwari, “Comparative study of ITO layers deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1466–1470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kushto, G. P.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. P. Kushto, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Indium tin oxide thin films grown on flexible plastic substrates by pulsed-laser deposition for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 284–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. F.

Y. F. Lan, H. R. Chang, and J. L. He, “Improvements of ITO film deposited on PET substrates by plasma-polymerized hydrogenated si-carbon-oxide buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lavareda, G.

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Properties of ITO films deposited by r.f.-PERTE on unheated polymer substrates—dependence on oxygen partial pressure,” Thin Solid Films427(1-2), 215–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Effect of rf power on the properties of ITO thin films deposited by plasma enhanced reactive ther mal evaporation on unheated polymer substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299–302, 1208–1212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

Y. H. Son, J. H. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “Excimer laser crystallization of a-ITO thin film deposited on plastics,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.42, 814–816 (2003).

Lee, K.

S. K. Bhagat, H. Han, Y. Zoo, J. Lewis, S. Grego, K. Lee, S. Iyer, and T. L. Alford, “Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 4064–4069 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J.

S. K. Bhagat, H. Han, Y. Zoo, J. Lewis, S. Grego, K. Lee, S. Iyer, and T. L. Alford, “Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 4064–4069 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. G.

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, Z. Zhao, and W. Xue, “Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films517(18), 5395–5398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, and W. Xue, “The characteristics of indium tin oxide films prepared on various buffer layer-coated polymer substrates,” Surf. Coat. Tech.204(1-2), 131–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, E.

L. J. Meng, E. Liang, J. Gao, V. Teixeira, and M. P. dos Santos, “Study of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on acrylics substrates by ion beam assisted deposition techniquE,” J, Nanosci. Nanotechno.9, 4151–4155 (2009).

Lim, T. S.

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 1–7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luis, A.

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Properties of ITO films deposited by r.f.-PERTE on unheated polymer substrates—dependence on oxygen partial pressure,” Thin Solid Films427(1-2), 215–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Effect of rf power on the properties of ITO thin films deposited by plasma enhanced reactive ther mal evaporation on unheated polymer substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299–302, 1208–1212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martins, R.

V. Teixeira, H. N. Cuia, L. J. Meng, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Amorphous ITO thin films prepared by DC sputtering for electrochromic applications,” Thin Solid Films420-421, 70–75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martinu, L.

M. Dudek, A. Amassian, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Ion bombardment-induced enhancement of the properties of indium tin oxide films prepared by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films517(16), 4576–4582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mattoussi, H.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Cchrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium–tin–oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meng, L. J.

L. J. Meng, E. Liang, J. Gao, V. Teixeira, and M. P. dos Santos, “Study of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on acrylics substrates by ion beam assisted deposition techniquE,” J, Nanosci. Nanotechno.9, 4151–4155 (2009).

V. Teixeira, H. N. Cuia, L. J. Meng, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Amorphous ITO thin films prepared by DC sputtering for electrochromic applications,” Thin Solid Films420-421, 70–75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Modine, F. A.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murata, H.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Cchrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium–tin–oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohsako, J.

Y. Shigesato, R. Koshi-ishi, T. Kawashima, and J. Ohsako, “Early stages of ITO deposition on glass or polymer substrates,” Vacuum59(2-3), 614–621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohya, Y.

R. B. H. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin film: Electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys.83(5), 2631–2645 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phillip, W. A.

J. R. Bellingham, W. A. Phillip, and C. J. Adkins, “Electrical and optical properties of amorphous indium oxide,” J. Phys- Condens. Mat.2, 6207–6221 (1990).

Pique, A.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Cchrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium–tin–oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, K. H.

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 1–7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shigesato, Y.

Y. Shigesato, R. Koshi-ishi, T. Kawashima, and J. Ohsako, “Early stages of ITO deposition on glass or polymer substrates,” Vacuum59(2-3), 614–621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R. K.

V. Craciun, D. Craciun, X. Wang, T. J. Anderson, and R. K. Singh, “Transparent and conducting indium oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at low temperatures,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.5, 401–408 (2003).

Son, Y. H.

Y. H. Son, J. H. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “Excimer laser crystallization of a-ITO thin film deposited on plastics,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.42, 814–816 (2003).

Tahar, R. B. H.

R. B. H. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin film: Electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys.83(5), 2631–2645 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

R. B. H. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin film: Electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys.83(5), 2631–2645 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Teixeira, V.

L. J. Meng, E. Liang, J. Gao, V. Teixeira, and M. P. dos Santos, “Study of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on acrylics substrates by ion beam assisted deposition techniquE,” J, Nanosci. Nanotechno.9, 4151–4155 (2009).

V. Teixeira, H. N. Cuia, L. J. Meng, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Amorphous ITO thin films prepared by DC sputtering for electrochromic applications,” Thin Solid Films420-421, 70–75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, A. N.

F. Kurdesau, G. Khripunov, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, and A. N. Tiwari, “Comparative study of ITO layers deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1466–1470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

V. Craciun, D. Craciun, X. Wang, T. J. Anderson, and R. K. Singh, “Transparent and conducting indium oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at low temperatures,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.5, 401–408 (2003).

Xia, F.

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, and W. Xue, “The characteristics of indium tin oxide films prepared on various buffer layer-coated polymer substrates,” Surf. Coat. Tech.204(1-2), 131–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, Z. Zhao, and W. Xue, “Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films517(18), 5395–5398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, W.

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, and W. Xue, “The characteristics of indium tin oxide films prepared on various buffer layer-coated polymer substrates,” Surf. Coat. Tech.204(1-2), 131–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, Z. Zhao, and W. Xue, “Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films517(18), 5395–5398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, and W. Xue, “The characteristics of indium tin oxide films prepared on various buffer layer-coated polymer substrates,” Surf. Coat. Tech.204(1-2), 131–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, Z. Zhao, and W. Xue, “Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films517(18), 5395–5398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zabeida, O.

M. Dudek, A. Amassian, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Ion bombardment-induced enhancement of the properties of indium tin oxide films prepared by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films517(16), 4576–4582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, Z. Zhao, and W. Xue, “Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films517(18), 5395–5398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zoo, Y.

S. K. Bhagat, H. Han, Y. Zoo, J. Lewis, S. Grego, K. Lee, S. Iyer, and T. L. Alford, “Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 4064–4069 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. P. Kushto, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Indium tin oxide thin films grown on flexible plastic substrates by pulsed-laser deposition for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 284–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J, Nanosci. Nanotechno.

L. J. Meng, E. Liang, J. Gao, V. Teixeira, and M. P. dos Santos, “Study of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on acrylics substrates by ion beam assisted deposition techniquE,” J, Nanosci. Nanotechno.9, 4151–4155 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Cchrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium–tin–oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: Basic optical properties and application to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys.60(11), R123–R159 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. B. H. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin film: Electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys.83(5), 2631–2645 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

Y. H. Son, J. H. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “Excimer laser crystallization of a-ITO thin film deposited on plastics,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.42, 814–816 (2003).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Effect of rf power on the properties of ITO thin films deposited by plasma enhanced reactive ther mal evaporation on unheated polymer substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids299–302, 1208–1212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Kurdesau, G. Khripunov, A. F. da Cunha, M. Kaelin, and A. N. Tiwari, “Comparative study of ITO layers deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(9-20), 1466–1470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.

V. Craciun, D. Craciun, X. Wang, T. J. Anderson, and R. K. Singh, “Transparent and conducting indium oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at low temperatures,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.5, 401–408 (2003).

J. Phys- Condens. Mat.

J. R. Bellingham, W. A. Phillip, and C. J. Adkins, “Electrical and optical properties of amorphous indium oxide,” J. Phys- Condens. Mat.2, 6207–6221 (1990).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. F. Lan, H. R. Chang, and J. L. He, “Improvements of ITO film deposited on PET substrates by plasma-polymerized hydrogenated si-carbon-oxide buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Cryst. Growth. Ch.

A. N. Banerjee and K. K. Chattopadhyay, “Recent developments in the emerging field of crystallite p-type transparent conducting oxide thin films,” Prog. Cryst. Growth. Ch.50(1-3), 52–105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Polym. Sci.

M. C. Choi, Y. Kim, and C. S. Ha, “Polymers for flexible displays: From material selection to device applications,” Prog. Polym. Sci.33(6), 581–630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Tech.

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, and W. Xue, “The characteristics of indium tin oxide films prepared on various buffer layer-coated polymer substrates,” Surf. Coat. Tech.204(1-2), 131–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

C. N. de Carvalho, A. Luis, O. Conde, E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, and A. Amaral, “Properties of ITO films deposited by r.f.-PERTE on unheated polymer substrates—dependence on oxygen partial pressure,” Thin Solid Films427(1-2), 215–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Jung, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions,” Thin Solid Films467(1-2), 36–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 1–7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Dudek, A. Amassian, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Ion bombardment-induced enhancement of the properties of indium tin oxide films prepared by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films517(16), 4576–4582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. N. H. Al-Ajili and S. C. Bayliss, “A study of the optical, electrical and structural properties of reactively sputtered InOx and ITOx thin films,” Thin Solid Films305(1-2), 116–123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Bhagat, H. Han, Y. Zoo, J. Lewis, S. Grego, K. Lee, S. Iyer, and T. L. Alford, “Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 4064–4069 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, Y. G. Li, F. Xia, Z. Zhao, and W. Xue, “Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films517(18), 5395–5398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Teixeira, H. N. Cuia, L. J. Meng, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Amorphous ITO thin films prepared by DC sputtering for electrochromic applications,” Thin Solid Films420-421, 70–75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum

Y. Shigesato, R. Koshi-ishi, T. Kawashima, and J. Ohsako, “Early stages of ITO deposition on glass or polymer substrates,” Vacuum59(2-3), 614–621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Principle and Application (John Wiley and Sons, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD spectra of ITO films deposited on: (a) PET substrate and (b) Si substrate

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variations of film thickness of ITO/Si and ITO/PET measured by profilometer (dSi,α-step) and ellipsometry (dSi,SE, dPET,SE) for CSG values in the range of 250 ~525 cc.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of (a) resistivity, (b) carrier density and (c) carrier mobility of ITO/Si and ITO/PET samples for CSG values in the range of 250 ~525 cc.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmittance spectra of bare PET substrate and ITO/PET samples in visible range as function of CSG. (b) Average transmittance in visible range (400~800 nm) and thickness of ITO/PET samples as function of CSG.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The wavelength dependent refractive index and extinction coefficient for ITO films on PET substrate as function of CSG.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ITO/PET film resistivity and average transmittance given use of critical CSG rule in which argon flow rate and deposition time are controlled so as to achieve CSG of 350 cc.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 DC magnetron sputtering conditions for ITO films prepared on PET and Si substrates

Metrics